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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between quality of life (QOL) and breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) intensity in patients who met the commonly accepted definition of BTCP. METHODS: This study was a subset analysis of a South Korean multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional, nationwide survey. Participants were recruited from March 2016 to December 2017. BTCP was defined as a controlled background pain of less than a numeric rating scale (NRS) of 3 and any flare-up pain intensity. Pain intensity data were collected using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), which includes an interference assessment of the affective and physical domains. Patients were categorized by BTCP intensity into mild (NRS 1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) groups. RESULTS: Of the 969 screened patients with cancer, 679 had ≤ NRS 3 background pain, of whom 438 completed the BPI. Of these 438 patients, 40, 204, and 194 were in the mild, moderate, and severe BTCP groups, respectively. The median NRS of BTCP was 6.0 (interquartile range = 5.0-8.0). Patients with moderate-severe BTCP had significantly higher interference with daily functioning (IDF) scores than did mild BTCP patients (3.3 vs. 5.7; p < 0.01). Both domains of IDF were significantly hampered proportionally by increased BTCP intensity (p < 0.001). The median total IDF scores of the no, moderate, and severe BTCP groups were 3.3, 5.0, and 6.9, respectively. Furthermore, IDF depended on BTCP intensity, duration, and frequency (p < 0.01) but not on pain type and cause. CONCLUSION: An increase in BTCP intensity is likely to result in IDF, regardless of the cause or type of BTCP.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023993

RESUMO

(1) Medical research has shown an increasing interest in machine learning, permitting massive multivariate data analysis. Thus, we developed drug intoxication mortality prediction models, and compared machine learning models and traditional logistic regression. (2) Categorized as drug intoxication, 8,937 samples were extracted from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008-2017). We trained, validated, and tested each model through data and compared their performance using three measures: Brier score, calibration slope, and calibration-in-the-large. (3) A chi-square test demonstrated that mortality risk statistically significantly differed according to severity, intent, toxic substance, age, and sex. The multilayer perceptron model (MLP) had the highest area under the curve (AUC), and lowest Brier score in training and validation phases, while the logistic regression model (LR) showed the highest AUC (0.827) and lowest Brier score (0.0307) in the testing phase. MLP also had the second-highest AUC (0.816) and second-lowest Brier score (0.003258) in the testing phase, demonstrating better performance than the decision-making tree model. (4) Given the complexity of choosing tuning parameters, LR proved competitive when using medical datasets, which require strict accuracy.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2277, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042021

RESUMO

Megakaryocytes (MKs) play key roles in regulating bone metabolism. To test the roles of MK-secreted factors, we investigated whether MK and promegakaryocyte (pro-MK) conditioned media (CM) may affect bone formation and resorption. K562 cell lines were differentiated into mature MKs. Mouse bone marrow macrophages were differentiated into mature osteoclasts, and MC3T3-E1 cells were used for osteoblastic experiments. Bone formation was determined by a calvaria bone formation assay in vivo. Micro-CT analyses were performed in the femurs of ovariectomized female C57B/L6 and Balb/c nude mice after intravenous injections of MK or pro-MK CM. MK CM significantly reduced in vitro bone resorption, largely due to suppressed osteoclastic resorption activity. Compared with pro-MK CM, MK CM suppressed osteoblastic differentiation, but stimulated its proliferation, resulting in stimulation of calvaria bone formation. In ovariectomized mice, treatment with MK CM for 4 weeks significantly increased trabecular bone mass parameters, such as bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, in nude mice, but not in C57B/L6 mice. In conclusion, MKs may secrete anti-resorptive and anabolic factors that affect bone tissue, providing a novel insight linking MKs and bone cells in a paracrine manner. New therapeutic agents against metabolic bone diseases may be developed from MK-secreted factors.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033291

