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1.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the clinical features and pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have been studied in the peripheral and central nervous systems, few plausible pathological interactions are known among the metabolites in these systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate abnormal relationships and interactions between peripheral metabolites and central neurometabolites in patients with CRPS. METHODS: Various metabolites and molecules were measured in the peripheral blood, and central neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 12 patients with CRPS and 11 healthy controls. Interactions between peripheral metabolites in blood and central neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus were also investigated. RESULTS: The interactions between peripheral and central metabolites were different in the right and left hemispheres of healthy subjects, suggesting the presence of right hemisphere-dependent energy homeostasis and left hemisphere-dependent acid-base homeostasis that enables effective functioning. The interactions between central and peripheral metabolites in CRPS patients were distinct from those in healthy individuals, supporting the possibility of abnormal interactions and disrupted homeostasis between peripheral and central metabolites, which may result from neuroinflammation and immune system dysfunction. CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing abnormal metabolic dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis in interactions between metabolites of the peripheral and central nervous systems in CRPS. The approach used to uncover hidden pathophysiologies will improve understanding of how chronic pain can disrupt homeostasis in interactions between two systems and how alternative metabolites can be activated to recover and compensate for pathological dysfunctions in patients with CRPS.

2.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870212

RESUMO

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) share many pathological mechanisms related to chronic pain that could contribute to multifactorial pathological mechanisms.Methods: We investigated peripheral metabolites in FM and CRPS patients compared to healthy controls based on cross-sectional study.Results: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001), mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.014), and total bilirubin levels (p = 0.017) were lower in FM patients than in healthy controls. On the other hand, CRPS patients showed lower levels of total bilirubin than healthy controls (p = 0.037). Creatinine level was lower in FM patients (p = 0.057) compared to healthy controls, particularly when comparing the low-hemoglobin subgroup among FM patients (p = 0.035) with the low-hemoglobin subgroup among healthy controls. Red blood cell count (r = -0.620, p = 0.031), hematocrit (r = -0.593, p = 0.042), and creatinine level (r = -0.598, p = 0.040) showed negative correlations with McGill Pain Questionnaire-Affective (MPQ-A) scores in FM patients. A negative correlation was observed between MCV and McGill Pain Questionnaire-Sensory scores (r = -0.680, p = 0.015) in CRPS patients.Conclusion: We found specific peripheral metabolites that may exhibit different tendency between FM and CRPS patients as well as some common metabolites, which may be associated with peripheral pathology in the patients. Considering this study had a few limitations such as a small sample sizes and using a liberal threshold of significance in the correlation analysis, future studies with larger sample sizes may be needed to generalize these findings.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16741, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727975

RESUMO

Limited information is available on the prevalence and clinical determinants of valvular heart disease (VHD) in apparently healthy people. This study sought to assess the frequency and clinical associating factors of aortic stenosis (AS), aortic regurgitation (AR), mitral stenosis (MS), mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in asymptomatic individuals with health check-up examination. We included 23,254 subjects ≥50 years of age who underwent a health check-up examination with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) between 2012 and 2016 in a single tertiary-care hospital in Korea. Among a total of 23,254 subjects, 15,358 men (66.0%) and 7,896 women (34.0%) underwent TTE. Newly identified (predominantly mild) VHD was detected in 9.4% of subjects. The most common VHD were TR (4.6%), AR (3.0%) and MR (2.4%). Clinically significant (more than moderate) VHD was identified in 176 subjects (0.8%). Age ≥75 years was associated with all clinically significant VHD, and female gender was associated with AR, MS and TR. Korea has been very active in the health check-up examination including echocardiography. We find that VHD in apparently healthy people is not uncommon than believed; all VHD except MS were more frequent in elderly over 75 years of age in a large population-based study.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567960

