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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107490, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677257

RESUMO

AIMS: Lymphopenia after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) correlates with deleterious cardiac consequences and worse prognosis. An in-depth examination of genes implicated in lymphocyte proliferation, activation and regulation and their association with short- and long-term cardiac structure and function is therefore of great interest. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 10 control subjects and 64 patients with a first STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance after 1 week and 6 months. mRNA expression of genes implicated in lymphocyte activation (CD25 and CD69) and regulation [programmed death (PD)-1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4] were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: In comparison to controls, STEMI patients showed heightened mRNA expression of CD25 and lower PD-1 and CTLA-4 96 h after coronary reperfusion. Patients with extensive infarctions (>30% of left ventricular mass) at 1 week displayed a notable reduction in CD25, CD69, PD-1, and CTLA-4 expression (p < 0.05). However, CD25 was the only predictor of 1-week extensive infarct size in multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 0.019; 95% confidence interval [0.001-0.505]; p = 0.018). Regarding long-term ventricular function, mRNA expression of CD25 under the mean value was associated with worse ventricular function and more adverse remodelling. CONCLUSIONS: Following STEMI, heightened expression of genes expressed in regulatory T cells (CD25 and CD69) and immune checkpoints (PD-1 and CTLA-4) correlates with a better short- and long-term cardiac structure and function. Advancing understanding of the pathophysiology of lymphopenia and evaluating novel immunomodulatory therapies will help translate these results into future clinical trials.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(12): e011491, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297764

RESUMO

Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) permits robust risk stratification of discharged ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients, but its indiscriminate use in all cases is not feasible. We evaluated the utility of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography for a selective use of CMR after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods Echocardiography and CMR were performed in 1119 patients discharged for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction included in a multicenter registry. The prognostic power of CMR beyond echocardiography-LVEF was assessed using adjusted C statistic, net reclassification improvement index, and integrated discrimination improvement index. Results During a 4.8-year median follow-up, 136 (12%) first major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred (47 cardiovascular deaths and 89 readmissions for acute heart failure). In the entire group, CMR-LVEF (but not echocardiography-LVEF) independently predicted MACE occurrence. The MACE rate significantly increased only in patients with CMR-LVEF<40% (≥50%: 7%, 40%-49%: 9%, <40%: 27%, P<0.001). Most patients displayed echocardiography-LVEF≥50% (629, 56%), and they had a low MACE rate (57/629, 9%). In patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% (n=490, 44%), the MACE rate was also low in those with CMR-LVEF≥40% (24/278, 9%) but significantly increased in patients with CMR-LVEF<40% (55/212, 26%; P<0.001). Compared with echocardiography-LVEF, CMR-LVEF significantly improved MACE prediction in the group of patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% (C statistic, 0.80 versus 0.72; net reclassification improvement index, 0.73; integrated discrimination improvement index, 0.10) but not in those with echocardiography-LVEF≥50% (C statistic 0.66 versus 0.66; net reclassification improvement index, 0.17; integrated discrimination improvement index, 0.01). Conclusions A straightforward strategy based on a selective use of CMR for risk prediction in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% can provide insights into patient care. The cost-effectiveness of this approach, as well as the direct implications in clinical management, should be further explored.

