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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101172, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723165

RESUMO

Background: By the end of July 2021 Zimbabwe, has reported over 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. The true number of SARS-CoV-2 infections is likely to be much higher. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of past SARS-CoV-2 in three high-density communities in Harare, Zimbabwe before and after the second wave of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Between November 2020 and April 2021 we conducted a cross-sectional study of randomly selected households in three high-density communities (Budiriro, Highfield and Mbare) in Harare. Consenting participants answered a questionnaire and a dried blood spot sample was taken. Samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies using the Roche e801 platform. Findings: A total of 2340 individuals participated in the study. SARS-CoV-2 antibody results were available for 70·1% (620/885) and 73·1% (1530/2093) of eligible participants in 2020 and 2021. The median age was 22 (IQR 10-37) years and 978 (45·5%) were men. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 19·0% (95% CI 15·1-23·5%) in 2020 and 53·0% (95% CI 49·6-56·4) in 2021. The prevalence ratio was 2·47 (95% CI 1·94-3·15) comparing 2020 with 2021 after adjusting for age, sex, and community. Almost half of all participants who tested positive reported no symptoms in the preceding six months. Interpretation: Following the second wave, one in two people had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 suggesting high levels of community transmission. Our results suggest that 184,800 (172,900-196,700) SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in these three communities alone, greatly exceeding the reported number of cases for the whole city. Further seroprevalence surveys are needed to understand transmission during the current third wave despite high prevalence of past infections. Funding: GCRF, Government of Canada, Wellcome Trust, Bavarian State Ministry of Sciences, Research, and the Arts.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050407, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in primary care. The yield of urine cultures in patients with UTI symptoms can be considerably different between high-income and low-income settings. This study aimed to explore possible causes of negative urine cultures in patients presenting with symptoms of UTI to primary health clinics in Harare. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nine primary health clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: Adults presenting with symptoms of UTIs between March and July 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine samples underwent dipstick testing, microscopy, culture, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using GeneXpert and for the presence of antibiotic residues using an antibiotic bioassay. The primary outcomes were the number and proportion of participants with evidence of STIs, prior antibiotic exposure, leucocyturia and UTIs. RESULTS: The study included 425 participants with a median age of 37.3 years, of whom 275 (64.7%) were women. Leucocyturia was detected in 130 (30.6%, 95% CI 26.2% to 35.2%) participants, and 96 (22.6%, 95% CI 18.7% to 26.9%) had a positive urine culture for a uropathogen. Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis were detected in 43/425 (10.1%, 95% CI 7.4% to 13.4%), 37/425 (8.7%, 95% CI 6.2% to 11.8%) and 14/175 (8.0%, 95% CI 4.4% to 13.1%) participants, respectively. Overall, 89 (20.9%, 95% CI 17.2% to 25.1%) participants reported either having taken prior antibiotics or having had a positive urine bioassay. In 170 (40.0%, 95% CI 35.3% to 44.8%) participants, all of the tests that were performed were negative. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a high prevalence of STIs and evidence of prior antimicrobial use as possible explanations for the low proportion of positive urine cultures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
3.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 3(2): dlab082, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223141

RESUMO

Background: People living with HIV may be at increased risk for infections with resistant organisms. Infections with ESBL-producing organisms are of particular concern because they limit treatment options for severe Gram-negative infections in low-resource settings. Objectives: To investigate the association between HIV status and urinary tract infections (UTIs) with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study enrolling adults presenting with UTI symptoms to primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Demographic and clinical data were collected during interviews and a urine sample was collected for culture from each participant. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST recommendations. Results: Of the 1164 who were enrolled into the study, 783 (64%) were female and 387 (33%) were HIV infected. The median age was 35.8 years. Urine cultures were positive in 338 (29.0%) participants, and the majority of bacterial isolates were E. coli (n = 254, 75.2%). The presence of ESBL was confirmed in 49/254 (19.3%) E. coli. Participants with HIV had a 2.13 (95% CI 1.05-4.32) higher odds of infection with ESBL-producing E. coli than individuals without HIV. Also, the prevalence of resistance to most antimicrobials was higher among participants with HIV. Conclusions: This study found an association between HIV and ESBL-producing E. coli in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of UTI to primary care in Harare. HIV status should be considered when prescribing empirical antimicrobial treatment.