RESUMO

Although both multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating diseases, their psychiatric disturbances may differ given differences in the neurological manifestations. We used subjective and objective measurements to compare the psychiatric disturbances in patients with MS and NMO.Psychiatric disturbances were assessed in 24 MS and 35 NMO patients using the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Symptom Checklist-95 and the brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life. Personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10. Disease-related function was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Global Assessment of Function. Positivity offset (PO) and negativity bias (NB) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured using a modified implicit affect test and photoplethysmograph, respectively. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates.MS patients had higher levels of depression, anxiety, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsiveness, aggression, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, self-regulation problems, stress vulnerability, and lower psychological quality of life (QOL) compared with NMO patients. The PO and NB and HRV values were not significantly different between groups. However, NMO patients had lower QOL, and higher levels of hopelessness, suicidality, and fatigue than the normal range. Disease duration was associated with hopelessness in NMO patients and with several psychiatric disturbances, but not hopelessness, in MS patients.Subjective psychiatric disturbances were more severe in patients with MS than in those with NMO, whereas PO and NB and HRV in patients with NMO were comparable with those of MS patients. Our findings highlight the need for different clinical approaches to assess and treat psychiatric disturbances in patients with MS and NMO.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Neuromielite Óptica/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Neuromielite Óptica/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/etiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Transtornos Paranoides/etiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626112

RESUMO

Little is known about the relationship between levels of self-esteem and the development of depression in young adults. The present study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and depression to determine whether self-esteem levels are a risk factor for the development of depression in young adults. This study was conducted with 113 college students aged 19 to 35 (major depressive disorder (MDD) n = 44, Mild Depressive Symptoms (MDS) n = 37, Healthy Control n = 32). The levels of clinical symptoms, self-esteem, resilience, social support, and quality of life, as well as personality traits, were assessed (by Patient Health Questionnaire-9, generalized anxiety disease-7, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S, Resilience Appraisal Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Quality of Life, and NEO-personality inventory (NEO-PI)). The MDS group with high self-esteem reported having the lowest levels of social support, resilience, agreeableness, and extraversion compared to those of the MDD group and control group with high self-esteem. In contrast, the MDS group with low self-esteem showed no differences in social support, resilience, agreeableness and openness according to the NEO-PI scale. Sex and age had no significant impact on the results. Levels of self-esteem are strongly associated with the development of depression. Results suggest that early intervention for depression in young adults needs to focus on improving their levels of social support, resilience, and positive domains of personality. Further studies on the effects of high self-esteem in the development of depression are warranted.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231248

RESUMO

Our previous study demonstrated that 3 weeks of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increases P200 amplitudes and improves the symptoms of depression and anxiety in depression patients. In the present study, we investigated whether 3 weeks of rTMS treatment maintained the P200 amplitude in patients with depression at 6 weeks of follow-up. We measured the 6-week maintenance effects of rTMS using clinical questionnaires and an auditory oddball paradigm. Twenty-one patients with medication-resistant major depression participated in this pilot study. All patients underwent rTMS treatment for 3 weeks; they completed clinical ratings and performed the auditory oddball task at the pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-week follow-up visit (3 weeks after finishing rTMS treatment). The results revealed an increase in P200 amplitudes as well as improvements in the symptoms of depression and anxiety by 3 weeks of rTMS treatment. Furthermore, the results demonstrated maintenance effects on clinical ratings at 6-week follow-up. Depression and anxiety scales showed improvements in post-treatment and maintenance effects at the 6-week follow-up. Although P200 amplitude showed a significant main effect for 3 time points (baseline, post-treatment, and 6-week follow-up visit), at 2 time point comparisons, P200 amplitudes significantly increased in post-treatment compared to those of the baseline condition but did not show the maintenance effects of long-term rTMS at the 6-week follow-up compared to those of the baseline condition (  p = .173, Bonferroni correction). Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) for P200 showed significant activation in the left middle frontal gyrus in post-treatment but no significant activation at the 6-week follow-up. Moreover, the amplitudes of overall topographic distribution were reduced at 6 weeks of follow-up. The 3 weeks of rTMS treatment induced the maintenance of the improvements in the symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, considering the results of the event-related potential (ERP) and sLORETA, 3 weeks of rTMS treatment may not be sufficient to maintain this improvement, implying that a treatment period of more than 3 weeks may be required to reveal the electrophysiological maintenance effect of rTMS.

