Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 184
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1048-1067, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470471

RESUMO

Outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models have been widely used in studies of climate changes related to scenarios at global and regional scales. However, CMIP5 outputs cannot be used directly in analysis of climate changes due to coarse spatial resolution. Here, we proposed a new statistical downscaling method for the downscaling practice of the CMIP5 outputs, i.e. Bias-corrected and station-based Non-linear Regression Downscaling method based on Randomly-Moving Points (BNRD). And up to now, there are only two global downscaled CMIP5 precipitation datasets, i.e. NASA daily downscaled CMIP5 precipitation product and BCSD-based (Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation) monthly downscaled CMIP5 precipitation product available online, which are both based on BCSD downscaling method. Hence, we evaluated downscaling performance of BNRD by comparing it with the downscaled CMIP5 outputs using the BCSD method in this current study. The results indicate that: (1) during the period for development of the model (1964-2005), the error between downscaled CMIP5 precipitation and GPCC ranges between -50 mm-50 mm at monthly scale. When compared to BCSD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation, BNRD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation well reduces errors and avoids underestimation and overestimation of GPCC by BCSD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation; (2) during period for verification of the downscaling models (2006-2013), the maximum (182 mm), minimum (15 mm) and average (68 mm) RMSEs between BNRD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation and GPCC are all lower than those between BCSD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation and GPCC at continental scales. Besides, from the average precipitation viewpoint, BNRD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation is in higher correlation (around 0.75) with GPCC than BCSD-downscaled CMIP5 precipitation under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios at continental scales; (3) BNRD resolved the negative relation to GPCC in the areas near equator, including north part of the South America, southern Africa, northern Australia. In all, BNRD downscaling method developed in this study performs better in describing GPCC changes in both space and time when compared to BCSD and can be used for downscaling practice of CMIP5 and even potentially CMIP6 precipitation outputs over the globe.

2.
J Econ Entomol ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314109

RESUMO

Since 2016, Apis cerana sacbrood virus (AcSBV) has been recorded in Taiwan. It is epizootic in Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and causing serious loss of A. cerana. Herein, we performed a long-term survey of AcSBV prevalence in the populations of A. cerana in Northern Taiwan from January 2017 to July 2018. The surveillance of AcSBV prevalence in A. mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations was starting and further confirmed by sequencing since April 2017; thus, these data were also included in this survey. In our survey, the average prevalence rates of AcSBV were 72 and 53% in A. cerana and A. mellifera, respectively, in 2017, which decreased to 45 and 27% in 2018. For the spatial analysis of AcSBV in two honey bee populations, Hsinchu showed the highest prevalence, followed by New Taipei, Yilan, Taipei, and Keelung, suggesting that AcSBV might have come from the southern part of Taiwan. Interestingly, the AcSBV prevalence rates from A. cerana and A. mellifera cocultured apiaries gradually synchronized. The result of phylogenetic analysis and comparison of the annual AcSBV prevalence in A. cerana-only, A. mellifera-only, and A. cerana/A. mellifera cocultured sample sites indicate cross-infection between A. cerana and A. mellifera; however, AcSBV may lose the advantage of virulence in A. mellifera. The evidence suggested that the transmission of AcSBV might occur among these two honey bee species in the field. Therefore, A. mellifera may serve as a guard species to monitor AcSBV in A. cerana, but the cross-infection still needs to be surveyed.

3.
Environ Int ; 130: 104951, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272019

RESUMO

Monitoring of droughts is the first step into human adaptation and related management of drought hazards. Therefore, drought index is critical in drought monitoring practice. However, the standing drought indices include no information about agricultural irrigation. In this case, based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Self-Calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), here we proposed the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI) by considering agricultural irrigation such as irrigation quotas and soil water deficits. We compared changes of droughts monitored by MPDSI and other drought indices considered in this study, and found that MPDSI can well monitor drought conditions in irrigated regions. In this sense, MPDSI can monitor the actual drought conditions under human influences such as irrigation. Besides, we also found that MPDSI can well lessen overestimation of drought conditions by PDSI in terms of drought duration and drought intensity. Therefore, we can conclude that MPDSI can be accepted in drought monitoring practice across China. It should be noted here that the idea behind development of MPDSI and also the MDPSI proposed in this study can be well referenced in drought monitoring in other regions of the globe.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(3): 2396-2402, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322227