4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(12): 2543-2550, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292453

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance surveillance data is lacking from many resource-limited settings mainly due to limited laboratory testing. Novel culture systems may address some of the limitations of conventional culture media and expand the availability of microbiology services. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of InTray COLOREX Screen/ESBL and Compact Dry for the detection of uropathogens and of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms from urine samples. Urines samples were collected from patients presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection to primary care clinics in Harare. Performance of the InTray COLOREX Screen, ESBL and Compact Dry chromogenic media were compared to the reference of culture using Brilliance UTI agar and conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 414 samples were included in the analysis. Of the included samples, 98 were positive on Brilliance UTI agar and 83 grew Enterobacterales. The sensitivities and specificities for Enterobacterales were 89.2% (95% CI 80.4-94.9) and 98.2% (95% CI 96.1-99.3) for InTray Screen and 95.2% (95% CI 88.1-98.7) and 99.7% (95% CI 98.3-100) for Compact Dry. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 22 isolates from the Brilliance UTI agar. The sensitivity of the InTray COLOREX ESBL culture plates for the detection of ESBL-producing organisms was 95.5% (95% CI 77.2-99.9) and specificity was 99.5% (95% CI 98.2-99.9%). Our findings show good performance of the novel culture systems for the detection of uropathogens and ESBL-producing organisms. Both systems have several advantages over conventional media and have the potential to expand and decentralize laboratory testing.

5.
AIDS ; 35(12): 1929-1938, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study's primary objective was to compare 1-year survival rates between serum cryptococcal antigen (sCrAg)-positive and sCrAg-negative HIV-positive individuals with CD4+ cell counts less than 100 cells/µl without symptoms of meningitis in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants were enrolled as either sCrAg-positive or sCrAg-negative and followed up for 52 weeks or less, with death as the outcome. Lumbar punctures were recommended to all sCrAg-positives and inpatient management with intravenous amphotericin B and high-dose fluconazole was recommended to those with disseminated Cryptococcus. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated immediately in sCrAg-negatives and after at least 4 weeks following initiation of antifungals in sCrAg-positives. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 1320 participants and 130 (9.8%) were sCrAg positive, with a median sCrAg titre of 1 : 20. Sixty-six (50.8%) sCrAg-positives had lumbar punctures and 16.7% (11/66) had central nervous system (CNS) dissemination. Cryptococcal blood cultures were performed in 129 sCrAg-positives, with 10 (7.8%) being positive. One-year (48-52 weeks) survival rates were 83.9 and 76.1% in sCrAg-negatives and sCrAg-positives, respectively, P = 0.011. Factors associated with increased mortality were a positive sCrAg, CD4+ cell count less than 50 cells/µl and having presumptive tuberculosis (TB) symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study reports a high prevalence of subclinical cryptococcal antigenemia and reiterates the importance of TB and a positive sCrAg as risk factors for mortality in advanced HIV disease (AHD). Therefore, TB and sCrAg screening remains a crucial component of AHD package, hence it should always be part of the comprehensive clinical evaluation in AHD patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Cryptococcus , Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Fungos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088923

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is compromising our ability to successfully treat infections. There are few data on gram-negative AMR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa especially from the outpatient setting. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of and underlying molecular mechanisms for AMR in gram-negative bacilli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Zimbabwe. Risk factors for AMR and how AMR impacts on clinical outcomes will also be investigated. Adults presenting with UTI symptoms at primary health clinics in Harare will be included. A questionnaire will be administered, and urine samples will be collected for culture. Participants with positive urine cultures will be followed up at 7-14 days post-enrolment. All participants will also be followed by telephone at 28 days to determine clinical outcomes. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing will be performed on positive cultures. The results from this study will be used to inform policy and development of treatment recommendations. Whole genome sequencing results will provide a better understanding of the prevalent resistance genes in Zimbabwe, of the spread of successful clones, and potentially will contribute to developing strategies to tackle AMR.

