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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221108636, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711161

RESUMO

Background: Historically, procalcitonin(PCT) has been used as a predictor of bacterial infection and to guide antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to determine PCT's diagnostic utility in predicting secondary bacterial pneumonia in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in COVID-19 adults admitted to the ICU between March 2020, and March 2021. All included patients had a PCT level within 72 h of presentation and serum creatinine of <1.5mg/dL. A PCT threshold of 0.5ng/mL was used to compare patients with high( ≥ 0.5ng/mL) versus low(< 0.5ng/mL) PCT. Bacterial pneumonia was defined by positive respiratory culture. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was utilized to evaluate PCT as a diagnostic test for bacterial pneumonia, with an area under the curve(AUC) threshold of 0.7 to signify an accurate diagnostic test. A multivariable model was constructed to identify variables associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: There were 165 patients included: 127 low PCT versus 38 high PCT. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, vital signs, severity of disease, or outcomes among low versus high PCT groups (all p > 0.05). While there was no difference in bacterial pneumonia in low versus high groups (34(26.8%) versus 12(31.6%), p = 0.562), more patients in the high PCT group had bacteremia (19(15%) versus 11(28.9%), p = 0.050). Sensitivity was 26.1% and specificity was 78.2% for PCT to predict bacterial pneumonia coinfection in ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. ROC yielded an AUC 0.54 (p = 0.415). After adjusting for LDH>350U/L and creatinine in multivariable regression, PCT did not enhance performance of the regression model. Conclusions: PCT offers little to no predictive utility in diagnosing concomitant bacterial pneumonia in critically ill patients with COVID-19 nor in predicting increased severity of disease or worse outcomes including mortality.

2.
J Prev (2022) ; 43(2): 157-166, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445374

RESUMO

We used a telephone survey to determine risk factors associated with a positive polymerase chain reaction test of a nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at a community hospital in Central New Jersey during the early stages of the pandemic. We compared survey responses of 176 patients in March 2020. Respondents were asked about their living situation, work environment, use of public transportation and attendance at one or more large gatherings (more than 10 people) in the 3 weeks prior to undergoing COVID testing. We found that those who attended a large gathering in the 3 weeks prior to their COVID test had a 2.50 odds ratio (95% CI 1.19, 5.22) of testing positive after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, occupation, living situation and recent visit to a nursing home. The total number of gatherings attended or the number of people in attendance was not associated with a positive test. An association was also seen for specific job types such as factory workers, construction workers, and facilities managers. Attendance at a gathering of more than ten people was associated with testing positive for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Prev (2022) ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224556

RESUMO

We used a telephone survey to determine risk factors associated with a positive polymerase chain reaction test of a nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at a community hospital in Central New Jersey during the early stages of the pandemic. We compared survey responses of 176 patients in March 2020. Respondents were asked about their living situation, work environment, use of public transportation and attendance at one or more large gatherings (more than 10 people) in the 3 weeks prior to undergoing COVID testing. We found that those who attended a large gathering in the 3 weeks prior to their COVID test had a 2.50 odds ratio (95% CI 1.19, 5.22) of testing positive after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, occupation, living situation and recent visit to a nursing home. The total number of gatherings attended or the number of people in attendance was not associated with a positive test. An association was also seen for specific job types such as factory workers, construction workers, and facilities managers. Attendance at a gathering of more than ten people was associated with testing positive for COVID-19.

4.
Am Surg ; : 31348211065091, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974741

RESUMO

Traumatic duodenal injuries are rare and often challenging to diagnose and treat. Management of these injuries remains controversial and continues to evolve. Here, we performed a review of the literature and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of traumatic duodenal injuries.A common recommendation in more recent literature is primary, tension-free repair of duodenal injuries when possible if surgical repair is necessary. Conversely, if duodenal injuries are unamenable to primary repair, more complex procedures such as Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy or pancreaticoduodenectomy may be necessary. Regardless of injury grade or type of surgical repair, the literature continues to support wide extraluminal drainage. Over time, the management of complex duodenal injuries has evolved to favor simple primary repair whenever possible. According to recent studies, more complex procedures are associated with higher rates of post-operative complications and should be reserved for severe injuries when primary repair is not possible.

