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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835676

RESUMO

In Cuba, ciguatera poisoning associated with fish consumption is the most commonly occurring non-bacterial seafood-borne illness. Risk management through fish market regulation has existed in Cuba for decades and consists of bans on selected species above a certain weight; however, the actual occurrence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in seafood has never been verified. From this food safety risk management perspective, a study site locally known to be at risk for ciguatera was selected. Analysis of the epiphytic dinoflagellate community identified the microalga Gambierdiscus. Gambierdiscus species included six of the seven species known to be present in Cuba (G. caribaeus, G. belizeanus, G. carpenteri, G. carolinianus, G. silvae, and F. ruetzleri). CTX-like activity in invertebrates, herbivorous and carnivorous fishes were analyzed with a radioligand receptor-binding assay and, for selected samples, with the N2A cell cytotoxicity assay. CTX activity was found in 80% of the organisms sampled, with toxin values ranging from 2 to 8 ng CTX3C equivalents g-1 tissue. Data analysis further confirmed CTXs trophic magnification. This study constitutes the first finding of CTX-like activity in marine organisms in Cuba and in herbivorous fish in the Caribbean. Elucidating the structure-activity relationship and toxicology of CTX from the Caribbean is needed before conclusions may be drawn about risk exposure in Cuba and the wider Caribbean.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357621

RESUMO

Ostreopsis cf. ovata is a toxic marine benthic dinoflagellate responsible for harmful blooms affecting ecosystem and human health, mostly in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we report the occurrence of a summer O. cf. ovata bloom in Currais, a coastal archipelago located on the subtropical Brazilian coast (~25° S). This bloom was very similar to Mediterranean episodes in many aspects: (a) field-sampled and cultivated O. cf. ovata cells aligned phylogenetically (ITS and LSU regions) along with Mediterranean strains; (b) the bloom occurred at increasing temperature and irradiance, and decreasing wind speed; (c) cell densities reached up to 8.0 × 104 cell cm-2 on fiberglass screen and 5.6 × 105 cell g-1 fresh weight on seaweeds; (d) and toxin profiles were composed mostly of ovatoxin-a (58%) and ovatoxin-b (32%), up to 35.5 pg PLTX-eq. cell-1 in total. Mussels were contaminated during the bloom with unsafe toxin levels (up to 131 µg PLTX-eq. kg-1). Ostreopsis cells attached to different plastic litter, indicating an alternate route for toxin transfer to marine fauna via ingestion of biofilm-coated plastic debris.

3.
Harmful Algae ; 86: 119-127, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358271

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning is caused by the consumption of reef fish or shellfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins, neurotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus or Fukuyoa. Although ciguatera constitutes the primary cause of seafood intoxication in Cuba, very little information is available on the occurrence of ciguatoxins in the marine food web and the causative benthic dinoflagellate species. This study conducted on the south-central coast of Cuba reports the occurrence of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera and the associated benthic genera Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum. Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa cells were present at low to moderate abundances depending on the site and month of sampling. This genus was notably higher on Dictyotaceae than on other macrophytes. PCR analysis of field-collected samples revealed the presence of six different Gambierdiscus and one Fukuyoa species, including G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, G. belizeanus, F. ruetzleri, G. silvae, and Gambierdiscus sp. ribotype 2. Only Gambierdiscus excentricus was absent from the eight Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa species known in the wider Caribbean region. Eleven clonal cultures were established and confirmed by PCR and SEM as being either G. carolinianus or G. caribaeus. Toxin production in each isolate was assessed by a radioligand receptor binding assay and found to be below the assay quantification limit. These novel findings augment the knowledge of the ciguatoxin-source dinoflagellates that are present in Cuba, however further studies are needed to better understand the correlation between their abundance, species-specific toxin production in the environment, and the risk for fish contamination, in order to develop better informed ciguatera risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cuba , Medição de Risco
4.
Harmful Algae ; 84: 95-111, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128817

