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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: 97 patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017. RESULTS: Of 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63-613.7, p=0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61-11.89, p=0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL versus PAL+ (median 4 months vs. not reached, p=0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs. not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR=3.81; P=0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR= 0.159; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

5.
Endocr Rev ; 40(6): 1605-1625, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294783

RESUMO

Steroid biosynthesis and metabolism are reflected by the serum steroid metabolome and, in even more detail, by the 24-hour urine steroid metabolome, which can provide unique insights into alterations of steroid flow and output indicative of underlying conditions. Mass spectrometry-based steroid metabolome profiling has allowed for the identification of unique multisteroid signatures associated with disorders of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism that can be used for personalized approaches to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognostic prediction. Additionally, steroid metabolome analysis has been used successfully as a discovery tool, for the identification of novel steroidogenic disorders and pathways as well as revealing insights into the pathophysiology of adrenal disease. Increased availability and technological advances in mass spectrometry-based methodologies have refocused attention on steroid metabolome profiling and facilitated the development of high-throughput steroid profiling methods soon to reach clinical practice. Furthermore, steroid metabolomics, the combination of mass spectrometry-based steroid analysis with machine learning-based approaches, has facilitated the development of powerful customized diagnostic approaches. In this review, we provide a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the utility of steroid metabolome analysis for the diagnosis and management of inborn disorders of steroidogenesis and autonomous adrenal steroid excess in the context of adrenal tumors.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/metabolismo , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/diagnóstico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909165

RESUMO

Context Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) represent an increasingly common problem in modern endocrine practice. The diagnostic approach to AIs can be challenging and occasionally reveals surprising features. Here we describe two rare cases of complex adrenal lesions consisting of phaeochromocytomas with synchronous metastases from extra-adrenal primaries. Case descriptions Patient 1 - a 65-year-old gentleman with a newly diagnosed malignant melanoma was found to harbour an adrenal lesion with suspicious radiographic characteristics. Percutaneous adrenal biopsy was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. After excision of the skin melanoma and regional lymphatic metastases, he was followed up without imaging. Three years later, he presented with abdominal discomfort and enlargement of his adrenal lesion, associated with high plasma metanephrines. Adrenalectomy revealed a mixed tumour consisting of a large phaeochromocytoma with an embedded melanoma metastasis in its core. Patient 2 - a 63-year-old lady with a history of NF-1-related phaeochromocytoma 20 years ago and previous breast cancer presented with a new adrenal lesion on the contralateral side. Plasma normetanephrine was markedly elevated. Elective adrenalectomy revealed an adrenal tumour consisting of chromaffin cells intermixed with breast carcinoma cells. Conclusions Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation to exclude metastatic disease, especially in the context of a history of previous malignancy. Adrenal biopsy provides limited and potentially misleading information. Phaeochromocytomas are highly vascularised tumours that may function as a sieve, extracting and retaining irregularly shaped cancer cells, thereby yielding adrenal masses with intriguing dual pathology. Learning points: Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation focused on exclusion of underlying hormone excess and malignant pathology. Adrenal biopsy can be misleading and should only be considered in select cases. Phaeochromocytomas harbouring intratumoural metastases from other, extra-adrenal primary malignancies represent rare pathological entities that highlight the complexities that can be presented by adrenal tumours.

7.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 151(3): 201-216, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725173

RESUMO

Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome. All four techniques to assess and/or modulate the metabolome in biological systems provide tremendous opportunities to manage neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease of the adrenal glands in the era of precision medicine. In this context, we discuss emerging clinical applications and/or promising metabolic-driven research towards diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers in tumours arising from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia as well as modern approaches to delineate and reprogram adrenal metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Glândulas Suprarrenais/citologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
8.
FASEB J ; 33(2): 2263-2277, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247985

