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1.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 25, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: POLG, located on nuclear chromosome 15, encodes the DNA polymerase γ(Pol γ). Pol γ is responsible for the replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Pol γ is the only DNA polymerase found in mitochondria for most animal cells. Mutations in POLG are the most common single-gene cause of diseases of mitochondria and have been mapped over the coding region of the POLG ORF. RESULTS: Using PhyloCSF to survey alternative reading frames, we found a conserved coding signature in an alternative frame in exons 2 and 3 of POLG, herein referred to as ORF-Y that arose de novo in placental mammals. Using the synplot2 program, synonymous site conservation was found among mammals in the region of the POLG ORF that is overlapped by ORF-Y. Ribosome profiling data revealed that ORF-Y is translated and that initiation likely occurs at a CUG codon. Inspection of an alignment of mammalian sequences containing ORF-Y revealed that the CUG codon has a strong initiation context and that a well-conserved predicted RNA stem-loop begins 14 nucleotides downstream. Such features are associated with enhanced initiation at near-cognate non-AUG codons. Reanalysis of the Kim et al. (2014) draft human proteome dataset yielded two unique peptides that map unambiguously to ORF-Y. An additional conserved uORF, herein referred to as ORF-Z, was also found in exon 2 of POLG. Lastly, we surveyed Clinvar variants that are synonymous with respect to the POLG ORF and found that most of these variants cause amino acid changes in ORF-Y or ORF-Z. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a novel coding sequence, ORF-Y, that overlaps the POLG ORF. Ribosome profiling and mass spectrometry data show that ORF-Y is expressed. PhyloCSF and synplot2 analysis show that ORF-Y is subject to strong purifying selection. An abundance of disease-correlated mutations that map to exons 2 and 3 of POLG but also affect ORF-Y provides potential clinical significance to this finding.

2.
Mucosal Immunol ; 13(2): 322-333, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772324

RESUMO

Given the global burden of diarrheal diseases on healthcare it is surprising how little is known about the drivers of disease severity. Colitis caused by infection and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised by neutrophil infiltration into the intestinal mucosa and yet our understanding of neutrophil responses during colitis is incomplete. Using infectious (Citrobacter rodentium) and chemical (dextran sulphate sodium; DSS) murine colitis models, as well as human IBD samples, we find that faecal neutrophil elastase (NE) activity reflects disease severity. During C. rodentium infection intestinal epithelial cells secrete the serine protease inhibitor SerpinA3N to inhibit and mitigate tissue damage caused by extracellular NE. Mice suffering from severe infection produce insufficient SerpinA3N to control excessive NE activity. This activity contributes to colitis severity as infection of these mice with a recombinant C. rodentium strain producing and secreting SerpinA3N reduces tissue damage. Thus, uncontrolled luminal NE activity is involved in severe colitis. Taken together, our findings suggest that NE activity could be a useful faecal biomarker for assessing disease severity as well as therapeutic target for both infectious and chronic inflammatory colitis.

3.
Cell Microbiol ; 22(1): e13126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610608

RESUMO

The mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium is used to model infections with enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC). Pathogenesis is commonly modelled in mice developing mild disease (e.g., C57BL/6). However, little is known about host responses in mice exhibiting severe colitis (e.g., C3H/HeN), which arguably provide a more clinically relevant model for human paediatric enteric infection. Infection of C3H/HeN mice with C. rodentium results in rapid colonic colonisation, coinciding with induction of key inflammatory signatures and colonic crypt hyperplasia. Infection also induces dramatic changes to bioenergetics in intestinal epithelial cells, with transition from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis and higher abundance of SGLT4, LDHA, and MCT4. Concomitantly, mitochondrial proteins involved in the TCA cycle and OXPHOS were in lower abundance. Similar to observations in C57BL/6 mice, we detected simultaneous activation of cholesterol biogenesis, import, and efflux. Distinctly, however, the pattern recognition receptors NLRP3 and ALPK1 were specifically induced in C3H/HeN. Using cell-based assays revealed that C. rodentium activates the ALPK1/TIFA axis, which is dependent on the ADP-heptose biosynthesis pathway but independent of the Type III secretion system. This study reveals for the first time the unfolding intestinal epithelial cells' responses during severe infectious colitis, which resemble EPEC human infections.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4513, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586073