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused mainly by immune dysregulation. This study explored the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the Centella asiatica ethanol extract (CA) on an AD-like dermal disorder. Treatment with CA inhibited the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner in inflammatory stimulated HaCaT cells by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and TNF-α-triggered inflammation. Eight-week-old BALB/c mice treated with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) were used as a mouse model of AD. In AD induce model, we had two types treatment of CA; skin local administration (80 µg/cm2, AD+CA-80) and oral administration (200 mg/kg/d, AD+CA-200). Interestingly, the CA-treated groups exhibited considerably decreased mast cell infiltration in the ear tissue. In addition, the expression of IL-6 in mast cells, as well as the expression of various pathogenic cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, iNOS, COX-2, and CXCL9, was reduced in both AD+CA-80 and AD+CA-200 groups. Collectively, our data demonstrate the pharmacological role and signaling mechanism of CA in the regulation of allergic inflammation of the skin, which supports our hypothesis that CA could potentially be developed as a therapeutic agent for AD.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 40, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate residual rotation of patients with forearm amputation and the contribution of involved muscle to residual rotation. METHODS: Testing was performed using five fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens prepared by isolating muscles involved in forearm rotation. Amputation was implemented at 25 cm (wrist disarticulation), 18 cm, or 10 cm from the tip of olecranon. Supination and pronation in the amputation stump were simulated with traction of involved muscle (supinator, biceps brachii, pronator teres, pronator quadratus) using an electric actuator. The degree of rotation was examined at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in flexion of elbow. RESULTS: Average rotation of 25 cm forearm stump was 148° (SD: 23.1). The rotation was decreased to 117.5° (SD: 26.6) at 18 cm forearm stump. It was further decreased to 63° (SD 31.5) at 10 cm forearm stump. Tendency of disorganized rotation was observed in close proximity of the amputation site to the elbow. Full residual pronation was achieved with traction of each pronator teres and pronator quadratus. Although traction of supinator could implement residual supination, the contribution of biceps brachii ranged from 4 to 88% according to the degree of flexion. CONCLUSIONS: Close proximity of the amputation site to the elbow decreased the residual rotation significantly compared to residual rotation of wrist disarticulation. The preservation of pronosupination was 80% at 18 cm forearm stump. Although the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus could make a full residual pronation separately, the supinator was essential to a residual supination.

6.
Int J Artif Organs ; 43(1): 37-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of using veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation increased, especially in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. However, data of complications of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. This study sought to investigate the incidence of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications for acute myocardial infarction patients with refractory cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest and its relationship with patient survival. METHODS: This study included 151 consecutive patients who underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 2006 and 2018 at a single referral center. We divided the patients into those who survived for 30 days after veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 57, 38%; group 1) and those who died within 30 days after veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (n = 94, 62%; group 2). The major adverse clinical events associated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were defined as first occurrence of infection, major bleeding, and stroke. RESULTS: Adverse clinical events associated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation occurred in 34 (59.6%) and 56 (59.6%) patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 2 had more patients who underwent new renal replacement therapy (21.1% vs 37.2%, p = 0.037). After multivariable analysis, cardiac arrest was independently associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio = 3.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.7-7.63; p = 0.001). After excluding patients who died within 48 h after undergoing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, new renal replacement therapy (odds ratio = 4.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.58-12.61; p = 0.005) and major adverse clinical events (odds ratio = 2.66; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.03; p = 0.049) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Although veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can improve the survival, it is associated with morbidity. Therefore, risk-benefit analysis for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and prevention of complications are important to improve prognosis.

7.
Food Chem ; 306: 125619, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606630

RESUMO

We evaluated the correlation between the interfacial characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and the interfacial/colloidal stability of SLN-stabilized emulsions. Herein, the interfacial properties of SLNs, particularly the surface load (Γs) of emulsifiers, were tuned by controlling the type/concentration of emulsifier used to prepare the SLNs. Increasing the Γs decreased the contact angle at the oil-water interface, which enhanced the displacement free energy of the SLNs at the interface. Moreover, the Γs of emulsifiers bound to the surface of SLNs covering oil droplets was linearly correlated with the SLN-own Γs. The size/ζ-potential of emulsions stabilized by SLNs covered by the highest concentration of emulsifiers was unchanged for 1 month, indicating good emulsion stability. The interfacial/colloidal stability of SLN-stabilized emulsions was thus enhanced by increasing the emulsifier concentration used to produce the SLNs. This study provides baseline data for developing SLN-stabilized emulsions for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas , Emulsificantes , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
8.
Food Chem ; 302: 125328, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404868