RESUMO

The adrenal gland is a multiendocrine organ with a steroidogenic mesenchymal cortex and an inner catecholamine-producing medulla of neuroendocrine origin. After embryonic development, this plastic organ undergoes a functional postnatal remodeling. Elucidating these complex processes is pivotal for understanding the early bases of functional endocrine disorders and tumors affecting the mature gland. We developed an in vitro human adrenal cell model derived from fetal adrenal specimens at different gestational ages, consisting of neuroendocrine and cortical components and expressing the zona and functional markers of the original fetal organ. These cortical and neuroendocrine progenitor cells retain in vitro an intrinsic gestational-age-related differentiation and functional program. In vitro these cells spontaneously form 3-dimensional structure organoids with a structure similar to the fetal gland. The organoids show morphofunctional features and adrenal steroidogenic factor, steroid acute regulatory, cytochrome-P450-17A1, dosage-sensitive, sex-reversal, adrenal hypoplasia-critical region on chromosome X protein , NOTCH1, and nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3; stem (BMI1, nestin); and chromaffin (chromogranin A, tyrosine hydroxylase) markers similar to those of the populations of origin. This in vitro human adrenal system represents a unique but preliminar model for investigating the pathophysiological processes underlying physiologic adrenal remodeling and pathologic alterations involved in organ hypo- and hyperplasia and cancer.-Poli, G., Sarchielli, E., Guasti, D., Benvenuti, S., Ballerini, L., Mazzanti, B., Armignacco, R., Cantini, G., Lulli, M., Chortis, V., Arlt, W., Romagnoli, P., Vannelli, G. B., Mannelli, M., Luconi, M. Human fetal adrenal cells retain age-related stem- and endocrine-differentiation potential in culture.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Senescência Celular , Feto/citologia , Humanos
9.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 44(1): 19-24, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905434

RESUMO

The diagnostic work-up of adrenal tumors, often incidentally discovered, has emerged as an ever-increasing diagnostic problem for clinical endocrinologists. No imaging modality has sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity at differentiating benign from malignant adrenal lesions. It has long been observed that adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) present an immature pattern of steroidogenesis, dominated by steroid hormone precursors. Modern mass spectrometry-based assays can generate multi-steroid metabolite profiles in urine collections, which can detect differences between ACCs and benign adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs). This review summarizes the promising results of studies which have applied steroid metabolite profiling in biological fluids as a novel diagnostic tool for patients with adrenal tumors, as well as the challenges and limitations of this approach. It also discusses the potential role of steroid profiling as a biochemical surveillance tool to detect recurrence in patients who have undergone resection of an ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Esteroides/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(2): 312-318, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383267

RESUMO

Background: Up to 7% of all adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are pheochromocytomas (PCCs). In the evaluation of AI, it is generally recommended that PCC be excluded by measurement of plasma-free or 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines. However, recent studies suggest that biochemical exclusion of PCC not be performed for lesions with CT characteristics of an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA). Aim: To determine the proportion of PCCs with ACA-like attenuation or contrast washout on CT. Methods: For this multicenter retrospective study, two central investigators independently analyzed the CT reports of 533 patients with 548 histologically confirmed PCCs. Data on tumor size, unenhanced Hounsfield units (HU), absolute percentage washout (APW), and relative percentage washout (RPW) were collected in addition to clinical parameters. Results: Among the 376 PCCs for which unenhanced attenuation data were available, 374 had an attenuation of >10 HU (99.5%). In the two exceptions (0.5%), unenhanced attenuation was exactly 10 HU, which lies just within the range of ≤10 HU that would suggest a diagnosis of ACA. Of 76 PCCs with unenhanced HU > 10 and available washout data, 22 (28.9%) had a high APW and/or RPW, suggestive of ACA. Conclusion: Based on the lack of PCCs with an unenhanced attenuation of <10 HU and the low proportion (0.5%) of PCCs with an attenuation of 10 HU, it seems reasonable to abstain from biochemical testing for PCC in AIs with an unenhanced attenuation of ≤10 HU. The assessment of contrast washout, however, is unreliable for ruling out PCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Endocrinology ; 159(8): 2836-2849, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850793

