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1.
Clin Immunol ; : 108311, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760094

RESUMO

Activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) Type I results from gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, which encodes the p110δ subunit of PI3Kδ. Abnormal actin dynamics have been hypothesized to contribute to the lymphopenia associated with this disease but have not been studied in patients with APDS. We report a patient with APDS who had widespread necrotic skin lesions that were responsive specifically to immunosuppressive therapy. EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (EBV-LCLs) from patients with APDS exhibit increased polymerized actin and increased apoptosis, suggesting a contribution of impaired actin dynamics to this disease.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 207: 40-42, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301515

RESUMO

Mutations in MYD88 cause susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections through impaired signaling downstream of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and IL-1 receptors. We studied a patient presenting with neutropenia, delayed umbilical cord separation, BCG adenitis, andP. aeruginosapneumonia. Next-generation DNA sequencing identified a novel homozygous truncation mutation in MYD88 that abolishes MyD88 expression. The patient's dermal fibroblasts had severely impaired IL-6 production after stimulation with ligands for the MyD88-dependent receptors TLR2, TLR4 and IL-1R, while responses to ligands for the MyD88-independent receptors TLR3 and TNF-α were preserved. Notably, secretion of TNF-α, which is essential for BCG control, was also impaired after LPS stimulation. In this first report of BCG infection in MyD88 deficiency, data suggest that MyD88-dependent TNF-α production contributes to control of mycobacterial disease.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 574-583.e5, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor TNF receptor family member 4-1BB (CD137) is encoded by TNFRSF9 and expressed on activated T cells. 4-1BB provides a costimulatory signal that enhances CD8+ T-cell survival, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial activity, thereby promoting immunity against viruses and tumors. The ligand for 4-1BB is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and EBV-transformed B cells. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the genetic basis of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, persistent EBV viremia, and EBV-induced lymphoproliferation in 2 unrelated patients. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing, immunoblotting, immunophenotyping, and in vitro assays of lymphocyte and mitochondrial function were performed. RESULTS: The 2 patients shared a homozygous G109S missense mutation in 4-1BB that abolished protein expression and ligand binding. The patients' CD8+ T cells had reduced proliferation, impaired expression of IFN-γ and perforin, and diminished cytotoxicity against allogeneic and HLA-matched EBV-B cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis, membrane potential, and function were significantly reduced in the patients' activated T cells. An inhibitory antibody against 4-1BB recapitulated the patients' defective CD8+ T-cell activation and cytotoxicity against EBV-infected B cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: This novel immunodeficiency demonstrates the critical role of 4-1BB costimulation in host immunity against EBV infection.

13.
JCI Insight ; 3(16)2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135305

RESUMO

Ion channel-controlled cell volume regulation is of fundamental significance to the physiological function of sperm. In addition to volume regulation, LRRC8A-dependent volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) activity is involved in cell cycle progression, insulin signaling, and cisplatin resistance. Nevertheless, the contribution of LRRC8A and its dependent VRAC activity in the germ cell lineage remain unknown. By utilizing a spontaneous Lrrc8a mouse mutation (c.1325delTG, p.F443*) and genetically engineered mouse models, we demonstrate that LRRC8A-dependent VRAC activity is essential for male germ cell development and fertility. Lrrc8a-null male germ cells undergo progressive degeneration independent of the apoptotic pathway during postnatal testicular development. Lrrc8a-deficient mouse sperm exhibit multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), a feature commonly observed in the sperm of infertile human patients. Importantly, we identified a human patient with a rare LRRC8A hypomorphic mutation (c.1634G>A, p.Arg545His) possibly linked to Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS), a male sterility disorder characterized by the loss of germ cells. Thus, LRRC8A is a critical factor required for germ cell development and volume regulation in the mouse, and it might serve as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for SCOS patients.