3.
Cardiol J ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no well-established predictors of recurrent ischemic coronary events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Higher levels of homocysteine have been reported to be associated with an increased atherosclerotic burden. The primary endpoint was to assess the relationship between homocysteine at discharge and very long-term recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: 1306 consecutive patients with ACS were evaluated (862 with non-ST-segment elevation ACS [NSTEACS] and 444 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) discharged from October 2000 to June 2003 in a single teaching-center. The relationship between homocysteine at discharge and recurrent MI was evaluated through bivariate negative binomial regression accounting for mortality as a competitive event. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.8 ± 12.4 years, 69.1% were men, and 32.2% showed prior diabetes mellitus. Most of the patients were admitted for an NSTEACS (66.0%). The median (interquartile range) GRACE risk score, Charlson comorbidity index, and homocysteine were 144 (122-175) points, 1 (1-2) points, and 11.9 (9.3-15.6) µmol/L, respectively. In-hospital revascularization was performed in 26.3% of patients. At a median follow-up of 9.7 (4.5-15.1) years, 709 (54.3%) deaths were registered and 779 recurrent MI in 478 (36.6%) patients. The rates of recurrent MI were higher in patients in the upper homocysteine quartiles (p < 0.001). After a multivariate adjustment, homocysteine along its continuum remained almost linearly associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI (p = 0.001) and all-cause mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, higher homocysteine levels identified those at a higher risk of recurrent MI at very long-term follow-up.

4.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126723

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the time course of circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and their ratio (NLR) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 and explore their associations with clinical events and structural damage. Circulating neutrophil, lymphocyte and NLR were sequentially measured in 659 patients admitted for STEMI and in 103 COVID-19 patients. The dynamics detected in STEMI (within a few hours) were replicated in COVID-19 (within a few days). In both entities patients with events and with severe structural damage displayed higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte counts. In both scenarios, higher maximum neutrophil and lower minimum lymphocyte counts were associated with more events and more severe organ damage. NLR was higher in STEMI and COVID-19 patients with the worst clinical and structural outcomes. A canonical deregulation of the immune response occurs in STEMI and COVID-19 patients. Boosted circulating innate (neutrophilia) and depressed circulating adaptive immunity (lymphopenia) is associated with more events and severe organ damage. A greater understanding of these critical illnesses is pivotal to explore novel alternative therapies.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899601

RESUMO

A chronic model of acute myocardial infarction was developed to study the mechanisms involved in adverse postinfarction ventricular remodeling. In an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the left circumflex coronary artery of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 9) was occluded by ligature for 1 h, followed by reperfusion. A specific care protocol was applied before, during, and after the intervention, and the results were compared with those of a sham operated group (n = 7). After 5 weeks, programmed stimulation and high-resolution mapping were performed on isolated and perfused hearts using the Langendorff technique. The infarct size determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride inside of the area at risk (thioflavin-S) was then determined. The area at risk was similar in both groups (54.33% (experimental infarct group) vs. 58.59% (sham group), ns). The infarct size was 73.16% as a percentage of the risk area. The experimental infarct group had a higher inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (100% vs. 43% in the sham group, p = 0.009). A reproducible chronic experimental model of myocardial infarction is presented in which the extent and characteristics of the lesions enable the study of the vulnerability to develop ventricular arrhythmias because of the remodeling process that occurs during cardiac tissue repair.

6.
Front Physiol ; 11: 922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848863

RESUMO

Background: Mechanical stretch increases Na+ inflow into myocytes, related to mechanisms including stretch-activated channels or Na+/H+ exchanger activation, involving Ca2+ increase that leads to changes in electrophysiological properties favoring arrhythmia induction. Ranolazine is an antianginal drug with confirmed beneficial effects against cardiac arrhythmias associated with the augmentation of I NaL current and Ca2+ overload. Objective: This study investigates the effects of mechanical stretch on activation patterns in atrial cell monolayers and its pharmacological response to ranolazine. Methods: Confluent HL-1 cells were cultured in silicone membrane plates and were stretched to 110% of original length. The characteristics of in vitro fibrillation (dominant frequency, regularity index, density of phase singularities, rotor meandering, and rotor curvature) were analyzed using optical mapping in order to study the mechanoelectric response to stretch under control conditions and ranolazine action. Results: HL-1 cell stretch increased fibrillatory dominant frequency (3.65 ± 0.69 vs. 4.35 ± 0.74 Hz, p < 0.01) and activation complexity (1.97 ± 0.45 vs. 2.66 ± 0.58 PS/cm2, p < 0.01) under control conditions. These effects were related to stretch-induced changes affecting the reentrant patterns, comprising a decrease in rotor meandering (0.72 ± 0.12 vs. 0.62 ± 0.12 cm/s, p < 0.001) and an increase in wavefront curvature (4.90 ± 0.42 vs. 5.68 ± 0.40 rad/cm, p < 0.001). Ranolazine reduced stretch-induced effects, attenuating the activation rate increment (12.8% vs. 19.7%, p < 0.01) and maintaining activation complexity-both parameters being lower during stretch than under control conditions. Moreover, under baseline conditions, ranolazine slowed and regularized the activation patterns (3.04 ± 0.61 vs. 3.65 ± 0.69 Hz, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Ranolazine attenuates the modifications of activation patterns induced by mechanical stretch in atrial myocyte monolayers.