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated a potential new treatment target for ACC, focusing on the mitochondrial reduced form of NAD phosphate (NADPH) generator nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). NNT has a central role within mitochondrial antioxidant pathways, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Inactivating human NNT mutations result in congenital adrenal insufficiency. We hypothesized that NNT silencing in ACC cells will induce toxic levels of oxidative stress. To explore this, we transiently knocked down NNT in NCI-H295R ACC cells. As predicted, this manipulation increased intracellular levels of oxidative stress; this resulted in a pronounced suppression of cell proliferation and higher apoptotic rates, as well as sensitization of cells to chemically induced oxidative stress. Steroidogenesis was paradoxically stimulated by NNT loss, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling. Next, we generated a stable NNT knockdown model in the same cell line to investigate the longer lasting effects of NNT silencing. After long-term culture, cells adapted metabolically to chronic NNT knockdown, restoring their redox balance and resilience to oxidative stress, although their proliferation remained suppressed. This was associated with higher rates of oxygen consumption. The molecular pathways underpinning these responses were explored in detail by RNA sequencing and nontargeted metabolome analysis, revealing major alterations in nucleotide synthesis, protein folding, and polyamine metabolism. This study provides preclinical evidence of the therapeutic merit of antioxidant targeting in ACC as well as illuminating the long-term adaptive response of cells to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Corticosteroides/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 178(3): K21-K27, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330226

RESUMO

Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is established in the adjuvant and advanced-stage treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and counteracts both tumor growth and tumor-related steroid production. Both the adrenal glands and the gonads are steroidogenically active organs and share a common embryogenic origin. Here, we describe the effects of mitotane in two patients with metastatic Leydig cell tumor (LCT) of the testes and associated severe androgen excess (serum testosterone 93 and 88 nmol/L, respectively; male reference range 7-27 nmol/L). Both men suffered from severe restlessness, insomnia and irritability, which they described as intolerable and disrupting normal life activities. Urinary steroid profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed excess androgen production and revealed concurrent overproduction of glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid precursors, which under physiological conditions are produced only by the adrenal glands but not by the gonads. In a palliative approach, they were commenced on mitotane, which achieved swift control of the hormone excess and the debilitating clinical symptoms, restoring normal quality of life. GC-MS demonstrated normalization of steroid production and decreased 5α-reductase activity, resulting in decreased androgen activation, and imaging demonstrated disease stabilization for 4-10 months. In conclusion, mitotane can be highly effective in controlling steroid excess in metastatic LCTs, with anti-tumor activity in some cases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Hiperandrogenismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor de Células de Leydig/tratamento farmacológico , Mitotano/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Androgênios/biossíntese , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/etiologia , Tumor de Células de Leydig/complicações , Tumor de Células de Leydig/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JCI Insight ; 2(8)2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenal aldosterone excess is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. However, adverse metabolic risk in primary aldosteronism extends beyond hypertension, with increased rates of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis, which cannot be easily explained by aldosterone excess. METHODS: We performed mass spectrometry-based analysis of a 24-hour urine steroid metabolome in 174 newly diagnosed patients with primary aldosteronism (103 unilateral adenomas, 71 bilateral adrenal hyperplasias) in comparison to 162 healthy controls, 56 patients with endocrine inactive adrenal adenoma, 104 patients with mild subclinical, and 47 with clinically overt adrenal cortisol excess. We also analyzed the expression of cortisol-producing CYP11B1 and aldosterone-producing CYP11B2 enzymes in adenoma tissue from 57 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma, employing immunohistochemistry with digital image analysis. RESULTS: Primary aldosteronism patients had significantly increased cortisol and total glucocorticoid metabolite excretion (all P < 0.001), only exceeded by glucocorticoid output in patients with clinically overt adrenal Cushing syndrome. Several surrogate parameters of metabolic risk correlated significantly with glucocorticoid but not mineralocorticoid output. Intratumoral CYP11B1 expression was significantly associated with the corresponding in vivo glucocorticoid excretion. Unilateral adrenalectomy resolved both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid excess. Postoperative evidence of adrenal insufficiency was found in 13 (29%) of 45 consecutively tested patients. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that glucocorticoid cosecretion is frequently found in primary aldosteronism and contributes to associated metabolic risk. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy alone may not be sufficient to counteract adverse metabolic risk in medically treated patients with primary aldosteronism. FUNDING: Medical Research Council UK, Wellcome Trust, European Commission.