RESUMO

To control the oral bioavailability of curcumin, we fabricated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using tristearin and polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated emulsifiers. Lipolysis of prepared SLNs via simulated gastrointestinal digestion was modulated by altering the types and concentrations of emulsifiers. After digestion, the size/surface charge of micelles formed from SLN digesta were predictable and >91% of curcumin was bioaccessible in all of the SLNs. The curcumin permeation rate through mucus-covered gut epithelium in vitro was dependent on the size/surface charge of the micelles. Curcumin loaded in long-PEGylated SLNs rapidly permeated the epithelium due to the neutral surface charge of the micelles, resulting in a >12.0-fold increase in bioavailability compared to curcumin solution in a rat model. These results suggest that the bioavailability of curcumin can be controlled by modulating the interfacial properties of SLNs, which will facilitate the development of curcumin formulations for use in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Emulsificantes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/química
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18249, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852092

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cancer and chemotherapy individually confer hypercoagulability and increased risks of thrombosis. Most thromboembolic complication after breast cancer chemotherapy was venous thrombosis after multiagent chemotherapy. Arterial thrombosis is extremely rare in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. PRESENTING CONCERNS: A 55-year-old woman with right breast cancer presented to the emergency department with sudden pain, numbness, and swelling in her left hand. She underwent breast conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy 2 months before the visit. She received the second cycle of adjuvant Adriamycin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy 5 days before. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography angiography revealed acute arterial thrombosis in the left brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries. Unfractionated heparin was initiated immediately, followed by brachial and radial-ulnar thrombectomy, restoring perfusion to the extremity. The postoperative course was uncomplicated; she was discharged on warfarin at a daily dose of 4 mg. OUTCOMES: Chemotherapy was discontinued. Anticoagulation with warfarin was continued. She subsequently received adjuvant endocrine therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and adjuvant radiotherapy. MAIN LESSONS: Despite the low risks of arterial thrombosis in breast cancer, it is a devastating complication with significant morbidity and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered in those at risk. Immediate anticoagulant therapy and surgical intervention should be considered in affected cases.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Artéria Radial , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Artéria Ulnar , Doença Aguda , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia Doppler
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e18072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764839

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Appendectomy is one of the most common emergency surgical operations. Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy and is caused by acute inflammation of the remnant part of the appendix. Because of the low index of suspicion owing to a previous history of appendectomy, the diagnosis of stump appendicitis is often delayed. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2017, 6 patients were diagnosed with stump appendicitis with or without perforation at a single institution. They had undergone operative management with laparoscopic approach. The clinical data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed by reviewing the medical records and pathologic reports. RESULTS: Five patients were male, with a mean age of 42.4 years (range 11-77 years). The time interval after initial appendectomy ranged from 2 weeks to 30 years. Three patients underwent laparoscopic completion appendectomy, and the others underwent laparoscopic ileocecectomy. The mean hospital stay was 9 days (range 5-13 days). There were no cases of open conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Stump appendicitis is a rare complication after appendectomy. A laparoscopic procedure can be performed for management of stump appendicitis with or without perforation.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/etiologia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717842