7.
Cardiorenal Med ; 10(5): 362-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In acute heart failure (AHF), early assessment of spot urinary sodium (UNa) has emerged as a useful biomarker for risk stratification and monitoring. The objective of this study was to investigate (a) whether early spot UNa predicts 24-h diuretic efficiency and (b) the clinical factors associated with early spot UNa in patients with AHF and concomitant renal dysfunction (RD). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the IMPROVE-HF trial, in which 160 patients with AHF and RD (estimated glomerular filtrate rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were included. Diuretic efficiency was calculated as the net fluid output produced per 40 mg of furosemide equivalents in 24 h. The association between early spot UNa and diuretic efficiency and clinical variables associated with UNa were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analysis. The contribution of the exposures in the predictability of the models was assessed with the coefficient of determination (R2). RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 78 ± 8 years. The median (interquartile range) diuretic efficiency, early spot UNa, aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and eGFR were 747 (490-1,167) mL, 90 mmol/L (65-111), 7,765 pg/mL (3,526-15,369), and 33.7 ± 11.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. In a multivariate setting, lower UNa was significantly and nonlinearly associated with lower diuretic efficiency (p = 0.001), explaining the 44.4% of the model predictability. Natremia and surrogates of congestion emerged as the main factors related to UNa. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and RD at presentation, early spot UNa was inversely related to 24-h diuretic efficiency.