7.
J Occup Health ; 61(5): 358-367, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reducing human errors caused by daytime sleepiness among train drivers is important to prevent train accidents. Our purpose of the study was to investigate the association among sleep, workplace sleeping environments, and human errors. METHODS: We recruited 144 South Korean train drivers belongs to the Korean Railroad Corporation. This cross-sectional data was analyzed to investigate the association of insomnia (insomnia severity index), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index), obstructive sleep apnea (Berlin questionnaire), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale) with human error and near-miss experiences. We examined whether human error and near-miss events were associated with various sleeping environments at work and at home after adjusting for the sleep indices. RESULTS: The experience of human errors was associated with insomnia and daytime sleepiness, and near-miss events were associated with insomnia among South Korean drivers. Sleeping environments including cold temperature and odor were related to both human errors and near-miss events among South Korean train drivers, after adjusted for age, working years, shiftwork, obesity, smoking, binge drinking, regular exercise, caffeine consumption, sleep quality, severity of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: The train drivers' workplace sleeping environment is significantly associated with human error events and near-miss events after adjusting for sleep quality, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and daytime sleepiness. To prevent train accidents caused by human errors, more attention is necessary for improving workplace sleeping environments.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sonolência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15345, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045776

RESUMO

The brain has multiple functions, and its structures are very closely related to one another. Thus, the brain areas associated with stress, emotion, and intelligence are closely connected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple associations between stress and emotional intelligence (EI), between EI and intelligence quotient (IQ), between cytokines and stress, and between cytokines and IQ. We measured the stress, EI, cognitive intelligence using IQ, and cytokine levels of 70 healthy subjects. We also analyzed the association of cytokines with IQ according to hemispheric dominance using the brain preference indicator (BPI). We found significant negative correlations between stress and the components of EI, such as emotional awareness and expression, emotional thinking, and emotional regulation. High levels of anger, which is a component of stress, were significantly related to poor emotional regulation. Additionally, emotional application was positively correlated with full-scale IQ scores and scores on the vocabulary, picture arrangement, and block design subtests of the IQ test. High IL-10 levels were significantly associated with low stress levels only in the right-brain-dominant group. High IL-10 and IFN-gamma levels have been associated with high scores of arithmetic intelligence. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were negatively associated with vocabulary scores and full-scale IQ, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were positively associated with scores on the arithmetic subtest in left-brain-dominant subjects. On the other hand, IL-10 showed positive correlations with scores for vocabulary and for vocabulary and arithmetic in right-brain-dominant subjects. Furthermore, we found significant linear regression models which can show integrative associations and contribution on emotional and cognitive intelligence. Thus, we demonstrated that cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence are closely connected one another related to brain structure and functions. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 had negative effects, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and IFN-gamma) showed beneficial effects, on stress levels, and multiple dimensions of emotional and cognitive intelligence. Additionally, these relationships among cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence differed depending on right and left hemispheric dominance.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Testes de Inteligência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neurochem Res ; 44(5): 1192-1200, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887217

RESUMO

Catecholamines, including epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), are associated with the response to stressful conditions. However, the relationships of catecholamines with intelligence and their interactions with stress remain unclear. This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Additionally, the associations of catecholamines with stress and IQ were analyzed according to hemispheric dominance using the Brain Preference Indicator (BPI). There were positive correlations between the NE/E ratio and the somatization of stress but negative correlations between the E/NE ratio and the somatization of stress among the total number of subjects. In the right-brain-dominant group, a high E/DA ratio was correlated with low levels of stress, somatization and depression, and high NE/E and DA/E ratios were associated with high levels of somatization. In the left-brain-dominant group, high E levels were correlated with low levels of depression. In the total subjects, there were positive correlations between the NE/E and DA/E ratios and the sum of the vocabulary, arithmetic, picture arrangement, and block design IQ subtests. Thus, these catecholamines were associated with stress and IQ, which suggests that the autonomic functional regulation of catecholamine levels in relation to stress may also affect cognitive functions related to intelligence in the brain. Furthermore, the relationships between catecholamines and stress or IQ differed depending on hemispheric dominance, which suggests that the present results could be used to inform the development of personalized therapies based on hemispheric asymmetry.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Inteligência/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(7): e14452, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762759