RESUMO

Long­term peritoneal dialysis is often limited or interrupted due to the development and progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major component of peritoneal injury associated with peritoneal fibrosis in the end stage of renal disease; however, at present, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, uric acid (UA)­induced EMT of peritoneal mesothelial cells was investigated by western­blot and immunofluorescence staining. The results revealed that peritoneal mesothelial cells stimulated with UA underwent EMT, as demonstrated by the decreased expression of epithelial markers (E­cadherin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (α­smooth muscle actin and vimentin). Additionally, it was reported that UA could facilitate the progression of EMT of peritoneal mesothelial cells via EMT transcription pathways, including transforming growth factor­ß1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 and P38/mitogen­activated protein kinase by western­blot and reverse transcription semi­quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study suggest that UA could promote EMT and may contribute to peritoneal chronic disease. Furthermore, the data obtained suggest that the levels of blood UA may account for the development of EMT; thus, lowering the levels of blood UA may be beneficial to inhibit the occurrence and development of peritoneal fibrosis.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 229-246, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153070

RESUMO

The assessment of climate change impacts is usually done by calculating the change in drought conditions between future and historical periods by using multiple climate model simulations. However, this approach usually focuses on anthropogenic climate changes (ACCs) while ignoring the internal climate variability (ICV) caused by the chaotic nature of the climate system. Recent studies have shown that ICV plays an important role in the projected future climate change. To evaluate that role, this study quantifies the contribution of ICV to climate change impacts on regional droughts by using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the fraction of standard deviation (FOSD) as metrics for China. The internal climate variability or noise (i.e. ICV) is estimated as the inter-member variability of two climate models' large-member ensembles; the signal (i.e. ACC) and the climate model uncertainty (or inter-model uncertainty, IMU) are estimated as the ensemble mean and inter-model variability of 29 global climate models, respectively. The drought conditions are characterized by drought frequency, duration and severity, which are quantified by using the theory of run based on the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The results show that deteriorated drought conditions induced by ACCs are projected to occur over China. From the perspective of the SNR, the ICV impacts are less significant compared to the ACC impacts for drought metrics. Remarkable spatial variations of SNRs for future drought metrics are found, with values varying from 0.001 to exceeding 10. In terms of the FOSD, ICV contributions relative to the IMU are large, as FOSDs are >1 for around 22% grids. These results imply the significance of taking into account the impacts of ICV in drought assessment, any study ignores the influence of ICV may be biased.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137802

RESUMO

The polysaccharide isolated from alfalfa was considered to be a kind of macromolecule with some biological activities; however, its molecular structure and effects on immune cells are still unclear. The objectives of this study were to explore the extraction and purifying methods of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) polysaccharide (APS) and decipher its composition and molecular characteristics, as well as its activation to lymphocytes. The crude polysaccharides isolated from alfalfa by water extraction and alcohol precipitation methods were purified by semipermeable membrane dialysis. Five batches of alfalfa samples were obtained from five farms (one composite sample per farm) and three replicates were conducted for each sample in determination. The results from ion chromatography (IC) analysis showed that the APS was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, galacturonic acid (GalA), and glucuronic acid (GlcA) with a molar ratio of 2.6:8.0:4.7:21.3:3.2:1.0:74.2:14.9. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw), number-average molecular weight (Mn), and Z-average molecular weight (Mz) of APS were calculated to be 3.30 × 106, 4.06 × 105, and 1.43 × 108 g/mol, respectively, according to the analysis by gel permeation chromatography-refractive index-multiangle laser light scattering (GPC-RI-MALS). The findings of electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) suggest that APS consists of seven linkage residues, namely 1,5-Araf, galactose (T-D-Glc), glucose (T-D-Gal), 1,4-Gal-Ac, 1,4-Glc, 1,6-Gal, and 1,3,4-GalA, with molar proportions of 10.30%, 4.02%, 10.28%, 52.29%, 17.02%, 3.52%, and 2.57%, respectively. Additionally, APS markedly increased B-cell proliferation and IgM secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner but not the proliferation and cytokine (IL-2, -4, and IFN-γ) expression of T cells. Taken together, the present results suggest that APS are macromolecular polymers with a molar mass (indicated by Mw) of 3.3 × 106 g/mol and may be a potential candidate as an immunopotentiating pharmaceutical agent or functional food.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983511

RESUMO

Nanoscale photocatalysts have attracted abundant research attention in the solar-activated disinfection. In this work, we find that solar irradiation significantly improves the antimicrobial activity of graphene quantum dots (GQDs), accompanied by severe oxidative stress and membrane damage. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, we confirm that different reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and superoxide anion (O2•-) were generated by GQDs upon irradiation with simulated sunlight. Additionally, these generated ROS will further facilitate lipid peroxidation of cell membrane and suppress bacterial antioxidant systems, enhancing the phototoxicity of GQDs. These findings will bring major advancements of GQDs in applications of solar-driven bacterial disinfection.