14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 176(4): 471-480, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is significantly increased, with respiratory infections as a major cause of death. Moreover, patients with PAI report an increased rate of non-fatal infections. Neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that provide frontline protection against invading pathogens. Thus, we compared the function and phenotype of NK cells and neutrophils isolated from PAI patients and healthy controls to ascertain whether altered innate immune responses could be a contributory factor for the increased susceptibility of PAI patients to infection. DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 42 patients with PAI due to autoimmune adrenalitis (n = 37) or bilateral adrenalectomy (n = 5) and 58 sex- and age-matched controls. A comprehensive screen of innate immune function, consisting of measurements of neutrophil phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and NK cell surface receptor expression, was performed on all subjects. RESULTS: Neutrophil function did not differ between PAI and controls. However, NKCC was significantly reduced in PAI (12.0 ± 1.5% vs 21.1 ± 2.6%, P < 0.0001). Phenotypically, the percentage of NK cells expressing the activating receptors NKG2D and NKp46 was significantly lower in PAI, as was the surface density of NKG2D (all P < 0.0001). Intracellular granzyme B expression was significantly increased in NK cells from PAI patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal insufficiency is associated with significantly decreased NKCC, thereby potentially compromising early recognition and elimination of virally infected cells. This potential impairment in anti-viral immune defense may contribute to the increased rate of respiratory infections and ultimately mortality in PAI.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Doença de Addison/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fagocitose/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(2): 339-344, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901643

