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2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Indian Heart J ; 71(3): 242-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has one of the largest population of heart failure (HF) patients in the world; yet only limited information is available about HF in India. METHODS: This observational study was performed at Medanta- The Medicity, a large, tertiary-care institute in the National Capital Region of India. Records of HF patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) registered at Medanta HF clinic during the period early 2014 to mid-2017 were reviewed. Disease characteristics and one-year mortality details were collected. RESULTS: Mean age of the subjects (n = 5590) was 59.1 ± 11.8 years with 83.0% males. Mean LVEF was 30.0 ± 6.6%. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the dominant cause of HF, accounting for 77.8% of the total population. Most patients received guideline-directed medical therapy with a beta blocker being prescribed to 81.8% subjects. The one-year all-cause mortality was 17.6%. On multivariate analysis, age, usage of loop diuretics and ivabradine, and serum creatinine were independently associated with one-year mortality, whereas rheumatic etiology had an inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: This represents the largest single-center data of HF patients reported so far and the largest study describing clinical outcomes from HF patients in India. Our patients were younger, had high proportion of CAD, and there was higher usage of beta-blockers. Despite this, the one-year mortality was substantial. Given the enormous magnitude of HF burden in India and the paucity of information on this subject, these findings should be of help in identifying key problem areas and potential solutions for management of HF in India.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico , Análise de Sobrevida , Disfunção Ventricular
4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

5.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(7): e004962, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF) comparing sacubitril/valsartan to valsartan in reducing morbidity and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, and baseline therapies, of 4822 patients randomized in PARAGON-HF, grouped by factors that influence criteria for study inclusion. We further compared baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in PARAGON-HF with those patients enrolled in other recent trials of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Among patients enrolled from various regions (16% Asia-Pacific, 37% Central Europe, 7% Latin America, 12% North America, 28% Western Europe), the mean age of patients enrolled in PARAGON-HF was 72.7±8.4 years, 52% of patients were female, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 57.5%, similar to other trials of HFpEF. Most patients were in New York Heart Association class II, and 38% had ≥1 hospitalizations for heart failure within the previous 9 months. Diabetes mellitus (43%) and chronic kidney disease (47%) were more prevalent than in previous trials of HFpEF. Many patients were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (85%), ß-blockers (80%), calcium channel blockers (36%), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (24%). As specified in the protocol, virtually all patients were on diuretics, had elevated plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (median, 911 pg/mL; interquartile range, 464-1610), and structural heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: PARAGON-HF represents a contemporary group of patients with HFpEF with similar age and sex distribution compared with prior HFpEF trials but higher prevalence of comorbidities. These findings provide insights into the impact of inclusion criteria on, and regional variation in, HFpEF patient characteristics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01920711.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Indian Heart J ; 57(6): 725-7, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16521648

RESUMO

The left internal mammary artery is frequently employed as a conduit in coronary bypass surgery. We report a 42-year-old male post-coronary artery bypass grafting patient with, angina on exertion who was found to have multiple atrioventricular fistulae arising from left internal mammary artery to pulmonary vasculature leading to coronary steal and positive stress thallium in left anterior descending territory. These fistulae were selectively embolized with polymer particles leading to improved flow in distal left anterior descending artery. Postintervention, the patient has been asymptomatic for more than 8 months.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Arteriovenosa/etiologia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 76(2): 623-5, 2003 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12902125

RESUMO

A 25-year-old man presenting with peripheral and cerebral emboli was incidentally detected as having a left ventricular mass on two-dimensional echocardiographic examination of the heart. In absence of any obvious structural heart disease or hypercoagulable state, the mass was presumptively diagnosed as left ventricular myxoma. The patient was operated on, and histopathology revealed the mass to be a thrombus. The cause and pathogenesis of the left ventricular thrombus, differential diagnosis, and management are discussed. The rarity of the case is highlighted.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Mixoma/cirurgia , Trombose/cirurgia , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mixoma/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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