8.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(5): 1013-1018, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical presentation, disease progression, treatment and complications of IRVAN. METHOD: Case series PATIENTS: Six eyes from three patients were included. RESULTS: All eyes were treated with pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP). One eye received Ozurdex (dexamethasome implant) for persistent macular exudates and oedema. One eye received Avastin injections for retinal neovascularization. Oral steroids were given to all patients at some point during the disease process. One patient had additional immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil. Despite aggressive PRP, the visual outcomes varied widely. One patient maintained 6/6 vision bilaterally at 84 months follow-up. The second patient had progressive visual loss secondary to macular exudates and oedema, from 6/9 right eye, 6/6 left eye to 6/18 right eye, 6/60 left eye within 12 months despite Ozurdex injection. The third patient's vision at presentation was 6/5 right eye, and 6/4 left eye. Despite further interventions including Avastin and mycophenolate mofetil, he continued to have progressive neovascularization and recurrent vitreous haemorrhage. At 72 months, his vision had deteriorated to 6/60 right eye, 6/18 left eye. CONCLUSION: The progression of IRVAN can vary greatly, in spite of aggressive treatment with PRP, oral and intravitreal steroids, immunosuppressant medication and anti-VEGF agents. The variation in disease progression occurs both within the same individual as well as between individuals. An individualised approach to therapy is advocated.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Imagem Multimodal , Artéria Retiniana , Vasculite Retiniana/diagnóstico , Retinite/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Masculino , Vasculite Retiniana/cirurgia , Retinite/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-8, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVETraditional trajectory (TT) screws are widely used in lumbar fixation. However, they may require revision surgery in some instances, especially in patients with osteoporotic spines. Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws may potentially be used to rescue a failed TT screw and vice versa in nonosteoporotic spines. This study aimed to investigate whether a CBT screw can salvage a compromised TT screw in osteoporotic lumbar spines and vice versa.METHODSA total of 42 vertebrae from 17 cadaveric lumbar spines were obtained. Bone mineral density was measured, and a CBT screw was randomly inserted into one side of each vertebra. A TT screw was then inserted into the contralateral side. The biomechanical properties of the screws were tested to determine their insertional torque, pullout strength, and fatigue performance. After checking the screws for the failure of each specimen, the failed screw track was salvaged with a screw of the opposite trajectory. The specimen was then subjected to the same mechanical tests, and results were recorded. A repeat pullout test on TT and CBT screws was also performed.RESULTSWhen CBT screws were used to rescue failed TT screws, the original torque increased by 50%, an average of 81% of the pullout strength of the initial TT screws was retained, and the fatigue performance was equal to that of the original screws, which were considerably stronger than the loose TT screws-that is, the TT repeat screws/TT screws were 33% of the pullout strength of the initial TT screws. When the TT screws were used to salvage the compromised CBT screws, the TT screws retained 51% of the original torque and 54% of the original pullout strength, and these screws were still stronger than the loose CBT screws-that is, the loose CBT screws retained 12% pullout strength of the initial CBT screws. Fatigue performance and the ratio of the pullout strength considerably decreased between the CBT rescue screws and the original CBT screws but slightly changed between the TT rescue screws and the original TT screws.CONCLUSIONSCBT and TT screws can be applied in a revision technique to salvage each other in osteoporotic lumbar spines. Additionally, CBT and TT screws each retain adequate insertional torque, pullout strength, and fatigue performance when used for revision in osteoporotic lumbar spines.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 665: 300-313, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772560