5.
J Surg Res ; 269: 151-157, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma patients are high-risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Lower extremity screening duplex ultrasonography (LESDUS) is controversial and not standardized for early VTE diagnosis. By implementing risk stratification and selective screening, we aim to optimize resource utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review were conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center, January 2015-October 2019. LESDUS was performed within 72-h of presentation, then weekly. Demographics, VTE data, and outcomes were collected from the trauma registry. Risk assessment profile (RAP) score was calculated based on collected data. RESULTS: Of 5,645 patients included, 2,813 (49.8%) were screened for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). Of 187 patients with LEDVT, 154 were diagnosed on LESDUS, 18 after negative LESDUS, and 15 in unscreened patients. Patients with VTE were older (61y versus 55, P < 0.01), more often male (70.9% versus 29.1%, P = 0.03), had higher ISS (16 versus 10, P < 0.01), longer hospital length of stay (LOS) (11.5 d versus 3, P < 0.01), longer ICU LOS (4.5 d versus 1, P < 0.01), and increased mortality (9.1% versus 4.3%, P = 0.01). RAP was higher in VTE patients versus those without (nine versus three, P < 0.01). RAP ≥8 was 62.5% sensitive and 70.4% specific for VTE. Chemoprophylaxis delay also correlated with increased VTE (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.03-2.12). CONCLUSIONS: VTE remains a significant complication in trauma patients. Despite a universal LESDUS protocol, only 50% of patients underwent screening and 20% of all LE DVTs were not identified on LESDUS. To optimize resource utilization and protocol adherence, LESDUS should only be performed if RAP ≥8 or if unable to administer timely chemoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
7.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
8.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(4): 484-493, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While fever may be a presenting symptom of COVID-19, fever at hospital admission has not been identified as a predictor of mortality. However, hyperthermia during critical illness among ventilated COVID-19 patients in the ICU has not yet been studied. We sought to determine mortality predictors among ventilated COVID-19 ICU patients and we hypothesized that fever in the ICU is predictive of mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 103 ventilated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between March 14 and May 27, 2020. Final follow-up was June 5, 2020. Patients discharged from the ICU or who died were included. Patients still admitted to the ICU at final follow-up were excluded. RESULTS: 103 patients were included, 40 survived and 63(61.1%) died. Deceased patients were older {66 years[IQR18] vs 62.5[IQR10], (p = 0.0237)}, more often male {48(68%) vs 22(55%), (p = 0.0247)}, had lower initial oxygen saturation {86.0%[IQR18] vs 91.5%[IQR11.5], (p = 0.0060)}, and had lower pH nadir than survivors {7.10[IQR0.2] vs 7.30[IQR0.2] (p < 0.0001)}. Patients had higher peak temperatures during ICU stay as compared to hospital presentation {103.3°F[IQR1.7] vs 100.0°F[IQR3.5], (p < 0.0001)}. Deceased patients had higher peak ICU temperatures than survivors {103.6°F[IQR2.0] vs 102.9°F[IQR1.4], (p = 0.0008)}. Increasing peak temperatures were linearly associated with mortality. Febrile patients who underwent targeted temperature management to achieve normothermia did not have different outcomes than those not actively cooled. Multivariable analysis revealed 60% and 75% higher risk of mortality with peak temperature greater than 103°F and 104°F respectively; it also confirmed hyperthermia, age, male sex, and acidosis to be predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to identify ICU hyperthermia as predictive of mortality in ventilated COVID-19 patients. Additional predictors included male sex, age, and acidosis. With COVID-19 cases increasing, identification of ICU mortality predictors is crucial to improve risk stratification, resource management, and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Febre/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Resultados de Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
11.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reported characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are widely disparate with varying mortality rates. No literature describes outcomes in ICU patients with COVID-19 managed by an acute care surgery (ACS) division. Our ACS division manages all ICU patients at a community hospital in New Jersey. When that hospital was overwhelmed and in crisis secondary to COVID-19, we sought to describe outcomes for all patients with COVID-19 admitted to our closed ICU managed by the ACS division. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of the first 120 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted on March 14 to May 10, 2020. Final follow-up was May 27, 2020. Patients discharged from the ICU or who died were included. Patients still admitted to the ICU at final follow-up were excluded. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients were included (median age 64 years (range 25-89), 66.7% men). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (75; 62.5%), obesity (61; 50.8%), and diabetes (50; 41.7%). One hundred and thirteen (94%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, 89 (74.2%) had shock, and 76 (63.3%) experienced acute kidney injury. One hundred (83.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 8.5 days (IQR 9), hospital LOS was 14.5 days (IQR 13). Mortality for all ICU patients with COVID-19 was 53.3% and 62% for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a community hospital ICU managed by an ACS division who also provided all surge care. Mortality of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to an overwhelmed hospital in crisis may not be as high as initially thought based on prior reports. While COVID-19 is a non-surgical disease, ACS divisions have the capability of successfully caring for both surgical and medical critically ill patients, thus providing versatility in times of crisis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V.