8.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 262, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following myocardial infarction (MI), we aimed to characterize morphometric and genetic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) components from ischemia onset until late phases after coronary reperfusion in necrotic and salvaged myocardium. RESULTS: Swine were divided into one control (n = 5) and three MI groups: 90-min of ischemia without reperfusion, or followed by 1-week or 1-month reperfusion (n = 5 per group). In samples from the necrotic and salvaged areas, ECM components were morphometrically quantified and mRNA levels of factors involved in ECM remodeling were evaluated. After 90-min of ischemia, fibronectin, laminin, and elastic fibers content as well as upregulated mRNA expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)1, TIMP2, TIMP3 and connective tissue growth factor increased in the necrotic and salvaged myocardium. In both reperfused MI groups, collagen-I, collagen-III, elastic fibers, glycosaminoglycans, laminin, and fibronectin levels heightened in the necrotic but not the salvaged myocardium. Moreover, mRNA expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 and TIMP3, as well as metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 heightened in the necrotic but not in the salvaged myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Matrix remodeling starts after ischemia onset in both necrotic and salvaged myocardium. Even if ECM composition from the salvaged myocardium was altered after severe ischemia, ECM makes a full recovery to normal composition after reperfusion. Therefore, rapid coronary reperfusion is essential not only to save cardiomyocytes but also to preserve matrix, thus avoiding impaired left ventricular remodeling.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Urinary sodium (UNa+) has emerged as a useful biomarker of poor clinical outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Here, we sought to evaluate: a) the usefulness of a single early determination of UNa+ for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, and b) whether the change in UNa+ at 24hours (ΔUNa24h) adds any additional prognostic information over baseline values. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial (IMPROVE-HF) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02643147) that randomized 160 patients with AHF and renal dysfunction on admission to a) the standard diuretic strategy, or b) a carbohydrate antigen 125-guided diuretic strategy. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and total all-cause readmissions. RESULTS: The mean age was 78±8 years, and the mean glomerular filtration rate was 34.0±8.5mL/min/1.73 m2. The median UNa+ was 90 (65-111) mmol/L. At a median follow-up of 1.73 years [interquartile range, 0.48-2.35], 83 deaths (51.9%) were registered, as well as 263 all-cause readmissions in 110 patients. UNa+ was independently associated with mortality (HR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.65-0.87; P <.001) and all-cause readmissions (HR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.88-0.96; P <.001). The prognostic usefulness of the ΔUNa24h varied according to UNa+ at admission (P for interaction <.05). The ΔUNa24h was inversely associated with both end points only in the group with UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L. Conversely, no effect was found in the group with UNa+> 50 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, a single early determination of UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L identifies patients with a higher risk of all-cause mortality and readmission. The ΔUNa24h adds prognostic information over baseline values only when UNa+ at admission is ≤ 50 mmol/L.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(8): 1674-1686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study explored the association of ischemic burden, as measured by vasodilator stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), with all-cause mortality and the effect of revascularization on all-cause mortality in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). BACKGROUND: In patients with SIHD, the association of ischemic burden, derived from vasodilator stress CMR, with all-cause mortality and its role for decision-making is unclear. METHODS: The registry consisted of 6,389 consecutive patients (mean age: 65 ± 12 years; 38% women) who underwent vasodilator stress CMR for known or suspected SIHD. The ischemic burden (at stress first-pass perfusion imaging) was computed (17-segment model). The effect of CMR-related revascularization (within the following 3 months) on all-cause mortality was retrospectively explored using the electronic regional health system registry. RESULTS: During a 5.75-year median follow-up, 717 (11%) deaths were documented. In multivariable analyses, more extensive ischemic burden (per 1-segment increase) was independently related to all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 1.07; p < 0.001). In 1,032 1:1 matched patients using a limited number of variables (516 revascularized, 516 non-revascularized), revascularization within the following 3 months was associated with less all-cause mortality only in patients with extensive CMR-related ischemia (>5 segments, n = 432; 10% vs. 24%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In a large retrospective registry of unselected patients with known or suspected SIHD who underwent vasodilator stress CMR, extensive ischemic burden was related to a higher risk of long-term, all-cause mortality. Revascularization was associated with a protective effect only in the restricted subset of patients with extensive CMR-related ischemia. Further research will be needed to confirm this hypothesis-generating finding.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, longitudinal strain (LS) in remote non-infarcted myocardium (RNM) has not yet been characterized by tissue tracking (TT) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In STEMI patients, we aimed to characterize RNM-LS by TT-CMR and to assess both its dynamics and its structural and prognostic implications. METHODS: We recruited 271 patients with a first STEMI studied with TT-CMR 1 week after infarction. Of these patients, 145 underwent 1-week and 6-month TT-CMR and were used to characterize both the dynamics and the short-term and long-term structural implications of RNM-LS. Based on previously validated data, RNM areas were defined depending on the culprit coronary artery. RESULTS: Reduced RNM-LS at 1 week (n = 70, 48%) was associated with larger infarct size and more depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at both the 1-week and 6-month TT-CMR (p value < 0.001). Late normalization of RNM-LS was frequent (28/70, 40%) and independently related to late recovery of LVEF (p value = 0.002). Patients with reduced RNM-LS at 1-week TT-CMR had more major adverse cardiac events (death, heart failure or re-infarction) in both the 271 patients included in the study group (26% vs. 11%, p value = 0.002) and in an external validation cohort made up of 177 STEMI patients (57% vs. 13%, p value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: After STEMI, reduced RNM-LS by TT-CMR is common and is associated with more severe short- and long-term structural damage. There is a beneficial tendency towards recovery of RNM-LS that parallels late recovery of LVEF. More events occur in patients with reduced RNM-LS.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585832