RESUMO

We investigated the therapeutic potential of polymerized anthocyanin (PA) on a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to establish the NAFLD mouse model and randomly divided into four groups: control diet (con), NAFLD mice treated with saline (NAFLD), NAFLD mice treated with PA (PA), and NAFLD mice treated with orlistat (Orlistat) for four weeks. Mice were euthanized at the end of the four weeks. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were estimated, and pathological changes in the liver, white adipose tissue, and signaling pathways related to lipid metabolism were evaluated. Results revealed that the body, liver, and white fat weight of the NAFLD group was significantly increased compared to that of the con group, while that of the PA group showed significant reduction. NAFLD led to an increase in blood lipids in mice (except for HDL). Conversely, PA effectively reduced TC and LDL-C. Compared to the control group, the degree of steatosis in the mice of PA group was decreased. Moreover, PA also regulated the NAFLD signaling pathway. In agreement with improved lipid deposition, PA supplementation inhibited the activation of inflammatory pathways, depressing oxidative stress through increased antioxidant levels, and increasing ß-oxidation to inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PA can improve the liver function of NAFLD mice, regulating blood lipids, reducing liver-fat accumulation, and regulating lipid metabolism.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615010

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease of the urinary system among elderly men. Especially, the metabolic imbalance of androgen in elderly men is one of the leading causes of BPH. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and converted testosterone by 5-α reductase type 2 (5AR2), binding with androgen receptor (AR), affect prostate proliferation and growth. In BPH, levels of androgen signaling-related protein expression are shown highly. Androgen signaling induces the overexpression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cell proliferation factor such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1. Grape skin anthocyanins are well known for their antioxidative, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging activities. Polymerized anthocyanin (PA) downregulated the expression of androgen signaling-related proteins such as 5AR2, AR, and PSA in LNCaP cell lines. Furthermore, we investigated the effects on PA in testosterone propionate-induced BPH rat experiments. The oral administration of PA decreased the prostate weight in rats with TP-induced BPH. PA decreased the AR, 5AR2, SRC1, PSA, PCNA, and cyclin D1 expression in prostate tissues and the serum DHT levels, ameliorated the BPH-mediated increase of Bcl-2 expression, and increased the Bax expression. These results suggest that PA may be a potential natural therapeutic agent for BPH treatment.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15161, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641232

RESUMO

Considering the emergence of bacterial resistance and low proteolytic stability of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), herein we developed a series of ultra-short triazine based amphipathic polymers (TZP) that are connected with ethylene diamine linkers instead of protease sensitive amide bond. The most potent oligomers, TZP3 and TZP5 not only displayed potent antibacterial action on various drug-resistant pathogens but also exhibited a strong synergic antibacterial activity in combination with chloramphenicol against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA). Since most of atopic dermatitis (AD) infections are caused by bacterial colonization, we evaluated the potency of TZP3 and TZP5 on AD in vitro and in vivo. In vitro AD analysis of these two polymers showed significant inhibition against the release of ß-hexosaminidase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) from RBL-2H3 cells. In AD-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model, these two polymers displayed significant potency in suppressing dermal and epidermal thickness, mast cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Moreover, these polymers exhibited remarkable efficacy over the allergies caused by the imbalance of Th1/Th2 by regulating total IgE and IgG2a. Finally, the impact of treatment effects of these polymers was examined through analyzing the weights and sizes of spleen and lymph node of AD-induced mice.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591335

RESUMO

: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major public health concerns, which has a high prevalence rate and causes significant decline in men's quality of life. BPH is highly related to sexual hormone metabolism and aging. In particular, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), to which testosterone is modified by 5α-reductase (5AR), has a significant effect on BPH development. DHT binds to an androgen receptor (AR) and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1); then, it induces the proliferation of a prostate cell and expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Paecilomyces tenuipes (P. tenuipes) is a mushroom that has been popularized by the artificial cultivation of fruiting bodies based on silkworms by researchers from the Republic of Korea. In a previous study, we identified the effect of PE on PSA mRNA expression in LNCaP cells. This suggests that PE may have an inhibitory effect on androgen signaling. Therefore, we confirmed the expression of androgen signaling-related factors, such as AR, SRC-1, and PSA in LNCaP. Furthermore, we confirmed the androgen signaling inhibitory effect of PE using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. A BPH rat model was established with a four-week treatment of daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP, 3 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil after castration. The rats in the treatment group were orally gavaged P. tenuipes extract (PE), finasteride (Fi), or saw palmetto extract (Saw) with TP injection. DHT induced an increase in the expression levels of AR, SRC-1, and PSA proteins in LNCaP cells. On the contrary, the PE treatment reduced the expression levels. In vivo, the BPH group showed an increase in prostate size compared with the control group. The PE gavaged group showed a decrease in prostate size compared with the BPH group. In addition, the protein expressions of AR, 5AR2, and PSA were significantly lower in the PE gavaged group than BPH group in prostate tissue. These results suggest the beneficial effects of PE on BPH via the modulation of AR signaling pathway.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487939