RESUMO

The midbody is an organelle assembled at the intercellular bridge between the two daughter cells at the end of mitosis. It controls the final separation of the daughter cells and has been involved in cell fate, polarity, tissue organization, and cilium and lumen formation. Here, we report the characterization of the intricate midbody protein-protein interaction network (interactome), which identifies many previously unknown interactions and provides an extremely valuable resource for dissecting the multiple roles of the midbody. Initial analysis of this interactome revealed that PP1ß-MYPT1 phosphatase regulates microtubule dynamics in late cytokinesis and de-phosphorylates the kinesin component MKLP1/KIF23 of the centralspindlin complex. This de-phosphorylation antagonizes Aurora B kinase to modify the functions and interactions of centralspindlin in late cytokinesis. Our findings expand the repertoire of PP1 functions during mitosis and indicate that spatiotemporal changes in the distribution of kinases and counteracting phosphatases finely tune the activity of cytokinesis proteins.


Assuntos
Citocinese/fisiologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteína Fosfatase 1/metabolismo , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose/fisiologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
5.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621109

RESUMO

In recent years, the remarkable molecular complexity of synapses has been revealed, with over 1,000 proteins identified in the synapse proteome. Although it is known that different receptors and other synaptic proteins are present in different types of neurons, the extent of synapse diversity across the brain is largely unknown. This is mainly due to the limitations of current techniques. Here, we report an efficient method for the purification of synaptic protein complexes, fusing a high-affinity tag to endogenous PSD95 in specific cell types. We also developed a strategy, which enables the visualisation of endogenous PSD95 with fluorescent-protein tag in Cre-recombinase-expressing cells. We demonstrate the feasibility of proteomic analysis of synaptic protein complexes and visualisation of these in specific cell types. We find that the composition of PSD95 complexes purified from specific cell types differs from those extracted from tissues with diverse cellular composition. The results suggest that there might be differential interactions in the PSD95 complexes in different brain regions. We have detected differentially interacting proteins by comparing data sets from the whole hippocampus and the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. Therefore, these novel conditional PSD95 tagging lines will not only serve as powerful tools for precisely dissecting synapse diversity in specific brain regions and subsets of neuronal cells, but also provide an opportunity to better understand brain region- and cell-type-specific alterations associated with various psychiatric/neurological diseases. These newly developed conditional gene tagging methods can be applied to many different synaptic proteins and will facilitate research on the molecular complexity of synapses.

6.
Genome Res ; 29(12): 2073-2087, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537640

RESUMO

The most widely appreciated role of DNA is to encode protein, yet the exact portion of the human genome that is translated remains to be ascertained. We previously developed PhyloCSF, a widely used tool to identify evolutionary signatures of protein-coding regions using multispecies genome alignments. Here, we present the first whole-genome PhyloCSF prediction tracks for human, mouse, chicken, fly, worm, and mosquito. We develop a workflow that uses machine learning to predict novel conserved protein-coding regions and efficiently guide their manual curation. We analyze more than 1000 high-scoring human PhyloCSF regions and confidently add 144 conserved protein-coding genes to the GENCODE gene set, as well as additional coding regions within 236 previously annotated protein-coding genes, and 169 pseudogenes, most of them disabled after primates diverged. The majority of these represent new discoveries, including 70 previously undetected protein-coding genes. The novel coding genes are additionally supported by single-nucleotide variant evidence indicative of continued purifying selection in the human lineage, coding-exon splicing evidence from new GENCODE transcripts using next-generation transcriptomic data sets, and mass spectrometry evidence of translation for several new genes. Our discoveries required simultaneous comparative annotation of other vertebrate genomes, which we show is essential to remove spurious ORFs and to distinguish coding from pseudogene regions. Our new coding regions help elucidate disease-associated regions by revealing that 118 GWAS variants previously thought to be noncoding are in fact protein altering. Altogether, our PhyloCSF data sets and algorithms will help researchers seeking to interpret these genomes, while our new annotations present exciting loci for further experimental characterization.