RESUMO

To date, the genus Ostreopsis comprises eleven described species, of which seven are toxigenic and produce various compounds presenting a major threat to human and environmental health. The taxonomy of several of these species however remains controversial, as it was based mostly on morphological descriptions leading, in some cases, to ambiguous interpretations and even possible misidentifications. The species Ostreopsis lenticularis was first described by Y. Fukuyo from French Polynesia using light microscopy observations, but without genetic information associated. The present study aims at revisiting the morphology, molecular phylogeny and toxicity of O. lenticularis based on the analysis of 47 strains isolated from 4 distinct locales of French Polynesia, namely the Society, Australes, Marquesas and Gambier archipelagos. Observations in light, epifluorescence and field emission scanning electron microscopy of several of these strains analyzed revealed morphological features in perfect agreement with the original description of O. lenticularis. Cells were oval, not undulated, 60.5-94.4 µm in dorso-ventral length, 56.1-78.2 µm in width, and possessed a typical plate pattern with thecal plates showing two sizes of pores. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the LSU rDNA and ITS-5.8S sequences revealed that the 47 strains correspond to a single genotype, clustering with a strong support with sequences previously ascribed to Ostreopsis sp. 5. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis were also established and further tested for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay and LCMS/MS analyses. None of the 19 strains tested showed toxic activity on neuroblastoma cells, while LCMS/MS analyses performed on the strains from Tahiti Island (i.e. type locality) confirmed that palytoxin and related structural analogs were below the detection limit. These findings allow to clarify unambiguously the genetic identity of O. lenticularis while confirming previous results from the Western Pacific which indicate that this species shows no toxicity, thus stressing the need to reconsider its current classification within the group of toxic species.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , DNA Ribossômico , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Polinésia
5.
Harmful Algae ; 83: 95-108, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097256

RESUMO

Thirteen isolates of Prorocentrum species were established from the coral reefs of Perhentian Islands Marine Park, Malaysia and underwent morphological observations and molecular characterization. Six species were found: P. caipirignum, P. concavum, P. cf. emarginatum, P. lima, P. mexicanum and a new morphotype, herein designated as P. malayense sp. nov. Prorocentrum malayense, a species closely related to P. leve, P. cf. foraminosum, P. sp. aff. foraminossum, and P. concavum (Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. 2018), is distinguished from its congeners as having larger thecal pore size and a more deeply excavated V-shaped periflagellar area. Platelet arrangement in the periflagellar area of P. malayense is unique, with the presence of platelet 1a and 1b, platelet 2 being the most anterior platelet, and a broad calabash-shaped platelet 3. The species exhibits consistent genetic sequence divergences for the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). The phylogenetic inferences further confirmed that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to species in Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of compensatory base changes (CBCs). Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of okadaic acid in P. lima (1.0-1.6 pg cell-1) and P. caipirignum (3.1 pg cell-1); this is the first report of toxigenic P. caipirignum in the Southeast Asian region. Other Prorocentrum species tested, including the new species, however, were below the detection limit.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , DNA Ribossômico , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
6.
Protist ; 170(2): 168-186, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031223

RESUMO

Investigation of phytoplankton from East China Sea of the Pacific Ocean, offshore Réunion Island of the Indian Ocean, and the French Atlantic coast revealed a species of poorly known armored fusiform dinoflagellate. To clarify this species, morphology and phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear protein gene sequence (Cox1, Cob and Hsp90) concatenated with the SSU, ITS region and LSU rDNA sequences were analysed. Epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that the nucleus of the specimen was elongated, sausage-shaped and located equatorially on the left lateral side of the cell, and that the plate formula is Po, 3', 1a, 6″, 6C, 8S, 5‴, 1p, 2'‴. These morphological features indicate that the species can be assigned to Centrodinium punctatum. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analyses placed this species within the Alexandrium clade, with Alexandrium affine being its closest relative. This indicates that genus Alexandrium is not monophyletic. The most similar morphological traits between C. punctatum and Alexandrium species were the shape of apical pore plate and the arrangement of the sulcal plates. However, since there are significant morphological differences between C. punctatum and Alexandrium species, further studies are needed to clarify the relation between the morphology and molecular phylogeny of other Centrodinium-related fusiform species.