13.
Am J Surg ; 218(5): 836-841, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association between operating room time and developing a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolus (PE) after emergency general surgery (EGS). METHODS: We reviewed six common EGS procedures in the 2013-2015 NSQIP dataset. After tabulating their incidence of postoperative VTE events, we calculated predictors of developing a VTE using adjusted multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of 108,954 EGS patients, 1,366 patients (1.3%) developed a VTE postoperatively. The median time to diagnosis was 9 days [5-16] for DVTs and 8 days [5-16] for PEs. Operating room time of 100 min or more was associated with increased risk of developing a DVT (OR 1.30 [1.12-2.21]) and PE (OR:1.25 [1.11-2.43]) with a 7% and 5% respective increase for every 10 min increase after the 100 min. Other independent predictors of VTE complications were older age, and history of cancer, and emergent colectomies on procedure-level analysis. CONCLUSION: Prolonged operating room time is independently associated with increased risk of developing VTE complications after an EGS procedure. Most of the VTE complications were delayed in presentation.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 82(5): 901-909, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injury is the leading cause of death in children under 18 years. Damage control principles have been extensively studied in adults but remain relatively unstudied in children. Our primary study objective was to evaluate the use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in critically injured children. METHODS: An American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 trauma center review (1996-2013) of pediatric trauma laparotomies was undertaken. Exclusion criteria included: age older than 18 years, laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome or delayed longer than 2 hours after admission. Demographics, mechanism, resuscitation variables, injuries, need for DCL, and outcomes were evaluated. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and single-factor analysis of variance assessed statistical significance. Study endpoints were hospital survival and DCL complications. RESULTS: Of 371 children who underwent trauma laparotomy, the median age (IQR; LQ-UQ) age was 16 (5; 11-17) years. Most (73%) were male injured by blunt mechanism (65%). Fifty-six (15%) children (Injury Severity Score [ISS], 33 (25; 17-42), pediatric trauma score 5 (6; 2-8), penetrating abdominal trauma index score [PATI] 29 (32; 12-44)) underwent DCL after major solid organ (63%), vascular (36%), thoracic (38%) and pelvic (36%) injury. DCL patients were older (16.5 (4; 14-18) vs. 16 (7; 10-17)) and were more severely injured (ISS, 33 [25; 17-42] vs. 16 [16; 9-25]), requiring greater intraoperative packed red blood cell transfusion (8 [13; 3.5-16.5] vs. 1 (0; [0-1] units) than definitive laparotomy counterparts. Nonsurvivors arrived in severe physiologic compromise (base deficit, 17 [17; 8-25] vs. 7 [4; 4-8]), requiring more frequent preoperative blood product transfusion (67% vs. 10%) after comparable injury (ISS survivors, 36 [23; 18-41] vs. nonsurvivors 26 (7; 25-32), p = 0.8880). Fifty-five percent of DCL patients survived (length of stay, 26 [21; 18-39] days) requiring 3 (2; 2-4) laparotomies during 4 (6; 2-8) days until closure (fascial, 90%; vicryl/split thickness skin grafting, 10%). DCL complications (surgical site infection, 18%; dehiscence, 2%; enterocutaneous fistula, 2%) were analyzed. When stratified by age (<15 years vs. 15-18 years) and period (1996-2006 vs. 2007-2013), no differences were found in injury severity or DCL outcomes (p > 0.05). After controlling for DCL, age, and gender, multivariate analysis indicated only ISS (odds ratio, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 1.01 - 1.19], p = 0.0218) and arrival systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.99], p = 0.0254) predicted mortality after severe injury. CONCLUSION: DCL is a proven, lifesaving surgical technique in adults. This report is the first to analyze the use of DCL in children with critical abdominal injuries. With similar survival and morbidity rates as critically injured adults, DCL merits careful consideration in children with critical abdominal injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(1): 71-76, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrohepatic inferior vena cava (RIVC) injuries are often lethal due to challenges in obtaining hemorrhage control. We hypothesized that packing with a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (Control+; Z-Medica, Wallingford, CT) would improve hemorrhage control from a penetrating RIVC injury compared with packing with standard laparotomy sponges alone. METHODS: Twelve male Yorkshire pigs received a 25% exchange transfusion of blood for refrigerated normal saline to induce a hypothermic coagulopathy. A laparotomy was performed and a standardized 1.5 cm injury to the RIVC was created which was followed by temporary abdominal closure and a period of uncontrolled hemorrhage. When the mean arterial pressure reached 70% of baseline, demonstrating hemorrhagic shock, the abdomen was re-entered, and the injury was treated with perihepatic packing using standard laparotomy sponges (L; n = 6) or a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (K; n = 6). Animals were then resuscitated for 6 hours with crystalloid solution. The two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test. A p value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was no difference in the animal's temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and blood loss at baseline or before packing was performed (all p > 0.05). In the laparotomy sponge group, five of six pigs survived the entire study period, whereas all six pigs treated with kaolin-based D2 hemostatic dressings survived. Importantly, there was significantly less blood loss after packing with the new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing compared with packing with laparotomy sponge (651 ± 180 mL vs. 1073 ± 342 mL; p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the use of this new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing improved hemorrhage control and significantly decreased blood loss in this penetrating RIVC model. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: This is basic science research based on a large animal model, level V.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Caulim/farmacologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/complicações , Veia Cava Inferior/lesões , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Suínos
17.
J Vasc Surg ; 65(5): 1483-1492, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a potential adult mesenchymal stem cell source for restoring endothelial function in patients with critical limb ischemia. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a major role in angiogenesis and wound healing. This study evaluated the effects of FGF and VEGF on the proliferation, migration, and potential endothelial differentiation of human ASCs with regards to their use as endothelial cell substitutes. METHODS: ASCs were isolated from clinical lipoaspirates and cultured in M199 medium with fetal bovine serum (10%), FGF2 (10 ng/mL), VEGF (50 ng/mL), or combinations of FGF2 and VEGF. Cell proliferation rates, viability, and migration were measured by growth curves, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), and scratch assays. For cell attachment determinations, ASCs were seeded onto a scaffold of small intestinal submucosa for 5 days. Endothelial differentiation capabilities of ASCs were confirmed by expression of endothelial cell-specific markers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and cord formation on Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, Calif). PD173074, a selective inhibitor of FGF receptor, was used to confirm the importance of FGF signaling. RESULTS: ASCs treated with FGF or combinations of FGF and VEGF showed increased proliferation rates and consistent differentiation toward an endothelial cell lineage increase in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31), von Willebrand factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and vascular endothelial cadherin message, and in protein and cord formation on Matrigel. FGF and VEGF stimulated ASC migration and increased the attachment and retention after seeding onto a matrix graft of small intestinal submucosa. Blockade of FGF signaling with PD173074 abrogated ASC endothelial cell differentiation potential. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that FGF and VEGF are ASC promoters for proliferation, migration, attachment, and endothelial differentiation. FGF and VEGF have a costimulatory effect on ASC endotheliogenesis. These results further suggest that ASCs with enhanced FGF signaling may potentially be used for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies in patients with critical limb ischemia.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo , Tecidos Suporte
18.
Injury ; 48(1): 158-164, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27469399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal packing with laparotomy pads (LP) is a common and rapid method for hemorrhage control in critically injured patients. Combat Gauze™ and Trauma Pads™ ([QC] Z-Medica QuikClot®) are kaolin impregnated hemostatic agents, that in addition to LP, may improve hemorrhage control. While QC packing has been effective in a swine liver injury model, QC remains unstudied for human intra-abdominal use. We hypothesized QC packing during damage control laparotomy (DCL) better controls hemorrhage than standard packing and is safe for intracorporeal use. METHODS: A retrospective review (2011-2014) at a Level-I Trauma Center reviewed all patients who underwent DCL with intentionally retained packing. Clinical characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative parameters, and outcomes were compared with respect to packing (LP vs. LP+QC). All complications occurring within the patients' hospital stays were reviewed. A p≤0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: 68 patients underwent DCL with packing; (LP n=40; LP+QC n=28). No difference in age, BMI, injury mechanism, ISS, or GCS was detected (Table 1, all p>0.05). LP+QC patients had a lower systolic blood pressure upon ED presentation and greater blood loss during index laparotomy than LP patients. LP+QC patients received more packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma resuscitation during index laparotomy (both p<0.05). Despite greater physiologic derangement in the LP+QC group, there was no difference in total blood products required after index laparotomy until abdominal closure (LP vs LP+QC; p>0.05). After a median of 2days until abdominal closure in both groups, no difference in complications rates attributable to intra-abdominal packing (LP vs LP+QC) was detected. CONCLUSION: While the addition of QC to LP packing did not confer additional benefit to standard packing, there was no additional morbidity identified with its use. The surgeons at our institution now select augmented packing with QC for sicker patients, as we believe this may have additional advantage over standard LP packing. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to further evaluate the intra-abdominal use of advanced hemostatic agents, like QC, for both hemostasis and associated morbidity.