RESUMO

Context: Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease is extremely rare. Patient: We present a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission. Design and Results: Gene expression analysis of the tumor tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed high expression of all key steroidogenic enzymes. Adrenocortical-specific genes were 5.1 × 105 (CYP11B1), 1.8 × 102 (CYP11B2), and 6.3 × 104 (MC2R) times higher than nonsteroidogenic fibroblast control. This correlated with urine steroid metabolome profiling showing 2 fivefold increases in the excretion of the metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, and total glucocorticoids. Leydig-specific genes were 4.3 × 101 (LHCGR) and 9.3 × 100 (HSD17B3) times higher than control, and urinary steroid profiling showed twofold increased excretion of the major androgen metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone. These distinctly increased steroid metabolites were suppressed by dexamethasone but unresponsive to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, supporting the role of ACTH, but not luteinizing hormone, in regulating tumor-specific steroid excess. Conclusion: We report bilateral testicular tumors occurring in a patient with recurrent Cushing disease 12 years after bilateral adrenalectomy. Using mRNA expression analysis and steroid metabolome profiling, the tumors demonstrated both adrenocortical and gonadal steroidogenic properties, similar to testicular adrenal rest tumors found in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, suggesting the presence of pluripotent cells even in patients without congenital adrenal hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Criança , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Recidiva , Esteroides/sangue , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 175(6): R283-R295, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Beneficial effects of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) are uncertain. We sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (i) determine the effect of adrenalectomy compared with conservative management on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS and (ii) compare the effect of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS vs those with a nonfunctioning (NF) adrenal tumor. METHODS: MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial were searched on 17 November 2015. Reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality in duplicate. RESULTS: We included 26 studies reporting on 584 patients with SCS and 457 patients with NF adrenal tumors. Studies used different definitions of SCS. Patients with SCS undergoing adrenalectomy demonstrated an overall improvement in cardiovascular risk factors (61% for hypertension, 52% for diabetes mellitus, 45% for obesity and 24% for dyslipidemia). When compared with conservative management, patients with SCS undergoing adrenalectomy experienced improvement in hypertension (RR 11, 95% CI: 4.3-27.8) and diabetes mellitus (RR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-9.9), but not dyslipidemia (RR 2.6, 95% CI: 0.97-7.2) or obesity (RR 3.4, 95% CI: 0.95-12). Patients with NF adrenal tumors experienced improvement in hypertension (21/54 patients); however, insufficient data exist for comparison to patients with SCS. CONCLUSIONS: Available low-to-moderate-quality evidence from heterogeneous studies suggests a beneficial effect of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS overall and compared with conservative management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 175(2): R51-64, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27257145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adrenal masses are incidentally discovered in 5% of CT scans. In 2013/2014, 81 million CT examinations were undertaken in the USA and 5 million in the UK. However, uncertainty remains around the optimal imaging approach for diagnosing malignancy. We aimed to review the evidence on the accuracy of imaging tests for differentiating malignant from benign adrenal masses. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and ZETOC (January 1990 to August 2015). We included studies evaluating the accuracy of CT, MRI, or (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET compared with an adequate histological or imaging-based follow-up reference standard. RESULTS: We identified 37 studies suitable for inclusion, after screening 5469 references and 525 full-text articles. Studies evaluated the accuracy of CT (n=16), MRI (n=15), and FDG-PET (n=9) and were generally small and at high or unclear risk of bias. Only 19 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Limited data suggest that CT density >10HU has high sensitivity for detection of adrenal malignancy in participants with no prior indication for adrenal imaging, that is, masses with ≤10HU are unlikely to be malignant. All other estimates of test performance are based on too small numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their widespread use in routine assessment, there is insufficient evidence for the diagnostic value of individual imaging tests in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. Future research is urgently needed and should include prospective test validation studies for imaging and novel diagnostic approaches alongside detailed health economics analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Achados Incidentais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(11): 4146-54, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26353009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe condition with excess mortality and significant morbidity necessitating control of hypercortisolemia. There are few data documenting use of the steroidogenesis inhibitor metyrapone for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effectiveness of metyrapone in controlling cortisol excess in a contemporary series of patients with CS. DESIGN: This was designed as a retrospective, multicenter study. SETTING: Thirteen University hospitals were studied. PATIENTS: We studied a total of 195 patients with proven CS: 115 Cushing's disease, 37 ectopic ACTH syndrome, 43 ACTH-independent disease (adrenocortical carcinoma 10, adrenal adenoma 30, and ACTH-independent adrenal hyperplasia 3). MEASUREMENTS: Measurements included biochemical parameters of activity of CS: mean serum cortisol "day-curve" (CDC) (target 150-300 nmol/L); 9 am serum cortisol; 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC). RESULTS: A total of 164/195 received metyrapone monotherapy. Mean age was 49.6 ± 15.7 years; mean duration of therapy 8 months (median 3 mo, range 3 d to 11.6 y). There were significant improvements on metyrapone, first evaluation to last review: CDC (91 patients, 722.9 nmol/L [26.2 µg/dL] vs 348.6 nmol/L [12.6 µg/dL]; P < .0001); 9 am cortisol (123 patients, 882.9 nmol/L [32.0 µg/dL] vs 491.1 nmol/L [17.8 µg/dL]; P < .0001); and UFC (37 patients, 1483 nmol/24 h [537 µg/24 h] vs 452.6 nmol/24 h [164 µg/24 h]; P = .003). Overall, control at last review: 55%, 43%, 46%, and 76% of patients who had CDCs, UFCs, 9 am cortisol less than 331 nmol/L (12.0 µg/dL), and 9 am cortisol less than upper limit of normal/600 nmol/L (21.7 µg/dL). Median final dose: Cushing's disease 1375 mg; ectopic ACTH syndrome 1500 mg; benign adrenal disease 750 mg; and adrenocortical carcinoma 1250 mg. Adverse events occurred in 25% of patients, mostly mild gastrointestinal upset and dizziness, usually within 2 weeks of initiation or dose increase, all reversible. CONCLUSIONS: Metyrapone is effective therapy for short- and long-term control of hypercortisolemia in CS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Lactente , Masculino , Metirapona/administração & dosagem , Metirapona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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