RESUMO

Good knowledge of the surface air temperature (SAT) is critical for scientific understanding of ecological environment changes and land-atmosphere thermodynamic interactions. However, sparse and uneven spatial distribution of the temperature gauging stations introduces remarkable uncertainties into analysis of the SAT pattern. From a geo-intelligent perspective, here we proposed a new SAT reconstruction method based on the multisource data and machine learning technique which was developed by considering autocorrelation of the in situ observed SAT in both space and time, or simply STAML, i.e. Geoi-SVM (Geo-Intelligent Support Vector Machine), Geoi-BPNN (Geo-Intelligent Back Propagation Neural Network) and Geoi-RF (Geo-Intelligent Random Forest). The multisource data used in this study include the in situ observed SAT and multisource remotely sensed data such as MODIS land surface temperature, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Intermodel comparisons amidst reconstructed SAT data were done to evaluate reconstructing performance of abovementioned models. Besides, the SAT reconstructed by CART (Classification and Regression Tree) was also included to evaluate the reconstructing performance of the models considered in this study when compared to SAT data by CART algorithm. We found that the estimation error of the reconstructed SAT by the STAML is smaller than 0.5K (Kelvin). In addition, it is interesting to note that the Geoi-RF performs better with Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of lower than 0.25K, and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Standard Deviation (SD) of lower than 0.5K respectively. Correlation coefficients between the reconstructed SAT by Geoi-RF and the observed SAT are close to 1. Besides, the estimation accuracy of the SAT by the Geoi-RF technique is 18.51-63.17% higher than that by the other techniques considered in this study. This study provides a new idea and technique for reconstruction of SAT over large spatial extent at regional and even global scale.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 302-313, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599349

RESUMO

Wetlands are thought to be the most unique ecosystem in the world which plays an important role in water and material circulation. However, investigation of ecosystem dynamics in those lake floodplain wetlands that suffering rapid and significant short-term water level fluctuation is quite a challenge. In this study, the short- and long-term characteristics of vegetation NPP (net primary productivity) and their driving mechanism were investigated in the Poyang Lake floodplain wetland, an important international wetland that listed in the Global Eco-region by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Attempts were achieved through validating the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model based on observed biomasses of different vegetation types and reconstructed continuous high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m and 16 days) of NDVI data during 2000-2015 according to the fused Landsat and MODIS data. Major result indicates that the intra-annual variation of NPP of most vegetation types shows two peaks in a year due to combined effects of vegetation growth rhythm and seasonal exposure of the lake floodplain. Annual NPP of the lake floodplain ranges in 360.09-735.94 gC/m2 and shows an increasing trend during the study period. The change of NPP in space indicates that the distribution elevation of the major vegetation types decreased and evoluted toward the center lake floodplain. Different from the terrestrial ecosystem, inundation duration is the dominant factor that controls NPP dynamics in the lake floodplain, while the influences of other meteorological factors are much weakened. Recent decline of lake water level was the major reason for the spatio-temporal evolution of annual and seasonal vegetation NPP in the lake floodplain.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lagos , Áreas Alagadas , China , Hidrologia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 374-384, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579195

RESUMO

The Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP), often known as the "Third Pole" and the "Asian Water Tower", is the source of water resources for many Asian rivers and in turn for hundreds of millions of people living downstream. The HTP has direct impacts on the establishment and maintenance of Asian monsoon, and therefore on the climate of its surrounding areas. Besides, soil moisture plays a critical role in the hydrological cycle and is a critical link between land surface and atmosphere. Hence, soil moisture was greatly emphasized by Global Climate Observing System Programme as an Essential Climate Variable. However, little is known about soil moisture changes on the HTP from a long-term perspective. By comparing remotely sensed and modelled soil moisture datasets against in-situ observations from 100 observation stations, here we find that Noah performed better than other soil moisture datasets. In past years, soil moisture first decreased and then increased obviously. In most regions on HTP, precipitation changes can be taken as the major cause behind soil moisture variations. In future, there is persistently decreasing soil moisture trend since ~2010 with a decreasing rate of -0.044 kg/m2/10a, -0.031 kg/m2/10a and -0.0p 88 kg/m2/10a under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, in CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparision Project Phase 5). Specifically, a sudden decrease of soil moisture with a rate of -0.372 kg/m2/10a can be expected after ~2080 under RCP8.5 scenario. Amplifying terrestrial aridity due to increasing precipitation but more significant increasing potential evapotranspiration potentially results in drying HTP. Potential water deficiency for Asian rivers due to drying HTP should arouse considerable concerns.