Assuntos
Alveolados/classificação , Filogenia , Alveolados/citologia , Alveolados/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Phycol ; 55(1): 84-103, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179255

RESUMO

A new thecate, photosynthetic, sand-dwelling marine dinoflagellate, Laciniporus arabicus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the subtidal sediments of the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea, northern Indian Ocean, based on detailed morphological and molecular data. Cells of L. arabicus are small (16.2-30.1 µm long and 13.1-23.2 µm wide), dorsoventrally compressed, with a small apical flap-shaped projection pointing to the left. The thecal plate pattern is distinguished by minute first precingular plate and sulcus, which extends into the epitheca, with large anterior and right sulcal plates. The Kofoidian thecal tabulation is Po, X, 4', 2a, 7'', 6c, 6s, 5''', 2''''. Morphologically, the revealed plate pattern has an affinity to the Peridiniales, and LSU rDNA based phylogenetic analyses placed L. arabicus within the Thoracosphaeraceae, close to calcareous-cyst producing scrippsielloids, predatory pfiesteriaceans, and photosynthetic freshwater peridinioids Chimonodinium lomnickii and Apocalathium spp. However, the thecal plate arrangement of L. arabicus differs noticeably from any currently described dinoflagellates, and the species stands out from closely related taxa by extensive differences in physiology and ecology.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , DNA Ribossômico , Oceano Índico , Filogenia , Areia
8.
J Phycol ; 53(6): 1193-1205, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865145

RESUMO

The resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve from a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras (Gironde, France) were described in this study. The incubated urn-shaped cysts gave rise to cells of P. leve. Morphological observations through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, particularly of the periflagellar platelets, combined with large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained through single-cell analysis confirm their affinity to the species P. leve. The cysts were characterized by a specific shape and the presence of an anterior plug. This is the first conclusive evidence for fossilizable resting stages within the Prorocentrales, one of the major orders within the Dinophyceae. Palynological treatments show that the cysts and endospores withstand hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. Micro-Fourier transform infrared analysis on single specimens suggests that the composition of the endospore is cellulosic and the cyst wall a more robust, noncellulosic ß-glucan. The spectra overall are similar to other published spectra of resting cysts from autotrophic, planktonic dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
DNA de Algas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , França , Lagos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Harmful Algae ; 66: 65-78, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602255

RESUMO

The marine planktonic dinophyceaen genus Azadinium is a primary source of azaspiracids, but due to their small size its diversity may be underestimated and information on its biogeography is still limited. A new Azadinium species, A. zhuanum was obtained from the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China by incubating surface sediments. Five strains were established by isolating single germinated cells and their morphology was examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Azadinium zhuanum was characterized by a plate pattern of Po, cp, X, 4', 2a, 6'', 6C, 5S, 6''', 2'''', by a distinct ventral pore at the junction of Po, the first and fourth apical plates, and a conspicuous antapical spine. Moreover, Azadinium poporum was obtained for the first time from the Mediterranean by incubating surface sediment collected from Diana Lagoon (Corsica) and a new strain of Azadinium dalianense was isolated from the French Atlantic. The morphology of both strains was examined. Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from cultured strains. In addition, LSU sequences were obtained by single cell sequencing of two presumable A. poporum cells collected from the French Atlantic. Molecular phylogeny based on concatenated SSU, LSU and ITS sequences revealed that A. zhuanum was closest to A. polongum. French A. poporum from Corsica (Mediterranean) and from the Atlantic showed some genetic differences but were nested within one of the A. poporum ribotypes together with other European strains. Azadinium dalianense from France together with the type strain of the species from China comprised a well resolved clade now consisting of two ribotypes. Azaspiracid profiles were analyzed for the cultured Azadinium strains using LC-MS/MS and demonstrate that the Mediterranean A. poporum strain produced AZA-2 and AZA-2 phosphate with an amount of 0.44fgcell-1. Azadinium zhuanum and A. dalianense did not produce detectable AZA. Results of the present study support the view of a high diversity and wide distribution of species belonging to Azadinium. The first record of AZA-2 producing A. poporum from the Mediterranean suggests that this species may be responsible for azaspiracid contaminations in shellfish from the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Compostos de Espiro/análise , Oceano Atlântico , China , Cromatografia Líquida , DNA de Algas/análise , DNA Intergênico/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/química , França , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 8(10)2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754462