7.
Cell Rep ; 28(6): 1635-1647.e5, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390575

RESUMO

Malaria represents a major global health issue, and the identification of new intervention targets remains an urgent priority. This search is hampered by more than one-third of the genes of malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites being uncharacterized. We report a large-scale protein interaction network in Plasmodium schizonts, generated by combining blue native-polyacrylamide electrophoresis with quantitative mass spectrometry and machine learning. This integrative approach, spanning 3 species, identifies >20,000 putative protein interactions, organized into 600 protein clusters. We validate selected interactions, assigning functions in chromatin regulation to previously unannotated proteins and suggesting a role for an EELM2 domain-containing protein and a putative microrchidia protein as mechanistic links between AP2-domain transcription factors and epigenetic regulation. Our interactome represents a high-confidence map of the native organization of core cellular processes in Plasmodium parasites. The network reveals putative functions for uncharacterized proteins, provides mechanistic and structural insight, and uncovers potential alternative therapeutic targets.

8.
Structure ; 27(8): 1195-1210.e7, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230944

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) govern key aspects of ubiquitin signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that the activities of E2s are modulated by posttranslational modifications; the structural underpinnings, however, are largely unclear. Here, we unravel the structural basis and mechanistic consequences of a conserved autoubiquitination event near the catalytic center of E2s, using the human anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-associated UBE2S as a model system. Crystal structures we determined of the catalytic ubiquitin carrier protein domain combined with MD simulations reveal that the active-site region is malleable, which permits an adjacent ubiquitin acceptor site, Lys+5, to be ubiquitinated intramolecularly. We demonstrate by NMR that the Lys+5-linked ubiquitin inhibits UBE2S by obstructing its reloading with ubiquitin. By immunoprecipitation, quantitative mass spectrometry, and siRNA-and-rescue experiments we show that Lys+5 ubiquitination of UBE2S decreases during mitotic exit but does not influence proteasomal turnover of this E2. These findings suggest that UBE2S activity underlies inherent regulation during the cell cycle.

9.
Methods ; 164-165: 67-72, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953756

RESUMO

The identification of bona fide protein-protein interactions and the mapping of proteomes was greatly enhanced by protein tagging for generic affinity purification methods and analysis by mass spectrometry (AP-MS). The high quality of AP-MS data permitted the development of proteomic navigation by sequential tagging of identified interactions. However AP-MS is laborious and limited to relatively high affinity protein-protein interactions. Proximity labeling, first with the biotin ligase BirA, termed BioID, and then with ascorbate peroxidase, termed APEX, permits a greater reach into the proteome than AP-MS enabling both the identification of a wider field and weaker protein-protein interactions. This additional reach comes with the need for stringent controls. Proximity labeling also permits experiments in living cells allowing spatiotemporal investigations of the proteome. Here we discuss proximity labeling with accompanying methodological descriptions for E. coli and mammalian cells.

10.
mBio ; 10(2)2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940698

RESUMO

We used the mouse attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, which models the human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC), to temporally resolve intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) responses and changes to the microbiome during in vivo infection. We found the host to be unresponsive during the first 3 days postinfection (DPI), when C. rodentium resides in the caecum. In contrast, at 4 DPI, the day of colonic colonization, despite only sporadic adhesion to the apex of the crypt, we observed robust upregulation of cell cycle and DNA repair processes, which were associated with expansion of the crypt Ki67-positive replicative zone, and downregulation of multiple metabolic processes (including the tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle and oxidative phosphorylation). Moreover, we observed dramatic depletion of goblet and deep crypt secretory cells and an atypical regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in IECs during early infection, with simultaneous upregulation of cholesterol biogenesis (e.g., 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase [Hmgcr]), import (e.g., low-density lipoprotein receptor [Ldlr]), and efflux (e.g., AbcA1). We also detected interleukin 22 (IL-22) responses in IECs (e.g., Reg3γ) on the day of colonic colonization, which occurred concomitantly with a bloom of commensal Enterobacteriaceae on the mucosal surface. These results unravel a new paradigm in host-pathogen-microbiome interactions, showing for the first time that sensing a small number of pathogenic bacteria triggers swift intrinsic changes to the IEC composition and function, in tandem with significant changes to the mucosa-associated microbiome, which parallel innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE The mouse pathogen C. rodentium is a widely used model for colonic infection and has been a major tool in fundamental discoveries in the fields of bacterial pathogenesis and mucosal immunology. Despite extensive studies probing acute C. rodentium infection, our understanding of the early stages preceding the infection climax remains relatively undetailed. To this end, we apply a multiomics approach to resolve temporal changes to the host and microbiome during early infection. Unexpectedly, we found immediate and dramatic responses occurring on the day of colonic infection, both in the host intestinal epithelial cells and in the microbiome. Our study suggests changes in cholesterol and carbon metabolism in epithelial cells are instantly induced upon pathogen detection in the colon, corresponding with a shift to primarily facultative anaerobes constituting the microbiome. This study contributes to our knowledge of disease pathogenesis and mechanisms of barrier regulation, which is required for development of novel therapeutics targeting the intestinal epithelium.