RESUMO

Vasodilator stress cardiac magnetic resonance (stressCMR) has shown robust diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with known or suspected chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). However, it is unknown whether integration of stressCMR with clinical variables in a simple clinical-imaging score can straightforwardly predict all-cause mortality in this population. We included 6187 patients in a large registry that underwent stressCMR for known or suspected CCS. Several clinical and stressCMR variables were collected, such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ischemic burden (number of segments with stress-induced perfusion defects (PD)). During a median follow-up of 5.56 years, we registered 682 (11%) all-cause deaths. The only independent predictors of all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis were age, male sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), LVEF and ischemic burden. Based on the weight of the chi-square increase at each step of the multivariable analysis, we created a simple clinical-stressCMR (C-CMR-10) score that included these variables (age ≥ 65 years = 3 points, LVEF ≤ 50% = 3 points, DM = 2 points, male sex = 1 point, and ischemic burden > 5 segments = 1 point). This 0 to 10 points C-CMR-10 score showed good performance to predict all-cause annualized mortality rate ranging from 0.29%/year (score = 0) to >4.6%/year (score ≥ 7). The goodness of the model and of the C-CMR-10 score was separately confirmed in 2 internal cohorts (n > 3000 each). We conclude that a novel and simple clinical-stressCMR score, which includes clinical and stressCMR variables, can provide robust prediction of the risk of long-term all-cause mortality in a population of patients with known or suspected CCS.

13.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474003

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Angiogenesis helps to reestablish microcirculation after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we aimed to further understand the role of the antiangiogenic isoform vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165b after MI and to explore its potential as a coadjuvant therapy to coronary reperfusion. METHODS: Two mice MI models were formed: a) permanent coronary ligation (nonreperfused MI); b) transient 45-minute coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (reperfused MI); in both models, animals underwent echocardiography before euthanasia at day 21 after MI induction. We determined serum and myocardial VEGF-A165b levels. In both experimental MI models, we assessed the functional and structural role of VEGF-A165b blockade. In a cohort of 104 ST-segment elevation MI patients, circulating VEGF-A165b levels were correlated with cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 months and with the occurrence of adverse events (death, heart failure, and/or reinfarction). RESULTS: In both models, circulating and myocardial VEGF-A165b levels were increased 21 days after MI induction. Serum VEGF-A165b levels inversely correlated with systolic function evaluated by echocardiography. VEGF-A165b blockade increased capillary density, reduced infarct size, and enhanced left ventricular function in reperfused, but not in nonreperfused, MI experiments. In patients, higher VEGF-A165b levels correlated with depressed ejection fraction and worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In experimental and clinical studies, higher serum VEGF-A165b levels are associated with worse systolic function. Their blockade enhances neoangiogenesis, reduces infarct size, and increases ejection fraction in reperfused, but not in nonreperfused, MI experiments. Therefore, VEGF-A165b neutralization represents a potential coadjuvant therapy to coronary reperfusion.

14.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 39(2): 77-84, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between a comprehensive smoking ban and hospitalization rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: An observational study was conducted to assess changes in hospital admission rates for AMI in the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain (population 5 million), during the period 1995-2013. Law 28/2005 prohibited smoking in all enclosed spaces (public and private), and Law 42/2010 extended the ban to bars and restaurants as well as children's playgrounds and access areas of schools and hospitals. Data on hospital admissions were obtained from the Hospital Discharge Database (CMBD) of the Autonomous Community. Annual hospital admission rates per 100000 population for AMI (ICD-9-CM code 410) for men and women were calculated. RESULTS: Adjusted hospital admission rates per 100000 population for AMI decreased markedly from 141.1 in 2005 to 119.2 in 2007, with a further reduction to 102.9 in 2013. Reductions in hospital admission were recorded in both men and women, but the downward trends were stronger in women. CONCLUSION: The Spanish comprehensive smoking ban was associated with a marked reduction in the adjusted rate of hospital admissions due to AMI in the Autonomous Community of Valencia. This decrease in the number of persons requiring in-patient care due to AMI is important from both a health care and a societal perspective.