RESUMO

Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d-1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d-1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d-1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Poluentes da Água/isolamento & purificação , Acrilamidas/análise , Venenos de Cnidários , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Filogenia , Piranos/análise , Tunísia
11.
Mol Ecol ; 25(20): 5129-5143, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543851

RESUMO

Understanding divergence in the highly dispersive and seemingly homogeneous pelagic environment for organisms living as free drifters in the water column remains a challenge. Here, we analysed the transcriptome-wide mRNA sequences, as well as the morphology of 18 strains of Alexandrium minutum, a dinoflagellate responsible for harmful algal blooms worldwide, to investigate the functional bases of a divergence event. Analysis of the joint site frequency spectrum (JSFS) pointed towards an ancestral divergence in complete isolations followed by a secondary contact resulting in gene flow between the two diverging groups, but heterogeneous across sites. The sites displaying fixed SNPs were associated with a highly restricted gene flow and a strong overrepresentation of nonsynonymous polymorphism, suggesting the importance of selective pressures as drivers of the divergence. The most divergent transcripts were homologs to genes involved in calcium/potassium fluxes across the membrane, calcium transduction signal and saxitoxin production. The implication of these results in terms of ecological divergence and build-up of reproductive isolation is discussed. Dinoflagellates are especially difficult to study in the field at the ecological level due to their small size and the dynamic nature of their natural environment, but also at the genomic level due to their huge and complex genome and the absence of closely related model organism. This study illustrates the possibility to identify the traits of primary importance in ecology and evolution starting from high-throughput sequencing data, even for such organisms.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Seleção Genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Transcriptoma
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 110(1): 449-459, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334725

RESUMO

Tropical shrimp aquaculture systems in New Caledonia regularly face major crises resulting from outbreaks of Vibrio infections. Ponds are highly dynamic and challenging environments and display a wide range of trophic conditions. In farms affected by vibriosis, phytoplankton biomass and composition are highly variable. These conditions may promote the development of harmful algae increasing shrimp susceptibility to bacterial infections. Phytoplankton compartment before and during mortality outbreaks was monitored at a shrimp farm that has been regularly and highly impacted by these diseases. Combining information from flow cytometry, microscopy, pigment and phylogenetic analysis, the presence of Picocyanobacteria, Prasinophyceae and Diatomophyceae were detected as dominant phytoplankton groups and Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae as minor components. At the onset of the first shrimp mortalities, Bacillariophyceae increased while Cyanobacteria, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae decreased in the water column, followed by proliferation of Prasinophyceae. Several taxa were identified as potential harmful algae (Cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and Phaeocystis).


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton , Vibrioses/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Nova Caledônia , Filogenia , Tanques , Clima Tropical , Vibrioses/mortalidade
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 8(5)2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164144

RESUMO

Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1). V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d(-1)) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Compostos de Espiro/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , França , Mar Mediterrâneo , Dinâmica Populacional , Salinidade , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Toxicon ; 111: 91-9, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748155

RESUMO

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax is widely distributed around the world including the Mediterranean waters. The objectives of this study were to determine the morphology and phylogenic affiliation of A. pseudogonyaulax strain isolated from Bizerte Lagoon (Mediterranean waters, Tunisia) and investigate its toxicity. Molecular analyses confirmed the morphological identification of the isolated strain (APBZ12) as A. pseudogonyaulax. Moreover, it showed that it is 100% identical with strains of this species found in New Zealand, Japan, China and North Sea (Norway and Denmark) suggesting that this species is cosmopolitan. Until now, no toxin studies have been conducted on fully characterized (morphologically and molecularly) A. pseudogonyaulax. Cellular toxin production was determined using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Results showed for the first time that A. pseudogonyaulax contains goniodomin A (GDA), a highly toxic macrolide polyether previously shown to be produced by two other dinoflagellate species Alexandrium monilatum (Hsia et al., 2006) and Alexandrium hiranoi (erroneously identified as A. pseudogonyaulax in Murakami et al., 1988) in American and Japanese waters, respectively. This biologically active toxin has been associated over decades with fish mortality. Our study showed that the cell extracts of APBZ12 showed an important bioactivity using GH4C1 rat pituitary cytotoxicity bioassay.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Éteres/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dinoflagelados/genética , Éteres/química , Macrolídeos/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Hipófise/citologia , Ratos
15.
Harmful Algae ; 48: 69-82, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724478