Assuntos
Citrobacter rodentium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(3): 487-500, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604225

RESUMO

A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Sense and antisense repeat-containing transcripts undergo repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated translation to produce five dipeptide proteins (DPRs). The polyGR and polyPR DPRs are extremely toxic when expressed in Drosophila neurons. To determine the mechanism that mediates this toxicity, we purified DPRs from the Drosophila brain and used mass spectrometry to identify the in vivo neuronal DPR interactome. PolyGR and polyPR interact with ribosomal proteins, and inhibit translation in both human iPSC-derived motor neurons, and adult Drosophila neurons. We next performed a screen of 81 translation-associated proteins in GGGGCC repeat-expressing Drosophila to determine whether this translational repression can be overcome and if this impacts neurodegeneration. Expression of the translation initiation factor eIF1A uniquely rescued DPR-induced toxicity in vivo, indicating that restoring translation is a potential therapeutic strategy. These data directly implicate translational repression in C9orf72 repeat-induced neurodegeneration and identify eIF1A as a novel modifier of C9orf72 repeat toxicity.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(D1): D766-D773, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357393

RESUMO

The accurate identification and description of the genes in the human and mouse genomes is a fundamental requirement for high quality analysis of data informing both genome biology and clinical genomics. Over the last 15 years, the GENCODE consortium has been producing reference quality gene annotations to provide this foundational resource. The GENCODE consortium includes both experimental and computational biology groups who work together to improve and extend the GENCODE gene annotation. Specifically, we generate primary data, create bioinformatics tools and provide analysis to support the work of expert manual gene annotators and automated gene annotation pipelines. In addition, manual and computational annotation workflows use any and all publicly available data and analysis, along with the research literature to identify and characterise gene loci to the highest standard. GENCODE gene annotations are accessible via the Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browsers, the Ensembl FTP site, Ensembl Biomart, Ensembl Perl and REST APIs as well as https://www.gencodegenes.org.

13.
J Proteome Res ; 18(3): 1433-1440, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576155

RESUMO

Isobaric labeling is a highly precise approach for protein quantification. However, due to the isolation interference problem, isobaric tagging suffers from ratio underestimation at the MS2 level. The use of narrow isolation widths is a rational approach to alleviate the interference problem; however, this approach compromises proteome coverage. We reasoned that although a very narrow isolation window will result in loss of peptide fragment ions, the reporter ion signals will be retained for a significant portion of the spectra. On the basis of this assumption, we have designed a dual isolation width acquisition (DIWA) method, in which each precursor is first fragmented with HCD using a standard isolation width for peptide identification and preliminary quantification, followed by a second MS2 HCD scan using a much narrower isolation width for the acquisition of quantitative spectra with reduced interference. We leverage the quantification obtained by the "narrow" scans to build linear regression models and apply these to decompress the fold-changes measured at the "standard" scans. We evaluate the DIWA approach using a nested two species/gene knockout TMT-6plex experimental design and discuss the perspectives of this approach.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4776, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429481

RESUMO

Covalent modifications of proteins with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules are instrumental to many biological processes. However, identifying the E3 ligase responsible for these modifications remains a major bottleneck in ubiquitin research. Here, we present an E2-thioester-driven identification (E2~dID) method for the targeted identification of substrates of specific E2 and E3 enzyme pairs. E2~dID exploits the central position of E2-conjugating enzymes in the ubiquitination cascade and provides in vitro generated biotinylated E2~ubiquitin thioester conjugates as the sole source for ubiquitination in extracts. This enables purification and mass spectrometry-based identification of modified proteins under stringent conditions independently of the biological source of the extract. We demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of E2-dID by identifying and validating substrates of APC/C in human cells. Finally, we perform E2~dID with SUMO in S. cerevisiae, showing that this approach can be easily adapted to other ubiquitin-like modifiers and experimental models.