13.
Acta Biomater ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500447

RESUMO

In this work, we developed a novel multifunctional nanoplatform based on hyaluronic acid modified Au nanocages (AuNCs-HA). The rational design of AuNCs-HA renders the nanoplatform three functionalities: (1) AuNCs-HA with excellent LSPR peak in the NIR region act as contrast agent for enhanced photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT); (2) the nanoplatform with high-energy rays (X-ray) absorption and auger electrons generation acts as a radiosensitizer for radiotherapy; (3) good photocatalytic property and large surface area make AuNCs-HA a photosensitive agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In vivo results demonstrated that AuNCs-HA presented excellent PA imaging performance after intravenous injection, which provided contour, size, and location information of the tumor. Moreover, because AuNCs-HA could combine radiotherapy and phototherapy together, the tumors treated with AuNCs-HA showed complete growth inhibition, comparing to that with each therapy alone. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that AuNCs-HA is of great potential as a multifunctional nanoplatform for PA imaging-guided radio- and photo-therapy of tumor. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, a commendable theranostic nanoplatform based on hyaluronic acid modified AuNCs (AuNCs-HA) was developed. In our approach, the dilute solution of Gold(III) chloride is slowly dripped into Ag nanocubes solution, then the Au nanocages were obtained by redox reaction, and followed by HA modification. We explored them, simultaneously, as radiosensitizers for RT, photosensitizers for PDT, and therapeutic agents for PTT. Compared to that of each therapies alone, the combination of radio-therapy and photo-therapy results in a considerably improved tumor eliminating effect and efficiently inhibited tumor growth. In addition, AuNCs-HA exhibited remarkably strong PA signals for precise identification of the location, size, and boundary of the tumor, thereby facilitating imaging-guided therapy. In brief, our design of AuNCs-HA represents a general and versatile strategy for building up cancer-targeted nanotheranostics with desired synergistic imaging and therapy functionalities.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4861, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451824

RESUMO

Intravenous pharmacological dose of ascorbate has been proposed as a potential antitumor therapy; however, its therapeutic efficacy is limited due to the slow autoxidation. Here, we report that palladium (Pd) nanocrystals, which possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity, accelerate the autoxidation of ascorbate, leading to the enhancement of its antitumor efficacy. The oxidase-like activity of Pd nanocrystals was facet-dependent, with the concave nanostructure enclosed by high-index facets catalyzing ascorbate autoxidation more efficiently than the planar nanostructure enclosed by low-index facets. Our first-principles calculations provide the underlying molecular mechanisms for the facet-dependent activation of O2 molecule and subsequent ascorbate oxidation. Further in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrate the enhancement of the antitumor efficacy of ascorbate with these Pd concave nanocubes. Our animal experiments also indicate the combined approach with both ascorbate and Pd concave nanocubes displays an even better efficacy than currently available clinical medicines, with no obvious cytotoxicity to normal cells.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(40): e12666, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of aging of population, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) appears an increasing incidence rate. Conservative therapy (CT) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) have been used to treat OVCFs. However, an increase in new vertebral compression fractures at nontreated levels following BKP is of concern. It is still not clear whether new fractures were a result of BKP and the purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the new fractures risk after BKP compared with CT. METHODS: An exhaustive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials and prospective nonrandomized controlled study that compared BKP with CT for patients suffering OVCF. A random-effect model was used. Results were reported as standardized mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included and there was no significant difference in total new fractures (P = .33) and adjacent fractures (P = .83) between 2 treatments. Subgroup analyses did not demonstrate significant differences in follow-up period, mean age, anti-osteoporosis therapy, and the proportion of women. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review revealed that an increased risk of fracture of vertebral bodies was not associated with BKP compared with CT.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Cifoplastia/métodos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Tratamento Conservador , Fraturas por Compressão/complicações , Fraturas por Compressão/terapia , Humanos , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(40): 33867-33878, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215249

RESUMO

The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy has aroused great interest due to its better antitumor effect than either single therapy alone. Herein, we report on the development of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin functionalized Fe3O4/carbon nanoparticles (HFCNPs) for pH/near-infrared (NIR) responsive drug release, magnetic resonance/NIR fluorescence (MR/NIRFL) imaging-guided combined chemo/photothermal therapy. The high doxorubicin (DOX) loading capacity (61.2%) and controlled drug release by NIR irradiation and weak acid microenvironment render HFCNPs a good vector for DOX delivery and controlled release. Moreover, the MR/NIRFL dual-modal imaging was used to define the tumor location, size, and boundary and to track the tumor accumulation of HFCNPs and their biodistribution. The efficient accumulation and prolonged retention time of the nanoparticles in tumor are beneficial to tumor therapy. Taking advantage of the NIR laser-induced heating and hence promoted drug permeation, remarkable tumor inhibition was realized by synergetic chemo/photothermal therapy. In conclusion, the current work offers a promising approach to the development of smart and efficient multimodal cancer-targeted nanotheranostics.