8.
J Trop Med ; 2020: 4761051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518566

RESUMO

Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Overall, there was a decline in the total number of TB patients (all ages) from 5,943 in 2009 to 2,831 in 2018. However, the number of childhood TB patients had declined exponentially 6-fold from 583 patients (117 per 100,000 children) in 2009 to 107 patients (18 per 100,000 children) in 2018. Of the 615 childhood TB patients notified between 2015 and 2017, 556 (89%) patient records were available. There were 53% males, 61% were aged <5 years, 92% were new TB patients, 85% had pulmonary TB, and 89% were treated for-drug sensitive TB, 3% for drug-resistant TB, and 40% were HIV positive (of whom 59% were on ART). Although 58% had successful treatment outcomes, the treatment outcomes of 40% were unknown (not recorded or not evaluated), indicating severe gaps in TB care. The disproportionate decline in childhood TB notifications could be due to the reduction in the TB burden among HIV positive individuals from the scale up of antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy. However, the country is experiencing economic challenges which could also contribute to the disproportionate decline in childhood TB notification and gaps in quality of care. There is an urgent need to understand the reasons for the declining trends and the gaps in care.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The contribution of high tuberculosis (TB) transmission pockets in propagating area-wide transmission has not been adequately described in Zimbabwe. This study aimed to describe the presence of hotspot transmission of TB cases in Harare city from 2011 to 2012 using geospatial techniques. METHODS: Anonymised TB patient data stored in an electronic database at Harare City Health department was analysed using geospatial methods. Confirmed TB cases were mapped using geographic information system (GIS). Global Moran's I and Anselin Local Moran's I (LISA) were used to assess clustering and the local Getis-Ord Gi* was used to estimate hotspot phenomenon of TB cases in Harare City for the period between 2011 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 12,702 TB cases were accessed and mapped on the Harare City map. In both 2011 and 2012, ninety (90%) of cases were new and had a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/TB co-infection rate of 72% across all suburbs. Tuberculosis prevalence was highest in the Southern district in both 2011 and 2012. There were pockets of spatial distribution of TB prevalence across West South West, Southern, Western, South Western and Eastern health districts. TB hot spot occurrence was restricted to the West South West, parts of South Western, Western health districts. West South West district had an increased peri-urban population with inadequate social services including health facilities. These conditions were conducive for increased intensity of TB occurrence, a probable indication of high transmission especially in the presence of high HIV co-infection. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Increased TB transmission was limited to a health district with high informal internal migrants with limited health services in Harare City. To minimise spread of TB into greater Harare, there is need to improve access to TB services in the peri-urban areas.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/virologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 454, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual inspection with acetic acid and cervicography (VIAC) is a method used to screen for cervical cancer. VIAC can be used as part of a "see and treat" strategy. Nine Harare city council health facilities offer VIAC free of charge with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. Between 2014 and 2016, the number of women utilising VIAC dropped by 35%. We analysed records of clients who utilise VIAC at Harare city health facilities to characterise women accessing VIAC and their outcomes to make recommendations for improving the services. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using data collected for the Harare city VIAC program. We analysed all records of clients who utilised VIAC services at nine Harare city health facilities from 1 May 2012 to 31 December 2016. RESULTS: We analysed 46,217 records, the median age of the clients was 34 years [Q1 = 27: Q3 = 42]. Of the 46,217 clients screened, 3001 (6.5%) were VIAC positive, and 512 (1.1%) had suspicious of cancer lesions. The prevalence of VIAC positive ranged from 58 to 74 per 1000-screened clients over the 5 years. The prevalence of suspected cancer ranged from 9 to 14 per 1000-screened clients, and there was a general decrease in the prevalence between 2012 and 2016. Of the 3513 clients with VIAC positive or had suspicious of cancer lesions, 2090 (74.1%) did not receive treatment at the site where the screening took place. CONCLUSION: The majority of women who are accessing VIAC services in Harare are middle-aged, multiparous and married women. There is a treatment gap at most of the VIAC centres such that clients are referred to other centres for management. The objective of "see and treat" is not being realised.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Atenção à Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coverage among pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe, the MTCT rate is still high. Therefore in 2016, the country adopted World Health Organization recommendations of stratifying pregnant women into "High" or"Low" MTCT risk for subsequent provision of HIV exposed infant (HEI) with appropriate follow-up care according to risk status. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to ascertain, among pregnant women who delivered in clinics of Harare in August 2017: the extent to which high risk MTCT pregnancies were identified at time of delivery; and whether their newborns were initiated on appropriate ARV prophylaxis, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, subjected to early HIV diagnostic testing and initiated on ARV treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using review of records of routinely collected program data. RESULTS: Of the 1,786 pregnant women who delivered in the selected clinics, HIV status at the time of delivery was known for 1,756 (98%) of whom 197 (11%) were HIV seropositive. Only 19 (10%) could be classified as "high risk" for MTCT and the remaining 90% lacked adequate information to classify them into high or low risk for MTCT due to missing data. Of the 197 live births, only two (1%) infants had a nucleic-acid test (NAT) at birth and 32 (16%) infants had NAT at 6 weeks. Of all 197 infants, 183 (93%) were initiated on single ARV prophylaxis (Nevirapine), 15 (7%) infants' ARV prophylaxis status was not documented and one infant got dual ARV prophylaxis (Nevirapine+Zidovudine). CONCLUSION: There was paucity of data requisite for MTCT risk stratification due to poor recording of data; "high risk" women were missed in the few circumstances where sufficient data were available. Thus "high risk" HEI are deprived of dual ARV prophylaxis and priority HIV NAT at birth and onwards which they require for PMTCT. Health workers need urgent training, mentorship and supportive supervision to master data management and perform MTCT risk stratification satisfactorily.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are on anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is essential to identify persons with high blood viral loads (VLs) (≥1000 copies/ml), provide enhanced adherence counselling (EAC) for 3 months and assess for VL suppression (<1000 copies/ml). OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were to determine the proportion who had a high viral load in those people who underwent viral load testing between 1 August 2016-31 July 2017 at Wilkins Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe. Of those with high viral load to assess; a) the proportion who enrolled for EAC, the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with enrolment for EAC and, b) the proportion who achieved viral load suppression and demographic, clinical characteristics associated with viral load suppression. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using routinely collected programme data. Data was collected from PLHIV who were on ART and had a high viral load from 1 August 2016 to 31 July 2017. RESULTS: Of 5,573 PLHIV on ART between 1 August 2016 and 31 July 2017, 4787 (85.9%) had undergone VL testing and 646 (13.5%) had high VLs. Of these 646, only 489 (75.7%) were enrolled for EAC, of whom 444 (69%) underwent a repeat VL test at ≥ 3 months with 201 (31.2%) achieving VL suppression. The clinical characteristics that were independently associated with higher probability of VL suppression were: a) undergoing 3 sessions of EAC; b) being on 2nd line ART. Initial VL levels >5,000 copies/ml were associated with lower probability of viral suppression. CONCLUSION: The routine VL testing levels were high, but there were major programmatic gaps in enrolling PLHIV with high VLs into EAC and achieving VL suppression. The full potential of EAC on achieving viral load suppression has not been achieved in this setting. The reasons for these gaps need to be assessed in future research studies and addressed by suitable changes in policies/practices.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
13.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204891, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A simple cost-effective strategy to pre-screen for targeted HIV testing can have substantial benefit in high burden and resource limited settings. A 4-item (previous hospitalisation, orphanhood, poor health status, and recurring skin problems) screening tool to identify adolescents living with HIV has previously shown high sensitivity in healthcare facility settings. We validated this screening tool in a community setting, in Harare, Zimbabwe in a community-based HIV prevalence survey. METHODS: A community-based HIV prevalence survey was conducted among individuals aged 8-17 years with guardian consent and child assent and residing in 7 communities during the period February 2015 to December 2015. Participants without previously diagnosed HIV were evaluated for the probability of having HIV using the screening tool. HIV status was defined using an anonymous HIV test which was done using Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT). A questionnaire was also administered to ascertain self-reported HIV status and screening tool items. The validity of a 4-item screening tool was tested. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening tool was assessed against the HIV status based on OMT result. RESULTS: Prevalence survey participants were 5386 children who had an HIV test result, aged 8-17 years. However, 5384, who did not report testing HIV positive and responded to all screening tool item questions were included in the validation. Their median age was 12 (IQR: 10-15) years, 2515 (46.7%) were male. HIV prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI:1.0-1.8%). The 4-item screening tool had poor accuracy with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.65(95% CI: 0.60-0.72) at a cut-off score≥1. Its sensitivity was 56.3% (95% CI:44.0-68.1%) and specificity of 75.1% (95% CI:73.9-76.3%), PPV of 2.9% (95% CI:2.1-3.9%) and a NPV of 99.2% (95% CI:98.9-99.5%). The number needed to test to diagnose one child using the screening tool was 55% lower than universal testing for HIV. CONCLUSION: Use of the 4-item screening tool could be a strategy that can be adopted to identify children living with HIV in a community setting in resource limited settings by reducing the number needed to test compared to universal testing since it is inexpensive, easy to administer and not harmful. However, screening items adapted to a community setting need to be explored to improve the performance of the screening tool.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Autorrelato , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 469, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is on track towards achieving viral suppression among adults (87%). However, adolescents have only achieved 44% by 2016. In Harare city, 57% of adolescents had attained viral suppression after 12 months on ART compared to 88% among adults. We determined factors associated with virological failure among adolescents (age 10-19 years) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Harare city. METHODS: We conducted a one to one unmatched case control study among 102 randomly recruited case: control pairs at the two main infectious disease hospitals in Harare. A case was any adolescent who presented with VL > 1000c/ml after at least 12 months on ART. A control was any adolescent who presented with VL < 1000c/ml after at least 12 months on ART. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Epi Info 7 was used to generate frequencies, means, proportions, ORs and p-values at 95% CI. RESULTS: We interviewed 102 case-control pairs. Poor adherence to ART [aOR = 8.15, 95% CI (2.80-11.70)], taking alcohol [aOR = 8.46, 95% CI (3.22-22.22)] and non- disclosure of HIV status [aOR = 4.56, 95% CI (2.20-9.46)] were independent risk factors for virological failure. Always using a condom [aOR = 0.04, 95% CI (0.01-0.35)], being on second line treatment [aOR = 0.04, 95% CI (0.23-0.81)] and belonging to a support group [aOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.21-0.80)] were protective. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence, alcohol consumption and non-disclosure increased the odds of virological failure. Based on these findings support should focus on behavior change and strengthening of peer to peer projects to help address issues related to disclosure and adherence. Further operational research should aim to define other components of effective adherence support for adolescents with virological failure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Falha de Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
15.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 70, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health worker (CHW)-delivered support visits to children living with HIV and their caregivers significantly reduced odds of virological failure among the children in the ZENITH trial conducted in Zimbabwe. We conducted a process evaluation to assess fidelity, acceptability, and feasibility of this intervention to identify lessons that could inform replication and scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Field manuals kept by each CHW, records from monthly supervisory meetings, and participant data collected throughout the trial were used to assess the intervention's implementation. Data extracted from field manuals included visit type, content, and duration. Minutes from monthly supervisory meetings were used to capture CHW attendance. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 172 participants in the intervention arm of whom 5 subsequently refused all visits, 1 died before the intervention could be delivered, and 1 could not be located. Manuals for 8 participants were not returned, 3 were incorrectly entered, and 1 manual was lost. We had 154 manuals available for analysis. A total of 1553 visits were successfully conducted (median 11 per participant, range 1-20). Additionally, CHWs made 85 visits where they were unable to make contact with the family. Thirteen (8.4%) participants received 5 or fewer visits, 10 moved out of the study area, and 3 died. CHWs discussed disclosure with the child/family for over 89% of participants and assisted clients with developing and reviewing their personal treatment plan with over 85% of participants. Of the 20 CHWs (3 male, 17 female) selected to implement the intervention, 19 were retained at the end of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was acceptable to participants with most receiving and accepting the required number of visits. Key strenghts were high staff retention and fidelity to the intervention. This community-based intervention was an acceptable and feasible approach to reduce virological failure among children living with HIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ZENITH trial was registered on 25 October 2012 in the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry under the trial registration number PACTR201212000442288 . It can be found at http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201212000442288 .


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Zimbábue
17.
AIDS Care ; 30(7): 830-835, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397759

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and beyond, many of whom are orphaned. Disclosure of childrens' and adolescents' HIV status has been shown to improve adherence and retention in HIV treatment programmes. We investigated caregiving arrangements and intra-familial experience of HIV and its relationship to HIV disclosure to older children and adolescents. Children aged 6-15 years, newly diagnosed with HIV infection or previously diagnosed but not engaged in HIV care, were recruited from seven primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. Their caregivers responded to a nurse-led questionnaire. Family history of HIV, disclosure of HIV status to the child and reasons for non-disclosure were ascertained. The association between sociodemographics, caregiving, family HIV history and other characteristics and non-disclosure of HIV status to the child was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. We recruited 385 participants, median age = 11 years (IQR: 9-13); 52% were female. Disclosure had occurred in 79% of children aged 11-15 years and 19% of children aged 6-10 years. Age under 11 years (adjusted OR [aOR] = 18.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.64-33.55; p < 0.001), being male [aOR]= 2.56, 95% CI = 1.49-4.54; p = 0.001, being unaware of the parents' HIV status [aOR]= 32.42, 95% CI = 13.19-79.71; p < 0.001, and being newly diagnosed [aOR]= 2.52, 95% CI = 1.29-4.91; p = 0.007, were independently associated with non-disclosure. Disclosure outside of the family occurred infrequently and included friends of family (7%), school teacher (8%), school headmaster (4%) and church pastor (6%). High non-disclosure rates were present as well as a lack of discussion about HIV within the family. Disclosure outside of family was low reflecting difficulty in caregivers' ability to discuss HIV with their child or surrounding community. HIV programmes need to support families in the disclosure process.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue
18.
Health Policy Plan ; 33(3): 328-334, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309578

RESUMO

Reliance on community health workers (CHWs) for HIV care continues to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. CHWs can improve HIV service use and adherence to treatment, but effectiveness of these programmes relies on providing an enabling work environment for CHWs, including reasonable workload, supportive supervision and adequate training and supplies. Although criteria for effective CHW programmes have been identified, these have rarely been prospectively applied to design and evaluation of new interventions. For the Zimbabwe study for Enhancing Testing and Improving Treatment of HIV in Children (ZENITH) randomized controlled trial, we based our intervention on an existing evidence-based framework for successful CHW programmes. To assess CHWs' experiences delivering the intervention, we conducted longitudinal, qualitative semi-structured interviews with all 19 CHWs at three times during implementation. The study aimed to explore CHWs' perceptions of how the intervention's structure and management affected their performance, and consider implications for the programme's future scale-up and adoption in other settings. CHWs expressed strong motivation, commitment and job satisfaction. They considered the intervention acceptable and feasible to deliver, and levels of satisfaction rose over interview rounds. Intensive supervision and mentoring emerged as critical to ensuring CHWs' long-term satisfaction. Provision of job aids, standardized manuals and refresher training were also important, as were formalized links between clinics and CHWs. Concerns raised by CHWs included poor remuneration, their reluctance to stop providing support to individual families following the requisite number of home visits, and disappointment at the lack of programme sustainability following completion of the trial. Furthermore, intensive supervision and integration with clinical services may be difficult to replicate outside a trial setting. This study shows that existing criteria for designing successful CHW programmes are useful for maximizing effectiveness, but challenges remain for ensuring long-term sustainability of 'task shifting' strategies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Satisfação no Emprego , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Voluntários/psicologia , Zimbábue
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 31: 200, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086643