Assuntos
Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/metabolismo , Proteína SUMO-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células HeLa , Humanos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(10): e1007406, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365535

RESUMO

Infection with Citrobacter rodentium triggers robust tissue damage repair responses, manifested by secretion of IL-22, in the absence of which mice succumbed to the infection. Of the main hallmarks of C. rodentium infection are colonic crypt hyperplasia (CCH) and dysbiosis. In order to colonize the host and compete with the gut microbiota, C. rodentium employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) that injects effectors into colonic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Once injected, the effectors subvert processes involved in innate immune responses, cellular metabolism and oxygenation of the mucosa. Importantly, the identity of the effector/s triggering the tissue repair response is/are unknown. Here we report that the effector EspO ,an orthologue of OspE found in Shigella spp, affects proliferation of IECs 8 and 14 days post C. rodentium infection as well as secretion of IL-22 from colonic explants. While we observed no differences in the recruitment of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and T cells, which are the main sources of IL-22 at the early and late stages of C. rodentium infection respectively, infection with ΔespO was characterized by diminished recruitment of sub-mucosal neutrophils, which coincided with lower abundance of Mmp9 and chemokines (e.g. S100a8/9) in IECs. Moreover, mice infected with ΔespO triggered significantly lesser nutritional immunity (e.g. calprotectin, Lcn2) and expression of antimicrobial peptides (Reg3ß, Reg3γ) compared to mice infected with WT C. rodentium. This overlapped with a decrease in STAT3 phosphorylation in IECs. Importantly, while the reduced CCH and abundance of antimicrobial proteins during ΔespO infection did not affect C. rodentium colonization or the composition of commensal Proteobacteria, they had a subtle consequence on Firmicutes subpopulations. EspO is the first bacterial virulence factor that affects neutrophil recruitment and secretion of IL-22, as well as expression of antimicrobial and nutritional immunity proteins in IECs.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Citrobacter rodentium/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/lesões , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889196

RESUMO

Cross-talk between genes, transcripts, and proteins is the key to cellular responses; hence, analysis of molecular levels as distinct entities is slowly being extended to integrative studies to enhance the understanding of molecular dynamics within cells. Current tools for the visualization and integration of proteomics with other omics datasets are inadequate for large-scale studies. Furthermore, they only capture basic sequence identify, discarding post-translational modifications and quantitation. To address these issues, we developed PoGo to map peptides with associated post-translational modifications and quantification to reference genome annotation. In addition, the tool was developed to enable the mapping of peptides identified from customized sequence databases incorporating single amino acid variants. While PoGo is a command line tool, the graphical interface PoGoGUI enables non-bioinformatics researchers to easily map peptides to 25 species supported by Ensembl genome annotation. The generated output borrows file formats from the genomics field and, therefore, visualization is supported in most genome browsers. For large-scale studies, PoGo is supported by TrackHubGenerator to create web-accessible repositories of data mapped to genomes that also enable an easy sharing of proteogenomics data. With little effort, this tool can map millions of peptides to reference genomes within only a few minutes, outperforming other available sequence-identity based tools. This protocol demonstrates the best approaches for proteogenomics mapping through PoGo with publicly available datasets of quantitative and phosphoproteomics, as well as large-scale studies.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Peptídeos/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Proteômica/métodos
17.
Sci Signal ; 11(535)2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921656

RESUMO

Mechanically activated, slowly adapting currents in sensory neurons have been linked to noxious mechanosensation. The conotoxin NMB-1 (noxious mechanosensation blocker-1) blocks such currents and inhibits mechanical pain. Using a biotinylated form of NMB-1 in mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 67 binding proteins in sensory neurons and a sensory neuron-derived cell line, of which the top candidate was annexin A6, a membrane-associated calcium-binding protein. Annexin A6-deficient mice showed increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Sensory neurons from these mice showed increased activity of the cation channel Piezo2, which mediates a rapidly adapting mechano-gated current linked to proprioception and touch, and a decrease in mechanically activated, slowly adapting currents. Conversely, overexpression of annexin A6 in sensory neurons inhibited rapidly adapting currents that were partially mediated by Piezo2. Furthermore, overexpression of annexin A6 in sensory neurons attenuated mechanical pain in a mouse model of osteoarthritis, a disease in which mechanically evoked pain is particularly problematic. These data suggest that annexin A6 can be exploited to inhibit chronic mechanical pain.