RESUMO

Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly known as bitter gourd, bitter melon, kugua, balsam pear, or karela, is a tropical and sub-tropical vine belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It has been used to treat a variety of diseases in the traditional medicine of China, India, and Sri Lanka. Here, we review the anti-obesity effects of various bioactive components of M. charantia established at the cellular and organismal level. We aim to provide links between various bioactive components of M. charantia and their anti-obesity mechanism. An advanced search was conducted on the worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ACS Publications, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, SciFinder, CNKI) database with the query TS = "Momordica charantia" and "obesity". Information was also obtained from International Plant Names Index, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese herbal classic books, online databases, PhD and MSc dissertations, etc. First, studies showing the anti-obesity effects of M. charantia on the cells and on animals were classified. The major bioactive components that showed anti-obesity activities included proteins, triterpenoids, saponins, phenolics, and conjugated linolenic acids. Their mechanisms included inhibition of fat synthesis, promotion of glucose utilization, and stimulation of auxiliary lipid-lowering activity. Finally, we summarized the risks of excessive consumption of M. charantia and the application. Although further research is necessary to explore various issues, this review establishes the therapeutic potential of M. charantia and it is highly promising candidate for the development of anti-obesity health products and medicines.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Obesidade/terapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 35444-35450, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456390

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates, for the first time, wafer-scale graphene/MoS2 heterostructures prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their application in vertical transistors and logic gates. A CVD-grown bulk MoS2 layer is utilized as the vertical channel, whereas CVD-grown monolayer graphene is used as the tunable work-function electrode. The short vertical channel of the transistor is formed by sandwiching bulk MoS2 between the bottom indium tin oxide (ITO, drain electrode) and the top graphene (source electrode). The electron injection barriers at the graphene-MoS2 junction and ITO-MoS2 junction are modulated effectively through variation of the Schottky barrier height and its effective barrier width, respectively, because of the work-function tunability of the graphene electrode. The resulting vertical transistor with the CVD-grown MoS2/graphene heterostructure exhibits a current density exceeding 7 A/cm2, a subthreshold swing of 410 mV/dec, and an on-off current ratio exceeding 103. The large-area synthesis, transfer, and patterning processes of both semiconducting MoS2 and metallic graphene facilitate construction of a wafer-scale array of transistors and logic gates such as NOT, NAND, and NOR.

17.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 193, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the responses of refractory and common Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia to macrolides differ. Hence, this study aimed to identify biomarkers that may be used to distinguish refractory and common pneumonias caused by MP in children at hospital admission. METHODS: The study included 123 children divided into five groups according to infection agent and treatment protocol: Group I included those with MP infection without documented viral infection, treated with only macrolides; Group II included those with MP infection without documented viral infection, treated with a combination of macrolides and methylprednisolone; Group III included those with MP infection and documented viral infection, treated with only macrolides; Group IV included those with viral pneumonia without documented MP infection; Group V was the control group composed of admitted children without MP or a documented viral infection. These five groups were further subdivided into Groups A (including Groups I, III, IV, and V) and B (Group II) according to the responses to macrolide treatment. Concentrations of cytokines interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin of all children were evaluated, and these levels were compared among the groups. Statistical comparisons were made using Kruskal Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Serum lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin 18, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in Group II than in Groups I, III, IV, and V and were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A. When the serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration was 350 IU/L or higher, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing refractory MP pneumonia were 73 and 80%, respectively. When the interleukin 18 level was 360 pg/mL or higher, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing refractory MP pneumonia were 93 and 70%, respectively. When the ferritin level was 230 pg/mL or higher, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing refractory MP pneumonia were 67 and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that serum lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin 18, and ferritin constitute the critical combination of biomarkers useful for predicting refractory MP pneumonia in children at hospital admission.