RESUMO

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) share many features. Both can cause severe pain and are considered to have a mechanism of action, including dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. However, they have clinical differences in pain range and degree. The present study aimed to find neurophysiologic differences between CRPS and FM using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). Thirty-eight patients with CRPS and 33 patients with FM were included in the analysis. Resting-state QEEG data were grouped into frontal, central, and posterior regions to analyze for regional differences. General linear models were utilized to test for group differences in absolute and relative powers. As a result, the CRPS group relative to FM group showed lower total absolute powers in the beta band (F = 5.159, P < .05), high beta (F = 14.120, P < .05), and gamma band (F = 15.034, P < .05). There were no significant differences between 2 groups in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. The present findings show that the CRPS and FM groups differ mainly in the high frequency, which may reflect their distinct pathophysiology and symptomatology. Our study suggests that the QEEG differences can be clinically useful in assessing brain function in patients with CRPS and FM.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ritmo Gama , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Pain Med ; 20(3): 504-514, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986072

RESUMO

Ojjective: The aim of this study was to find peripheral biomarkers and central metabolites affecting neuroinflammation in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients using [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Using MRS and PET, we measured associations between neurometabolites and neuroinflammation in 12 CRPS patients and 11 healthy controls. Also, we investigated various peripheral parameters that may affect neuroinflammation in CRPS. Results: We found positive correlations of Lipid (Lip)13a/total creatine (tCr) and Lip09/tCr with neuroinflammation, the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the right and left insula in CRPS patients. However, these correlations were not found in controls. High hemoglobin levels correlated with decreased neuroinflammation (the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195) in the right thalamus and left insula in healthy controls. We found that high levels of glucose and pH correlated with increased neuroinflammation, but high levels of CO2, basophil, and creatinine were associated with decreased neuroinflammation in the left thalamus and the right and left insula in CRPS patients. Conclusions: This is the first report indicating that elevated neuroinflammation levels are associated primarily with lipids in the brain and pH, glucose, CO2, basophil, and creatinine in the peripheral parameters in CRPS patients. Our results suggest that characterizing the peripheral biomarkers and central metabolites affecting neuroinflammation is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of CRPS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/metabolismo , Adulto , Basófilos , Glicemia/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas , Lipídeos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
12.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 9(6): 1857-1866, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524515

RESUMO

The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects. Thirty-five Brain Wave Vibration meditation practitioners and 33 controls without meditation experience were included in this study. All subjects underwent 4.68-min resting-state functional scanning runs using magnetic resonance imaging. The anterior and posterior insulae were chosen as seed regions for the functional connectivity map. Meditation practitioners showed significantly greater insula-related functional connectivity in the thalamus, caudate, middle frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus than did controls. Control subjects demonstrated greater functional connectivity with the posterior insula in the parahippocampal gyrus. Our findings suggest that the practice of Brain Wave Vibration meditation may be associated with functional differences in regions related to focused attention, executive control, and emotional awareness and regulation.

13.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(11): 1071-1078, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed easily accessible imagery-based treatment program for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to workplace accidents and investigated the effects of the program on various PTSD related symptoms. METHODS: The program was based on an online platform and consisted of eight 15-min sessions that included script-guided imagery and supportive music. Thirty-five patients with workplace-related PTSD participated in this program 4 days per week for 4 weeks. Its effects were examined using self-report questionnaires before and after the take-home online treatment sessions. RESULTS: After completing the 4-week treatment program, patients showed significant improvements in depressed mood (t=3.642, p=0.001) based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), anxiety (t=3.198, p=0.003) based on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item (GAD-7) scale, and PTSD symptoms (t=5.363, p<0.001) based on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL). In particular, patients with adverse childhood experiences exhibited a greater degree of relief related to anxiety and PTSD symptoms than those without adverse childhood experiences. CONCLUSION: The present. RESULTS: demonstrated that the relatively short online imagery-based treatment program developed for this study had beneficial effects for patients with workplace-related PTSD.