17.
Cell Rep ; 24(7): 1747-1755, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110632

RESUMO

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is a pivotal genome maintenance network that orchestrates the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The tumor suppressors RUNX1 and RUNX3 were shown to regulate the FA pathway independent of their canonical transcription activities, by controlling the DNA damage-dependent chromatin association of FANCD2. Here, in further biochemical characterization, we demonstrate that RUNX3 is modified by PARP-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which in turn allows RUNX binding to DNA repair structures lacking transcription-related RUNX consensus motifs. SILAC-based mass spectrometric analysis revealed significant association of RUNX3 with core DNA repair complexes, including PARP1, even in unstressed cells. After DNA damage, the increased interaction between RUNX3 and BLM facilitates efficient FANCD2 chromatin localization. RUNX-Walker motif mutations from breast cancers are impaired for DNA damage-inducible PARylation, unveiling a potential mechanism for FA pathway inactivation in cancers. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that RUNX proteins are tumor suppressors with genome gatekeeper function.

18.
World Neurosurg ; 119: e717-e727, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Selecting optimal strategies for improving fixation in osteoporotic lumbar spine is an important issue in clinical research. Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws have been proven to enhance screw pullout strength, but biomechanical efficacy of these screws remains understudied. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomechanical efficacy of CBT screws in osteoporotic lumbar spine. METHODS: Thirty-one vertebrae from 14 cadaveric lumbar spines were obtained. All specimens were measured by computed tomography; the diameter of pedicles, excluding those of vertebral bodies with very small pedicle developments, was calculated. After measuring bone mineral density, the CBT screw was randomly inserted into 1 side, and the traditional trajectory (TT) screw was inserted into the contralateral side. Maximum insertional torque was recorded after screw insertion. Of vertebrae, 21 were subjected to pullout testing at a rate of 5 mm/minute, and 10 were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing. Each construct was loaded until exceeding 5 mm. RESULTS: Average bone mineral density was 0.567 ± 0.101 g/cm2. CBT screws had higher maximum insertional torque (degrees of freedom = 30, t = 5.78, P < 0.001, 0.333 N-m vs. 0.188 N-m) and higher axial pullout strength (degrees of freedom = 20, t = 7.41, P < 0.001, 394 N vs. 241 N) than TT screws. Increased bone mineral density was not significantly associated with higher pullout load. Compared with TT screws, CBT screws showed better resistance to fatigue testing and required more cycles to exceed 5 mm (degrees of freedom = 9, t = 5.62, P < 0.001, 6161 cycles vs. 3639 cycles). Failure load for displacing screws was also significantly greater for CBT screws than for TT screws (degrees of freedom = 9, t = 5.75, P < 0.001, 443 N vs. 317 N). CONCLUSIONS: CBT screws had better biomechanical fixation in osteoporotic lumbar spine compared with standard pedicle screws.

19.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034322

RESUMO

Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (Lgi1), a putative tumor suppressor, is tightly associated with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). It has been shown that Lgi1 regulates the myelination of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, the function and underlying mechanisms for Lgi1 regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) remain elusive. In addition, whether Lgi1 is required for myelin maintenance is unknown. Here, we show that Lgi1 is necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and is also required for the maintenance of myelinated fibers. The hypomyelination in Lgi1-/- mice attributes to the inhibition of the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins in oligodendrocytes (OLs). Moreover, we found that Lgi1 deficiency leads to a decrease in expression of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) and activates mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Together, the present work establishes that Lgi1 is a regulator of oligodendrocyte development and myelination in CNS.

20.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(7): 763, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988030

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a prominent component of the pro-tumoral response. The phenotype of and mechanisms used by MDSCs is heterogeneous and requires more precise characterization in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Here, we have identified a novel subset of CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs in the peripheral blood of GC patients compared to healthy individuals. CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs morphologically resembled neutrophils and expressed high levels of the neutrophil marker CD66b. Circulating CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs effectively suppressed CD8+ T cells activity through the inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granzyme B (GrB) production. The proportion of CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs also negatively correlated with the proportion of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cell in the peripheral blood of GC patients. GC patient serum-derived IL-6 and IL-8 activated and induced CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs to express arginase I via the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. This pathway contributed to CD8+ T cell suppression as it was partially rescued by the blockade of the IL-6/IL-8-arginase I axis. Peripheral blood CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs, as well as IL-6, IL-8, and arginase I serum levels, positively correlated with GC progression and negatively correlated with overall patient survival. Altogether, our results highlight that a subset of neutrophilic CD45+CD33lowCD11bdim MDSCs is functionally immunosuppressive and activated via the IL-6/IL-8-arginase I axis in GC patients.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA