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1.
Pediatrics ; 145(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotics are among the most common prescriptions in children, and non-ß-lactam antibiotics (NBLAs) account for almost half of those prescribed in Australian pediatric hospitals. Despite this, data on NBLA hypersensitivity in children are limited. This study describes reported hypersensitivity reactions to NBLAs in children and the results of allergy evaluation. METHODS: Children with a suspected NBLA allergy who had skin testing and/or an intravenous or oral challenge test (OCT) between May 2011 and June 2018 were included. Patients were excluded if they were >18 years old or did not complete the allergy evaluation for any reason other than allergic reaction. RESULTS: Over the 7-year study period, 141 children had 150 allergy evaluations of 15 different NBLAs. The median time from the initial reported reaction to allergy evaluation was 1.9 (range 0.1-14.9) years. Overall, 27 of the 150 (18.0%) challenge tests to NBLAs had positive results, with the rate of positive OCT results being highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15 of 46; 32.6%) and macrolides (8 of 77; 10.4%). Although 4 children reported initial anaphylactic reactions, no patients had severe symptoms on rechallenge or required adrenaline. Of the challenges that had positive results, the majority of children (23 of 27; 85.2%) had symptoms on repeat challenge similar to those that were initially reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 8 of 10 children with NBLA allergy could be delabeled. On average, patients waited 1.9 years to be rechallenged. Timely access to allergy evaluation to delabel these patients is needed to preserve first-line antibiotics.

2.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841125

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases are a major health burden. However, our understanding of how self-reactive B cells escape self-tolerance checkpoints to secrete pathogenic autoantibodies remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that patients with monogenic immune dysregulation caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have highly penetrant secretion of autoreactive IgM antibodies. In mice with the corresponding heterozygous Pik3cd activating mutation, self-reactive B cells exhibit a cell-autonomous subversion of their response to self-antigen: instead of becoming tolerized and repressed from secreting autoantibody, Pik3cd gain-of-function B cells are activated by self-antigen to form plasmablasts that secrete high titers of germline-encoded IgM autoantibody and hypermutating germinal center B cells. However, within the germinal center, peripheral tolerance was still enforced, and there was selection against B cells with high affinity for self-antigen. These data show that the strength of PI3K signaling is a key regulator of pregerminal center B cell self-tolerance and thus represents a druggable pathway to treat antibody-mediated autoimmunity.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 505-511, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172381

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with primary immune deficiency (PID). Haploidentical donors have historically been associated with higher rates of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft failure. Use of T cell receptor (TCR) α+ß+/CD19+-depleted grafts has resulted in improved haploidentical HSCT outcomes. We sought to evaluate outcomes of TCR α+ß+/CD19+-depleted haploidentical HSCT in pediatric patients with PID at a single center in Australia. Specifically, we evaluated immune reconstitution, looking at time to T cell and B cell reconstitution, and B cell function post-HSCT. Eleven patients with a mean age of 7.92 years (range 0.33-17.17 years) were included. The median time to B cell recovery was 93 days (range 41-205 days), and the median time to cessation of immunoglobulin replacement was 281.5 days (range 41-205 days). All patients who had ceased immunoglobulin replacement had an adequate response to pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar 13) vaccine. The median time to CD4+ recovery was 132 days (range 30-296 days), and naive T cells were present in all surviving patients by 4 months post-HSCT. Eight of 11 patients are surviving, with six patients having whole blood chimerism greater than 95%, one patient with whole blood chimerism of 82.8%, and another with 76.0%. All of these patients clinically had no evidence of underlying immunodeficiency. Likelihood of overall survival at 2 years post-HSCT was 81.8%. Cumulative incidence of acute GvHD was 27.3%. Cumulative incidence of CMV viremia was 63.6%. All patients previously exposed to CMV had reactivation post-HSCT, but were controlled with pre-emptive CMV treatment. Assuming most children with PID have a haploidentical donor available, use of this technique is likely to result in good outcomes for patients who do not have a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor.

4.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1541-1549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of true vaccine allergy is unknown. Children with potential IgE-mediated adverse events following immunization (AEFI) should undergo allergy investigation that may include skin testing or challenge. Previous protocols tend to be highly conservative and often suggest invasive testing for all, a practice not evidence based, technically difficult, and unpleasant in children. It has more recently been suggested that skin testing may be restricted to those with allergic-like events within the first hour and those with a history of anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the outcome of vaccine skin testing and challenge in children referred to a tertiary pediatric hospital with a potential IgE-mediated AEFI. The secondary aim was to identify any significant risk factors for vaccine allergy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all children (<18 years) who underwent vaccine skin testing (skin prick testing or intradermal testing [IDT]) or challenge over a 5-year period (May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2016) at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne is presented. RESULTS: There were 95 admissions in 73 children. Eight percent (6 of 73) of children had confirmed vaccine allergy (positive skin testing or challenge to the index vaccination). Two had positive IDT to a suspect vaccine but challenge negative to an alternative brand vaccine. Two had negative IDT but subsequent positive challenge and two had immediate urticaria on challenge without prior skin testing. All children in the positive group either had index reaction within 15 minutes of vaccination or had history consistent with anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of children (92%) presenting with a potential IgE-mediated AEFI are able to tolerate challenge to a suspect vaccine without reaction. We present our investigation protocol recommending skin testing in all children with anaphylaxis and challenge with a suspect vaccine if negative testing or previous nonanaphylactic potential IgE-mediated AEFI.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 276-291.e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline gain-of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), result in hyperactivation of the PI3K-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway and underlie a novel inborn error of immunity. Affected subjects exhibit perturbed humoral and cellular immunity, manifesting as recurrent infections, autoimmunity, hepatosplenomegaly, uncontrolled EBV and/or cytomegalovirus infection, and increased incidence of B-cell lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, or both. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning inefficient surveillance of EBV-infected B cells is required to understand disease in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations, identify key molecules required for cell-mediated immunity against EBV, and develop immunotherapeutic interventions for the treatment of this and other EBV-opathies. METHODS: We studied the consequences of PIK3CD GOF mutations on the generation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which are implicated in host defense against infection with herpesviruses, including EBV. RESULTS: PIK3CD GOF total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were skewed toward an effector phenotype, with exaggerated expression of markers associated with premature immunosenescence/exhaustion and increased susceptibility to reactivation-induced cell death. These findings were recapitulated in a novel mouse model of PI3K GOF mutations. NK cells in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations also exhibited perturbed expression of differentiation-associated molecules. Both CD8+ T and NK cells had reduced capacity to kill EBV-infected B cells. PIK3CD GOF B cells had increased expression of CD48, programmed death ligand 1/2, and CD70. CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CD GOF mutations aberrantly induce exhaustion, senescence, or both and impair cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells. These defects might contribute to clinical features of affected subjects, such as impaired immunity to herpesviruses and tumor surveillance.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2073-2095, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018075

RESUMO

Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110δ inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110δ inhibitors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 54(1): 14-19, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861919

RESUMO

AIM: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency and is fatal in infancy if untreated. As early diagnosis is associated with improved outcomes, SCID is an ideal condition to consider for inclusion in a newborn screening (NBS) programme in Australia. In this feasibility study, we evaluated the EnLite Neonatal TREC kit for detection of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) from NBS dried blood spots for the identification of known SCID patients in Victoria. METHODS: TREC copies/µL were measured retrospectively in 14 children diagnosed with SCID or complete DiGeorge syndrome (CDGS) from 2005 to 2015 at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. In addition, TREC copies/µL were measured for 501 prospective de-identified NBS cards. RESULTS: Of 14 known SCID or CDGS samples, 11 were correctly identified as presumptive positive samples with low or undetectable TREC on duplicate testing. The remaining three samples also had low or undetectable TREC on duplicate testing but were considered invalid due to insufficient ß-actin DNA amplification. Of the 501 prospective NBS samples, none were identified as presumptive positive samples on duplicate testing. CONCLUSIONS: The EnLite Neonatal TREC kit correctly identified known SCID or CDGS patients as presumptive positive samples, and initial cut-offs for TREC and ß-actin in the Victorian NBS population were determined. A larger pilot study is required to confirm these proposed cut-offs and to evaluate the cost and implementation of this screening programme in Victoria, Australia. Overall, this study provides preliminary data to support the introduction of this assay to the NBS programme in Victoria.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/sangue , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Triagem Neonatal/organização & administração , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Controle de Qualidade , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Vitória
12.
Blood ; 129(22): 2993-2999, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270454

RESUMO

Primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can be caused by biallelic mutations in PRF1, encoding perforin, or UNC13D, STXBP2, STX11, RAB27A, LYST, and AP3B1, encoding proteins involved in cytotoxic lymphocyte degranulation. Natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity assays can quickly screen for all of these genetic diseases, facilitating treatment, but combining NK-cell perforin expression and CD107a upregulation tests can as well. To determine the relative diagnostic accuracies for each approach, we retrospectively reviewed screening test performance in 1614 patients referred for HLH evaluation. For each test, we generated a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and calculated area under the curve (AUC) and diagnostic parameters at optimal threshold. We generated an AUC for combining perforin and CD107a tests by creating a logistic regression model and applying model-generated coefficients to patient values. Sensitivities of NK-cell function, perforin mean channel fluorescence (MCF), and CD107a MCF to detect biallelic mutations were 59.5%, 96.6%, and 93.8%, with specificities of 72.0%, 99.5%, and 73%. AUCs for NK-cell cytotoxicity, perforin MCF, CD107a MCF, and combined perforin and CD107a MCFs were 0.690, 0.971, 0.860, and 0.838. Perforin and CD107a tests are more sensitive and no less specific compared with NK cytotoxicity testing for screening for genetic HLH and should be considered for addition to current HLH criteria.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Degranulação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Imunológicos de Citotoxicidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Perforina/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(1): 17-20, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26207610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of carboplatin for the treatment of pediatric low grade gliomas (PLGG) is often limited by the development of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Reported rates of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions vary between 6% and 32% in these patients. Here we report the frequency of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions depending on the treatment regimen used, and outcomes of carboplatin desensitization. METHODS: The records of all patients in a single institution who were treated with carboplatin for PLGG were accessed and all patients receiving more than one dose of carboplatin are reported. RESULTS: Thirty four patients with PLGG were treated with carboplatin according to one of the two different regimens. Carboplatin hypersensitivity was documented in 47% of patients, but the frequency differed by treatment protocol. Those patients treated with 4-weekly single agent carboplatin had carboplatin allergy in 8% of cases whereas 68% of those treated with combined carboplatin and vincristine (every three weeks, according to the SIOP 2004 low grade glioma protocol) had carboplatin reactions (OR 23.6, P < 0.01). Desensitization was only successful in two out of 10 patients in whom it was attempted. CONCLUSIONS: Hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin are more common in this cohort than previously reported and rates are protocol-dependent. Desensitization showed limited effectiveness in this cohort.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/terapia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Falha de Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
15.
Sci Immunol ; 1(6)2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783691

RESUMO

Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4). Restriction of repertoire diversity skewed usage of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segment genes, and abnormalities of CDR3 length distribution were progressively more prominent in patients with a more severe phenotype. Skewed usage of V, D, and J segment genes was present also within unique sequences, indicating a primary restriction of repertoire. Patients with Omenn syndrome had a high proportion of class-switched immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts and increased somatic hypermutation rate, suggesting in vivo activation of these B cells. These data provide a framework to better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG deficiency.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(7): 604-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26433589

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Vasculitis occurs rarely in association with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). There are four published cases of non-EBV XLP-associated cerebral vasculitis reported, none of whom have survived without major cognitive impairment. CASE: A 9-year old boy initially presented aged 5 years with a restrictive joint disease. He subsequently developed dysgammaglobulinemia, episodic severe pneumonitis, aplastic anaemia, gastritis and cerebral vasculitis. A diagnosis of XLP was made, based on flow cytometric analysis and the identification of a novel mutation in SH2D1A, c.96G>C. No peripheral blood lymphocyte clonal proliferation was identified and he was EBV negative, although human herpes virus-7 (HHV7) was detected repeatedly in his cerebrospinal fluid. He underwent a reduced intensity unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant, but failed to engraft. A second 5/6 matched cord gave 100 % donor engraftment. Complications included BK virus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis, a possible NK-cell mediated immune reconstitution syndrome and post-transplant anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, the latter treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab. At +450 days post-transplant he is in remission from his vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and HHV-7 has remained undetectable. CONCLUSION: This is the second published description of joint disease in XLP, and only the fourth case of non-EBV associated cerebral vasculitis in XLP, as well as being the first to be successfully treated for this manifestation. This case raises specific questions about vasculitis in XLP, in particular the potential relevance of HHV-7 to the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Herpesvirus Humano 7/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Artropatias/terapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Roseolovirus/terapia , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Austrália , Criança , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 7/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Artropatias/diagnóstico , Artropatias/etiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Roseolovirus/complicações , Infecções por Roseolovirus/diagnóstico , Proteína Associada à Molécula de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia
19.
J Mol Diagn ; 17(5): 560-75, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26151233

RESUMO

Pediatric patients with severe or nonsevere combined immunodeficiency have increased susceptibility to severe, life-threatening infections and, without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may fail to thrive. A subset of these patients have the radiosensitive (RS) phenotype, which may necessitate conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this conditioning includes radiomimetic drugs, which may significantly affect treatment response. To provide statistical criteria for classifying cellular response to ionizing radiation as the measure of functional RS screening, we analyzed the repair capacity and survival of ex vivo irradiated primary skin fibroblasts from five dysmorphic and/or developmentally delayed pediatric patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and combined immunodeficiency. We developed a mathematical framework for the analysis of γ histone 2A isoform X foci kinetics to quantitate DNA-repair capacity, thus establishing crucial criteria for identifying RS. The results, presented in a diagram showing each patient as a point in a 2D RS map, were in agreement with findings from the assessment of cellular RS by clonogenic survival and from the genetic analysis of factors involved in the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We provide recommendations for incorporating into clinical practice the functional assays and genetic analysis used for establishing RS status before conditioning. This knowledge would enable the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen, reducing the risk for severe therapy-related adverse effects.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Radiação/fisiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(3): 703-712.e10, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and immunologic features of CD27 deficiency remain obscure because only a few patients have been identified to date. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel mutations in TNFRSF7/CD27 and to provide an overview of clinical, immunologic, and laboratory phenotypes in patients with CD27 deficiency. METHODS: Review of the medical records and molecular, genetic, and flow cytometric analyses of the patients and family members were performed. Treatment outcomes of previously described patients were followed up. RESULTS: In addition to the previously reported homozygous mutations c.G24A/p.W8X (n = 2) and c.G158A/p.C53Y (n = 8), 4 novel mutations were identified: homozygous missense c.G287A/p.C96Y (n = 4), homozygous missense c.C232T/p.R78W (n = 1), heterozygous nonsense c.C30A/p.C10X (n = 1), and compound heterozygous c.C319T/p.R107C-c.G24A/p.W8X (n = 1). EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin lymphoma, uveitis, and recurrent infections were the predominant clinical features. Expression of cell-surface and soluble CD27 was significantly reduced in patients and heterozygous family members. Immunoglobulin substitution therapy was administered in 5 of the newly diagnosed cases. CONCLUSION: CD27 deficiency is potentially fatal and should be excluded in all cases of severe EBV infections to minimize diagnostic delay. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping offers a reliable initial test for CD27 deficiency. Determining the precise role of CD27 in immunity against EBV might provide a framework for new therapeutic concepts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Mutação , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Uveíte/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Exoma , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Heterozigoto , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Doença de Hodgkin/imunologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Masculino , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/imunologia , Uveíte/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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