14.
Sci Immunol ; 3(24)2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907691

RESUMO

Heterozygosity for human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the STAT3 promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein. The autoinduction of STAT3 production, activation, and function by STAT3-activating cytokines is strongly impaired. Like patients with STAT3 DN mutations, ZNF341-deficient patients lack T helper 17 (TH17) cells, have an excess of TH2 cells, and have low memory B cells due to the tight dependence of STAT3 activity on ZNF341 in lymphocytes. Their milder extra-hematopoietic manifestations and stronger inflammatory responses reflect the lower ZNF341 dependence of STAT3 activity in other cell types. Human ZNF341 is essential for the STAT3 transcription-dependent autoinduction and sustained activity of STAT3.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 540-541, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781065

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in some of the author names and affiliations. The correct list of author names and affiliations is below, with the corrections in bold.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 320-329, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675737

RESUMO

Genetic testing plays a critical role in diagnosis for many primary immunodeficiency diseases. The goals of this report are to outline some of the challenges that clinical immunologists face routinely in the use of genetic testing for patient care. In addition, we provide a review of the types of genetic testing used in the diagnosis of PID, including their strengths and limitations. We describe the strengths and limitations of different genetic testing approaches for specific clinical contexts that raise concern for specific PID disorders in light of the challenges reported by the clinical immunologist members of the CIS in a recent membership survey. Finally, we delineate the CIS's recommendations for the use of genetic testing in light of these issues.

17.
Clin Immunol ; 191: 21-26, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307770

RESUMO

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), receptors of the innate immune system, are important in interaction with pathogens. Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), a member of PRRs, is an intracellular adaptor protein important in fungal defense. CARD9 deficiency causes a rare primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by superficial and deep fungal infections. We report a 17year-old female with a homozygous nonsense mutation in CARD9, who presented with severe cerebral fungal infection of the central nervous system. She was also found to have an heterozygous NLRP12 mutation, which may have had add-on effect on the severity of the infection.

19.
Clin Immunol ; 187: 68-75, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051008

RESUMO

Defects in DNA Recombination due to mutations in RAG1/2 or DCLRE1C result in combined immunodeficiency (CID) with a range of disease severity. We present the clinical, immunologic and molecular characteristics of 21 patients with defects in RAG1, RAG2 or DCLRE1C, who accounted for 24% of combined immune deficiency cases in the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry. The distribution of the patients was as follow: 8 with RAG1 deficiency, 6 with RAG2 deficiency and 7 with DCLRE1C deficiency. Nine patients presented with SCID, 6 with OS, 2 with leaky SCID and 4 with CID and granuloma and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Eight patients [(7 SCID and 1 OS) (38%)] received hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The median age of HSCT was 11.5months and the median time from diagnosis to HSCT was 6months. Fifty percent of the transplanted patients are alive while only 23% of the untransplanted ones are alive.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(4): 1450-1458, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are diseases of defective adaptive immunity with diverse clinical phenotypes. Although CIDs are more prevalent in the Middle East than Western countries, the resources for genetic diagnosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterize the categories of patients with CIDs in Iran clinically and genetically. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 696 patients with CIDs. Patients were subdivided into those with syndromic (344 patients) and nonsyndromic (352 patients) CIDs. Targeted DNA sequencing was performed on 243 (34.9%) patients. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield of the 243 sequenced patients was 77.8% (189 patients). The clinical diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome (P < .001), onset of disease at greater than 5 years (P = .02), and absence of multiple affected family members (P = .04) were significantly more frequent in the patients without a genetic diagnosis. An autosomal recessive disease was found in 62.9% of patients, reflecting the high rate of consanguinity in this cohort. Mutations impairing VDJ recombination and DNA repair were the most common underlying causes of CIDs. However, in patients with syndromic CIDs, autosomal recessive mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), autosomal dominant mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and microdeletions in 22q11.21 were the most commonly affected genomic loci. Patients with syndromic CIDs had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate rather than those with nonsyndromic CIDs. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides proof of principle for the application of targeted next-generation sequencing panels in countries with limited diagnostic resources. The effect of genetic diagnosis on clinical care requires continued improvements in therapeutic resources for these patients.

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