RESUMO

A high spatial resolution sampling of Alexandrium pacificum cysts, along with sediment characteristics (% H2O, % organic matter (OM), granulometry), vegetative cell abundance and environmental factors were investigated at 123 study stations in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia). Morphological examination and ribotyping of cells obtained from a culture called ABZ1 obtained from a cyst isolated in lagoon sediment confirmed that the species was A. pacificum. The toxin profile from the ABZ1 culture harvested during exponential growth phase was simple and composed of the N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 (9.82pgtoxincell-1), the GTX6 (3.26pgtoxincell-1) and the carbamoyl toxin Neo-STX (0.38pgtoxincell-1). The latter represented only 2.8% of the total toxins in this strain. High abundance of A. pacificum cysts correlated with enhanced percentages of water and organic matter in the sediment. In addition, sediment fractions of less than 63µm were examined as a favorable potential seedbed for initiation of future blooms and outbreaks of A. pacificum in the lagoon. A significant difference in the cyst distribution pattern was recorded among the lagoon's different zones, with the higher cyst abundance occurring in the inner waters. Also, no correlation due to the specific hydrodynamics of the lagoon was observed in the spatial distribution of A. pacificum cysts and vegetative cells.

16.
Mar Drugs ; 12(5): 2851-76, 2014 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24828292

RESUMO

Ostreopsis cf. ovata produces palytoxin analogues including ovatoxins (OVTXs) and a putative palytoxin (p-PLTX), which can accumulate in marine organisms and may possibly lead to food intoxication. However, purified ovatoxins are not widely available and their toxicities are still unknown. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the ecophysiology of Ostreopsis cf. ovata and its toxin production as well as to optimize the purification process for ovatoxin. During Ostreopsis blooms in 2011 and 2012 in Villefranche-sur-Mer (France, NW Mediterranean Sea), microalgae epiphytic cells and marine organisms were collected and analyzed both by LC-MS/MS and hemolysis assay. Results obtained with these two methods were comparable, suggesting ovatoxins have hemolytic properties. An average of 223 µg·kg-1 of palytoxin equivalent of whole flesh was found, thus exceeding the threshold of 30 µg·kg-1 in shellfish recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ostreopsis cells showed the same toxin profile both in situ and in laboratory culture, with ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a) being the most abundant analogue (~50%), followed by OVTX-b (~15%), p-PLTX (12%), OVTX-d (8%), OVTX-c (5%) and OVTX-e (4%). Ostreopsis cf. ovata produced up to 2 g of biomass per L of culture, with a maximum concentration of 300 pg PLTX equivalent cell-1. Thus, an approximate amount of 10 mg of PLTX-group toxins may be produced with 10 L of this strain. Toxin extracts obtained from collected biomass were purified using different techniques such as liquid-liquid partition or size exclusion. Among these methods, open-column chromatography with Sephadex LH20 phase yielded the best results with a cleanup efficiency of 93% and recovery of about 85%, representing an increase of toxin percentage by 13 fold. Hence, this purification step should be incorporated into future isolation exercises.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Toxinas Marinhas/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Acrilamidas , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Venenos de Cnidários , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , França , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Ovinos
17.
J Phycol ; 50(6): 1120-36, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988792

RESUMO

A new photosynthetic, sand-dwelling marine dinoflagellate, Ailadinium reticulatum gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Jordanian coast in the Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea, based on detailed morphological and molecular data. A. reticulatum is a large (53-61 µm long and 38-48 µm wide), dorsoventrally compressed species, with the epitheca smaller than the hypotheca. The theca of this new species is thick and peculiarly ornamented with round to polygonal depressions forming a foveate-reticulate thecal surface structure. The Kofoidian thecal tabulation is APC (Po, cp), 4', 2a, 6'', 6c, 4s, 6''', 1p, 1'''' or alternatively it can be interpreted as APC, 4', 2a, 6'', 6c, 4s, 6''', 2''''. The plate pattern of A. reticulatum is noticeably different from described dinoflagellate genera. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU and LSU rDNA genes did not show any supported affinities with currently known thecate dinoflagellates.