15.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(5): 437-447, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 levels are positively associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes in acute heart failure. As a proxy of congestion, antigen carbohydrate 125 has also been proposed as a right-sided heart failure marker. Thus, we aimed to determine in this population the main factors - including echocardiographic right-sided heart failure parameters - associated with antigen carbohydrate 125 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 2949 patients admitted with acute heart failure. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 were used as dependent variables in a multivariable linear regression analysis. The mean age of the sample was 73.9±11.1 years; 48.9% were female, 35.8% showed ischaemic aetiology, and 51.6% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 were 4840 (2111-9204) pg/ml and 58 (26-129) U/ml, respectively. In a multivariable setting, and ranked in order of importance (R2), estimated glomerular filtration rate (43.7%), left ventricle ejection fraction (15.1%), age (12.4%) and high-sensitivity troponin T (10.9%) emerged as the most important factors associated with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. The five main factors associated with antigen carbohydrate 125 were, in order of importance: the presence of pleural effusion (36.8%), tricuspid regurgitation severity (25.1%), age (11.9%), amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (6.5%) and peripheral oedema (4.3%). CONCLUSION: In patients with acute heart failure the main factors associated with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were renal dysfunction, left ventricle ejection fraction and age. For antigen carbohydrate 125, clinical parameters of congestion and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation were the most important predictors. These results endorse the value of antigen carbohydrate 125 as a useful marker of right-sided heart failure.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 308: 54-59, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute heart failure (AHF) with right ventricular dysfunction, the roles of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) are poorly understood, and functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity is thought to indicate a poor prognosis. We examined the prognostic abilities of NT-proBNP and CA125 according to TR status among patients with AHF. METHODS: TR severity was assessed during index hospitalization (108 ± 24 h after admission) and classified as none/trivial, mild, moderate, or severe. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to assess how pre-discharge CA125 and NT-proBNP were associated with long-term all-cause mortality relative to TR severity. RESULTS: We prospectively included 2961 patients discharged following hospitalization for AHF (mean age 74 ± 11 years; 49.0% women; 51.8% with left ventricular ejection fraction >50%). Median NT-proBNP was 4823 ng/L (IQR: 2086-9183) and CA125 was 58.1 U/mL (IQR: 25-129). Severe TR was present in 300 patients (10.1%), and 1821 patients (61.5%) died (mean follow-up, 3.3 ± 3.2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed a differential prognostic effect across TR status for both biomarkers (p-value for both interactions<0.05). NT-proBNP was significantly linearly associated with mortality in non-severe TR (p < 0.001), but not in severe TR (p = 0.308). Higher CA125 values were significantly associated with mortality risk in all patients (HR: 1.09; 95% CI:1.03-1.14; p = 0.001), with a greater effect in those with severe TR (HR: 1.28; 98% CI:1.11-1.48; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and severe TR, CA125 outperforms NT-proBNP in predicting long-term mortality. In AHF with right ventricular involvement, CA125 may be the preferred biomarker for risk stratification.