RESUMO

Introduction: In Zimbabwe, there is a gap between sexual violence (SV) survivors' health care needs versus the existing facilities. Harare city started Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) project in 2011, with the aim to reduce SV morbidity.Only 592 (42%) of 1425 SV survivors reported for medical services within 72 hours in 2015. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective within 72hours of post exposure. We evaluated the program performance in Harare city. Methods: We conducted a process-outcome evaluation using a logic model. We purposively recruited all eight SGBV sites and key informants. We randomly selected 27nurses into the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires and checklists were used to collect data. To generate frequencies, means and proportions we used Epi info 7. Results: The program adequately received inputs except for counselling rooms (1/8). About 4285 survivors were recorded from 2013-2016. Of these, 97% were counselled, 93% received HIV test, 41% reported to the clinic within 72hrs of post-rape, and 12% received PEP. About 16% of the total survivors were followed up. The programme failed to meet its targets on decentralised sites (8/10), awareness campaigns(16/32) and sensitisation activities(16/32). About 500(12.5%) IEC materials were distributed. All 96-targeted supervisory visits were achieved. Two ofeight district supervisors were trained. Majority of health workers (25/35) citedlack of awareness as major reasons for underperformance. Conclusion: Availability of resources did not translate to program performance. Most survivors were not reporting to the clinic timeously due to the low level of awareness of the programme to the community, hence were not protected from getting HIV through PEP. The programme was not well disseminated, as most supervisors were not trained. Following this evaluation, we distributed150 IEC materials to each of the eight facilities. A follow-up study on outcomes of clients referred for services and training of district officers were recommended.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estupro/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Zimbábue
20.
Lancet HIV ; 5(2): e79-e86, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing is the important entry point for HIV care and prevention service, but uptake of HIV testing and thus coverage of antiretroviral therapy are much lower in older children and adolescents than in adults. We investigated the effect of economic incentives provided to caregivers of children aged 8-17 years on uptake of HIV testing and counselling in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was nested within a household HIV prevalence survey of children aged 8-17 years in Harare. Households with one or more survey participants whose HIV status was unknown were eligible to participate in the trial. Eligible households were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to either receive no incentive, receive a fixed US$2 incentive, or participate in a lottery for $5 or $10 if the participant presented for HIV testing and counselling at a local primary health-care centre. The survey fieldworkers who enrolled participants were not blinded to trial arm allocation, but the statistician was blinded for analysis of outcome. The primary outcome was the proportion of households in which at least one child had an HIV test within 4 weeks of enrolment. HIV test uptake in the incentivised groups was compared with uptake in the non-incentivised group using logistic regression, adjusting for community and number of children as fixed effects and research assistant as a random effect. All analyses were by intention to treat. The trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201605001615280. FINDINGS: Between Aug 4, and Dec 18, 2015, 2050 eligible households were enrolled in the prevalence survey. 649 (32%) households were assigned no incentive, 740 (34%) households were assigned a $2 incentive, and 661 (32%) households were assigned to lottery participation. Children were unavailable in 148 households in the no-incentive group, 63 households in the $2 incentive group, and 81 households in the lottery group. 1688 households had at least one child with unknown HIV status and were enrolled into the trial. 22 households had no undiagnosed child, and one household refused consent. The primary outcome of HIV testing was assessed in 472 (28%) households in the no-incentive group, 654 (39%) households in the $2 incentive group, and 562 (33%) households in the lottery group. At least one child was HIV tested in 93 (20%) households in the no-incentive group, in 316 (48%) households in the $2 incentive group (adjusted odds ratio 3·67, 95% CI 2·77-4·85; p<0·0001), and in 223 (40%) of 562 households in the lottery group (2·66, 2·00-3·55; p<0·0001). No adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Fixed incentives and lottery-based incentives increased the uptake of HIV testing by older children and adolescents, a key hard-to-reach population. This strategy would be sustainable in the context of vertical HIV infection as repeated testing would not be necessary until sexual debut. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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