18.
Mar Drugs ; 10(2): 477-96, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22412814

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are known to cause (often fatal) food poisoning in tropical coastal areas following the accumulation of palytoxin (PLTX) and/or its analogues (PLTX group) in crabs, sea urchins or fish. Ostreopsis spp. occurrence is presently increasing in the northern to north western Mediterranean Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France), probably in response to climate change. In France, Ostreopsis. cf. ovata has been associated with toxic events during summer 2006, at Morgiret, off the coast of Marseille, and a specific monitoring has been designed and implemented since 2007. Results from 2008 and 2009 showed that there is a real danger of human poisoning, as these demonstrated bioaccumulation of the PLTX group (PLTX and ovatoxin-a) in both filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (mussels) and herbivorous echinoderms (sea urchins). The total content accumulated in urchins reached 450 µg PLTX eq/kg total flesh (summer 2008). In mussels, the maximum was 230 µg eq PLTX/kg (summer 2009) compared with a maximum of 360 µg found in sea urchins during the same period at the same site. This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/análise , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Acrilamidas/química , Animais , Bivalves/química , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Venenos de Cnidários , Dinoflagelados/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França , Limite de Detecção , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia , Ouriços-do-Mar/química , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
J Phycol ; 48(4): 925-39, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27009003

RESUMO

The systematic position of Amphidoma caudata Halldal within the genus Amphidoma has remained uncertain as a result of its plate formula and the absence of molecular phylogenetic data. Also, this thecate dinoflagellate taxon has been used to designate two distinct morphotypes. The present study aims to clarify the generic affiliation of Amphidoma caudata and the taxonomic value of two different morphotypes M1 and M2. The new examination of the plate formula using SEM showed that it was the same for both morphotypes and that it corresponded to the tabulation of the recent erected genus Azadinium Elbrächter et Tillmann. Morphometric analysis, using cell size, length of apical projection in conjunction with the cell length, and the ratio of horn and spine showed that M1 and M2 formed two distinct groups. These results were supported by a molecular approach, revealing notable differences in the sequences of LSU rDNA and ITS region between these two morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses inferred either from LSU and combined SSU, ITS region and COI data positioned M1 and M2 in a sister cluster of Azadinium species while Amphidoma languida Tillmann, Salas et Elbrächter, the only species of Amphidoma for which sequence data were available, was situated in a basal position of the Azadinium clade. Thus, we propose the transfer of Amphidoma caudata to the genus Azadinium and, consequently, the rehabilitation of the original tabulation of the genus Amphidoma Stein. To discriminate the two morphotypes, we propose a rank of variety with the following designations: Azadinium caudatum var. caudatum and Azadinium caudatum var. margalefii.

20.
J Phycol ; 48(1): 211-21, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27009665

RESUMO

A new benthic dinoflagellate species, Prorocentrum bimaculatum sp. nov., is studied from Kuwait's marine sediments, based on detailed morphological and molecular data. Cells are large, oblong oval in shape. They are 49.9-55.3 µm long and 38.4-43.2 µm wide. The ornamentation of this new species is peculiar, and characterized by smooth valves with large pores (0.32-0.50 µm) scattered on their surface, except in two circular patches of ∼15 µm in diameter, devoid of ornamentation and located on both sides of the valve centers. The periflagellar area is widely triangular, located in a moderate excavation of the right valve, and comprises nine platelets. The intercalary band of P. bimaculatum is smooth. The molecular phylogenetic position of this new taxon was inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA genes. In both phylogenetic analyses, P. bimaculatum branched with high support with Prorocentrum consutum and formed a clade sister to the one including P. lima and related species such as P. arenarium, P. belizeanum, P. hoffmannianum, and P. maculosum. From the phylogenetic study, since most species related to P. bimaculatum are known for their toxic effects and production of okadaic acid, this new species can be considered as a potential toxin producer, but this has to be analyzed.

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