14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(12): 1327-1336, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445473

RESUMO

Does the biased attention toward social threats dwells on or disappears in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD)? We investigated the neural mechanism of attentional bias in terms of attentional capture and holding in SAD. A total of 31 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls performed a continuous performance task detecting the orientation of a red letter 'T' while angry or neutral face distractors appeared or disappeared at the center of the screen. Behaviorally, typical attentional capture effects were found in response to abruptly appearing distractors in both groups. The patient group showed significant attentional dwelling effects in response to the angry face distractor only. Patients showed increased neural activity in the amygdala, insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) compared with those of controls for the abruptly appearing angry distractor. Patients also maintained increased activities in brain regions related to attentional reorienting to distractor, namely the TPJ and IFG in line with their behavioral results of attentional holding effects. Our results indicate that patients with SAD showed prolonged attentional bias to task-irrelevant social threats. The underlying mechanism of prolonged attentional bias in SAD was indicated with amygdala hyperactivity and continued activity of the bottom-up attention network including the TPJ and IFG.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Ira/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
15.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(11): 1087-1093, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is distinct from anxiety disorders in its etiology and clinical symptomatology, and was reclassified into trauma- and stressor-related disorders in DSM-5. This study aimed to find neurophysiological correlates differentiating PTSD from anxiety disorders using resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). METHODS: Thirty-six patients with either PTSD or acute stress disorder and 79 patients with anxiety disorder were included in the analysis. qEEG data of absolute and relative powers and patients' medication status on the day of qEEG examination were obtained. Electrodes were grouped into frontal, central, and posterior regions to analyze for regional differences. General linear models were utilized to test for group differences in absolute and relative powers while controlling for medications. RESULTS: PTSD patients differed from those with anxiety disorders in overall absolute powers [F(5,327)=2.601, p=0.025]. Specifically, overall absolute delta powers [F(1,331)=4.363, p=0.037], and overall relative gamma powers [F(1,331)=3.965, p=0.047] were increased in PTSD group compared to anxiety disorder group. Post hoc analysis regarding brain regions showed that the increase in absolute delta powers were localized to the posterior region [F(1,107)=4.001, p=0.048]. Additionally, frontal absolute gamma powers [F(1,107)=4.138, p=0.044] were increased in PTSD group compared to anxiety disorder group. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests increased overall absolute delta powers and relative gamma powers as potential markers that could differentiate PTSD from anxiety disorders. Moreover, increased frontal absolute gamma and posterior delta powers might pose as novel markers of PTSD, which may reflect its distinct symptomatology.

16.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 16(4): 391-397, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466211

RESUMO

Objective: Meditation can elicit trait-like changes in psychological and social styles, as well as enhancement of emotional regulatory capacity. We investigated the relation between personality traits and emotional intelligence in meditation practitioners. Methods: Seventy-two long-term practitioners of mind-body training (MBT) and 62 healthy comparative individuals participated in the study. The participants completed emotional intelligence questionnaires and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Results: The MBT group revealed higher scores on all five emotional intelligence factors than did those in the control group, such as emotional awareness and expression, empathy, emotional thinking, emotional application, and emotional regulation (all p≤0.001). MBT practitioners also had higher scores on the intuition of perceiving function (t =-2.635, p =0.010) and on the feeling of the judging function (t =-3.340, p =0.001) of the MBTI compared with those in the control group. Only the MBT group showed a robust relationship with every factor of emotional intelligence and MBTI-defined intuitive styles, indicating that higher scores of emotional intelligence were related to higher scores for intuition. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence of meditation practitioners showed notable relationships with some features of personality trait. In-depth associations between emotional intelligence and personality traits would help to foster psychological functions in meditation practitioners.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(38): e12422, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235717

RESUMO

Numerous studies have provided evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on panic disorders (PDs). There has also been growing attention on brief CBT with regard to delivering intensive treatment efficiently. This study investigated the essential parts of mindfulness-based brief CBT to optimize treatment benefits.A total of 37 patients were retrospectively enrolled in this study. They were recruited from the anxiety/panic/fear clinic of Seoul National University Hospital. The patients participated in group CBT once a week for a total of 4 sessions over a 4-week period, when they were assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) before and after brief CBT. Twenty-nine patients completed the 1-month follow-up.There were significant reductions in PDSS (P < .001), ASI-R-fear of respiratory symptoms (P = .006), ASI-R-fear of publicly observable anxiety reaction (P = .002), ASI-R-fear of cardiovascular symptoms (P < .001), ASI-R-fear of cognitive dyscontrol (P = .001), ASI-R-Total (P < .001), APPQ-Agoraphobia (P = .003), APPQ-Total (P = .028), STAI-State anxiety (P < .001), STAI-Trait anxiety (P = .002), BAI (P = .003), and BDI (P < .001) scores. We also found significant associations between ASI-R-fear of cardiovascular symptoms, ASI-R-Total, and changes in PDSS scores. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that anxiety sensitivity for fear of cardiovascular symptoms predicted an improvement in panic severity (ß = 0.513, P = .004).Our findings suggested that behavioral aspects, especially physiological symptom control, needed to be considered in brief, intensive CBT for PD. The results also suggested that a mindfulness-based brief CBT approach might be particularly helpful for patients with PD who have severe cardiovascular symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 16(3): 339-342, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121985

RESUMO

Objective: Continuation-maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (C/M-ECT) is used to prevent relapse or recurrence in patients with severe mental illnesses. We aimed to investigate the effect of C/M-ECT on reducing hospital re-admissions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Methods: We applied a mirror-image design by retrospectively examining re-hospitalization rates of 18 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We compared the numbers of psychiatric admissions during the actual period over which C/M-ECT was administered with the same period prior to the beginning of C/M-ECT. Results: The number of psychiatric admissions was reduced significantly during C/M-ECT (0.33±0.77) compared with that of the same period prior to C/M-ECT (2.67±1.33) (Wilcoxon signed rank Z=-3.663; p<0.001). Conclusion: This finding shows that C/M-ECT augmentation could successfully reduce the re-hospitalization rates in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

19.
Neuroimage Clin ; 20: 35-41, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998059

RESUMO

Delirium is characterized by inattention and other cognitive deficits, symptoms that have been associated with disturbed interactions between remote brain regions. Recent EEG studies confirm that disturbed global network topology may underlie the syndrome, but lack an anatomical basis. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the global organization of functional connectivity during delirium and to localize possible alterations. Resting-state fMRI data from 44 subjects were analyzed, and motion-free data were available in nine delirious patients, seven post delirium patients and thirteen non-delirious clinical controls. We focused on the functional network backbones using the minimum spanning tree, which allows unbiased network comparisons. During delirium a longer diameter (mean (M) = 0.30, standard deviation (SD) = 0.05, P = .024) and a lower leaf fraction (M = 0.32, SD = 0.03, P = .027) was found compared to the control group (M = 0.28, SD = 0.04 respectively M = 0.35, SD = 0.03), suggesting reduced functional network integration and efficiency. Delirium duration was strongly related to loss of network hierarchy (rho = -0.92, P = .001). Connectivity strength was decreased in the post delirium group (M = 0.16, SD = 0.01) compared to the delirium group (M = 0.17, SD = 0.03, P = .024) and the control group (M = 0.19, SD = 0.02, P = .001). Permutation tests revealed a decreased degree of the right posterior cingulate cortex during delirium and complex regional alterations after delirium. These findings indicate that delirium reflects disintegration of functional interactions between remote brain areas and suggest long-term impact after the syndrome resolves.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Delírio/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Descanso/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(23): e10867, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879022

RESUMO

Chronic pain is defined as persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months; the severity of pain can be rated in terms of intensity, pain-related distress, and functional impairment. Researches have shown an association between psychosocial factors, such as empathic ability, and the severity of pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common psychologic intervention for individuals with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CBT on empathy in chronic pain patients, examining especially gender differences. In total, 89 patients with severe chronic pain (46 men and 43 women) underwent 8 sessions of CBT over the course of 4 weeks. Self-reported clinical symptoms were measured at the beginning and end of the CBT. Empathy was measured using the interpersonal reactivity index, and pain severity was assessed using the short-form McGill pain questionnaire. A comparison of male and female patients before CBT indicated that females showed higher levels of empathy in response to affective issues and reported greater affective pain than males. A mixed analysis of variance revealed that female patients showed higher levels of empathy than did male patients, both before and after CBT. We also found significant relationships between affective pain and empathy for others' personal distress in all patients. These results suggest that the effectiveness of CBT may be affected by chronic pain patients' level of empathy. Although the evident result was not shown in this study, the present findings imply that female patients may formulate excellent therapeutic alliance in CBT intervention that can lead to a clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Empatia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
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