Assuntos
Anexina A6/fisiologia , Conotoxinas/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Dor/prevenção & controle , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/etiologia , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Biotinilação , Células Cultivadas , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/patologia
18.
Oncotarget ; 9(27): 19050-19064, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721183

RESUMO

High Mobility Group B (HMGB) proteins are involved in cancer progression and in cellular responses to platinum compounds used in the chemotherapy of prostate and ovary cancer. Here we use affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) and yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening to carry out an exhaustive study of HMGB1 and HMGB2 protein interactions in the context of prostate and ovary epithelia. We present a proteomic study of HMGB1 partners based on immunoprecipitation of HMGB1 from a non-cancerous prostate epithelial cell line. In addition, HMGB1 and HMGB2 were used as baits in yeast two-hybrid screening of libraries from prostate and ovary epithelial cell lines as well as from healthy ovary tissue. HMGB1 interacts with many nuclear proteins that control gene expression, but also with proteins that form part of the cytoskeleton, cell-adhesion structures and others involved in intracellular protein translocation, cellular migration, secretion, apoptosis and cell survival. HMGB2 interacts with proteins involved in apoptosis, cell motility and cellular proliferation. High confidence interactors, based on repeated identification in different cell types or in both MS and Y2H approaches, are discussed in relation to cancer. This study represents a useful resource for detailed investigation of the role of HMGB1 in cancer of epithelial origins, as well as potential alternative avenues of therapeutic intervention.

19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(8): 1481-1489, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741735

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify molecular differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and articular cartilage tissue from OA patients. Methods: We investigated genes and pathways by combining genome-wide DNA methylation, RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics in isolated primary chondrocytes from the cartilaginous layer of osteophytes and matched areas of low- and high-grade articular cartilage across nine patients with OA undergoing hip replacement surgery. Results: Chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage showed widespread differences to low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes. These differences were similar to, but more pronounced than, differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and high-grade articular cartilage, and more pronounced than differences between high- and low-grade articular cartilage. We identified 56 genes with significant differences between osteophytic chondrocytes and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes on all three omics levels. Several of these genes have known roles in OA, including ALDH1A2 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, which have functional genetic variants associated with OA from genome-wide association studies. An integrative gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that differences between osteophytic and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes are associated with extracellular matrix organization, skeletal system development, platelet aggregation and regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. Conclusion: We present a first comprehensive view of the molecular landscape of chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage as compared with articular cartilage chondrocytes from the same joints in OA. We found robust changes at genes relevant to chondrocyte function, providing insight into biological processes involved in osteophyte development and thus OA progression.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osteoartrite do Quadril/genética , Proteômica/métodos , RNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia
20.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 883-894, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736013

RESUMO

The histone H3 Lys27-specific demethylase UTX (or KDM6A) is targeted by loss-of-function mutations in multiple cancers. Here, we demonstrate that UTX suppresses myeloid leukemogenesis through noncatalytic functions, a property shared with its catalytically inactive Y-chromosome paralog, UTY (or KDM6C). In keeping with this, we demonstrate concomitant loss/mutation of KDM6A (UTX) and UTY in multiple human cancers. Mechanistically, global genomic profiling showed only minor changes in H3K27me3 but significant and bidirectional alterations in H3K27ac and chromatin accessibility; a predominant loss of H3K4me1 modifications; alterations in ETS and GATA-factor binding; and altered gene expression after Utx loss. By integrating proteomic and genomic analyses, we link these changes to UTX regulation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, coordination of the COMPASS complex and enhanced pioneering activity of ETS factors during evolution to AML. Collectively, our findings identify a dual role for UTX in suppressing acute myeloid leukemia via repression of oncogenic ETS and upregulation of tumor-suppressive GATA programs.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Fatores de Transcrição GATA/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteômica/métodos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Ativação Transcricional
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