18.
Arch Craniofac Surg ; 20(4): 260-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462019

RESUMO

Dysplastic nevus is common and affects about 10% of the northern European-descendent population. Studies over the past several decades have identified dysplastic nevi as a risk factor for malignant melanoma. Furthermore, in rare cases, they confirmed that dysplastic nevi have progressed to melanoma. Cases in which dysplastic nevi progressed to malignant melanoma in multiple studies are not uncommon. A 35-year-old woman presented with the major symptom of multiple itchy brown nodules (2.0 cm× 1.3 cm) in the left cheek that had first appeared 20 years earlier. Complete excision was performed at the first visit; subsequent biopsy confirmed that they were dysplastic nevi. They recurred three times over 3 years at the same site, all of which were histologically diagnosed as dysplastic nevi. Five years after the final excision, a brownish nodule developed in the left cheek, with others at the left temporal region, right retroauricular region, and left shoulder at the same time. These lesions were histologically diagnosed as malignant melanoma. We experienced a case of malignant melanoma that occurred at the same site after three recurrences of dysplastic nevi. Although rare, the possibility of malignant melanoma should be considered in follow-ups in cases involving repeatedly recurrent dysplastic nevi.

19.
Nanotechnology ; 30(43): 435203, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349232

RESUMO

This study describes the design of a flexible narrowband organic photodiode (OPDs) with a novel structure. A bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) is introduced as a photoactive layer, with an optimized thickness of 160 nm, and a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 (MAM) multilayer electrode and polyimide (PI) film substrate were used. The OPD with the device architecture of PI/MAM/P3HT:PC70BM/Al showed narrowband photodiode performance in the 500-650 nm wavelength range. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the OPD was 15.41% at 570 nm, which dropped to ∼0% outside the operation wavelength range. This narrowband detectivity originated from the cutoff of light at wavelengths below 500 nm by the PI substrate and photoreactivity of P3HT:PC70BM at wavelengths between 300 and 650 nm. Outer bending tests performed over 1000 cycles revealed that the average maximum EQE remained at ∼15%. The maximum responsivity of the OPD was calculated to be 0.07 A W-1 at 570 nm. The OPD device showed a narrow response spectrum with a full width at half maximum of 100 nm. This research suggests a new approach for the fabrication of flexible OPDs with high selectivity in color detection.

20.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 8213-8221, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260260

RESUMO

In this study, we fabricated an array of all-inkjet-printed vertical Schottky barrier (SB) transistors and various logic gates on a large-area substrate. All of the electronic components, including the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) semiconductor, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes, and the ion-gel gate dielectric, were directly and uniformly printed onto a 4 in. wafer. The vertical SB transistors had a vertically stacked structure, with the inkjet-printed IGZO semiconductor layer placed between the rGO source electrode and the ITO drain electrode. The ion-gel gate dielectric was also inkjet-printed in a coplanar gate geometry. The channel current was controlled by adjusting the SB height at the rGO/IGZO heterojunction under application of an external gate voltage. The high intrinsic capacitance of the ion-gel gate dielectric facilitated modulation of the SB height at the source/channel heterojunction to around 0.5 eV at a gate voltage lower than 2 V. The resulting vertical SB transistors exhibited a high current density of 2.0 A·cm-2, a high on-off current ratio of 106, and excellent operational and environmental stabilities. The simple device structure of the vertical SB transistors was beneficial for the fabrication of all-inkjet-printed low-power logic circuits such as the NOT, NAND, and NOR gates on a large-area substrate.

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