Assuntos
Cavidade Abdominal/patologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Tamponamento Interno , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Laparotomia/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia , Cavidade Abdominal/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Adulto , Tamponamento Interno/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci ; 5(3): 196-205, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26557490

RESUMO

The introduction of laparoscopy has provided trauma surgeons with a valuable diagnostic and, at times, therapeutic option. The minimally invasive nature of laparoscopic surgery, combined with potentially quicker postoperative recovery, simplified wound care, as well as a growing number of viable intraoperative therapeutic modalities, presents an attractive alternative for many traumatologists when managing hemodynamically stable patients with selected penetrating and blunt traumatic abdominal injuries. At the same time, laparoscopy has its own unique complication profile. This article provides an overview of potential complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma, focusing on practical aspects of identification and management of laparoscopy-related adverse events.

20.
Am Surg ; 81(5): 527-31, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25975341

RESUMO

Central venous catheterization (CVC) is often necessary during initial trauma resuscitations, but may cause complications including catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary emboli (PE), arterial injury, or pneumothoraces. Our primary objective compared subclavian versus femoral CVC complications during initial trauma resuscitations. A retrospective review (2010-2011) at an urban, Level-I Trauma Center reviewed CVCs during initial trauma resuscitations. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and complications including: CRBSIs, DVTs, arterial injuries, pneumothoraces, and PEs were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 504 CVCs were placed (subclavian, n = 259; femoral, n = 245). No difference in age (47 ± 22 vs 45 ± 23 years) or body mass index (28 ± 6 vs 29 ± 16 kg/m(2)) was detected (P > 0.05) in subclavian vs femoral CVC, but subclavian CVCs had more blunt injuries (81% vs 69%), greater systolic blood pressure (95 ± 55 vs 83 ± 43 mmHg), greater Glasgow Coma Scale (10 ± 5 vs 9 ± 5), and less introducers (49% vs 73%) than femoral CVCs (all P < 0.05). Catheter related arterial injuries, PEs, and CRBSIs were similar in subclavian and femoral groups (3% vs 2%, 0% vs 1%, and 3% vs 3%; all P > 0.05). Catheter-related DVTs occurred in 2 per cent of subclavian and 9 per cent of femoral CVCs (P < 0.001). There was a 3 per cent occurrence of pneumothorax in the subclavian CVC population. In conclusion, both subclavian and femoral CVCs caused significant complications. Subclavian catheter-related pneumothoraces occurred more commonly and femoral CRBSIs less commonly than expected compared with prior literature in nonemergent scenarios. This suggests that femoral CVC may be safer than subclavian CVC during initial trauma resuscitations.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência , Veia Femoral , Ressuscitação , Veia Subclávia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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