17.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(5): 423-429, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is complex and multifactorial. Chronotropic incompetence (ChI) has emerged as a crucial pathophysiological mechanism. Beta-blockers, drugs with negative chronotropic effects, are commonly used in HFpEF, although current evidence does not support its routine use in these patients. HYPOTHESIS: We postulate beta-blockers may have deleterious effects in HFpEF and ChI. This work aims to evaluate the short-term effect of beta-blockers withdrawal on functional capacity assessed by the maximal oxygen uptake (peakVO2) in patients with HFpEF and ChI. METHODS: This is a prospective, crossover, randomized (1:1) and multicenter study. After randomization, the clinical and cardiac rhythm will be continuously registered for 30 days. PeakVO2 is assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) at 15 and 30 days in both groups. Secondary endpoints include quality of life, cognitive, and safety assessment. Patients with stable HFpEF, functional class New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-III, chronic treatment with beta-blockers, and ChI will be enrolled. A sample size estimation [alfa: 0.05, power: 90%, a 20% loss rate, and delta change of mean peakVO2: +1.2 mL/kg/min (SD ± 2.0)] of 52 patients is necessary to test our hypothesis. RESULTS: Patients started enrolling in October 2018. As January 14th, 2020, 28 patients have been enrolled. It is projected to enroll the last patient at the end of July 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing therapy that improves functional capacity remains an unmeet priority in HFpEF. Deprescribing beta-blockers in patients with HFpEF and ChI seems a plausible intervention to improve functional capacity. This trial is an attempt towards precision medicine in this complex syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03871803.

18.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(6): 567-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) in a single determination upon admission may rule out acute coronary syndrome. We investigated undetectable hs-cTnT (

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014254, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067585

RESUMO

Background Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) improves symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life in heart failure and iron deficiency. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine changes in myocardial iron content after FCM administration in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency using cardiac magnetic resonance. Methods and Results Fifty-three stable heart failure and iron deficiency patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive intravenous FCM or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind study. T2* and T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance sequences, noninvasive surrogates of intramyocardial iron, were evaluated before and 7 and 30 days after randomization using linear mixed regression analysis. Results are presented as least-square means with 95% CI. The primary end point was the change in T2* and T1 mapping at 7 and 30 days. Median age was 73 (65-78) years, with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ferritin, and transferrin saturation medians of 1690 pg/mL (1010-2828), 63 ng/mL (22-114), and 15.7% (11.0-19.2), respectively. Baseline T2* and T1 mapping values did not significantly differ across treatment arms. On day 7, both T2* and T1 mapping (ms) were significantly lower in the FCM arm (36.6 [34.6-38.7] versus 40 [38-42.1], P=0.025; 1061 [1051-1072] versus 1085 [1074-1095], P=0.001, respectively). A similar reduction was found at 30 days for T2* (36.3 [34.1-38.5] versus 41.1 [38.9-43.4], P=0.003), but not for T1 mapping (1075 [1065-1085] versus 1079 [1069-1089], P=0.577). Conclusions In patients with heart failure and iron deficiency, FCM administration was associated with changes in the T2* and T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance sequences, indicative of myocardial iron repletion. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03398681.

20.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(4): 378-384, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In established ischemic heart disease, the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and new cardiovascular events showed contradictory results. Our aim was to assess the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and very long-term recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) after an index episode of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: We included 435 consecutive STEMI patients discharged from October 2000 to June 2003 in a single teaching center. The relationship between lipoprotein(a) at discharge and recurrent MI was evaluated through negative binomial regression and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 65 years (55-74 years), 25.5% were women, 34.7% were diabetic, and 66% had a MI of anterior location. Fibrinolysis, rescue, or primary angioplasty was performed in 215 (49.4%), 19 (4.4%), and 18 (4.1%) patients, respectively. The median lipoprotein(a) was 30.4 mg/dL (12-59.4 mg/dL). After a median follow-up of 9.6 years (4.1-15 years), 180 (41.4%) deaths and 187 MI in 133 (30.6%) patients were recorded. After a multivariate adjustment, the risk gradient of lipoprotein(a) showed a neutral effect along most of the continuum and only extreme higher values identified those at higher risk of recurrent MI (P = 0.020). Those with lipoprotein(a) values >95th percentile (≥135 mg/dL) showed a higher risk of recurrent MI (incidence rate ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-4.02; P = 0.002). Lipoprotein(a) was not related to the risk of mortality (P = 0.245). CONCLUSIONS: After an episode of STEMI, only extreme high values of lipoprotein(a) were associated with an increased risk of long-term recurrent MI.

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