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Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 81(1): 164-174, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577074


BACKGROUND: There is scanty information on the skull morphology of barking and sambar deer; thus the present study was designed to provide information on morphology, radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the skull bones of both deer species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 12 skulls of adult barking deer (n = 6) and sambar deer (n = 6) of either sex (n = 3 males and n = 3 females) collected from Aizawl Zoological Park, Aizawl, Mizoram. The skulls of both species were macerated as per the standard maceration techniques. RESULTS: The skull bones of both deer species were divided into a neurocranium and a viscerocranium. The neurocranium was comprised of occipital, sphenoid, temporal, frontal, parietal, interparietal and ethmoid bones. The viscerocranium consisted of nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, incisive, palatine, pterygoid, vomer, mandible, turbinates and hyoid bones. The cranial cavity was oval and elongated caudally. The orbit was round, complete in barking deer; however, it was oval, complete in sambar deer. The facial tuberosity was present caudal to infraorbital foramen and dorsally at superior third premolar tooth in barking deer whereas dorsally at the superior first molar tooth in sambar deer. The infraorbital foramina were small, elliptical and placed at the level of the superior first premolar tooth. The alveolus for a canine tooth was present rostrally in the maxilla of both species. Turbinates bones were visible and mandibular symphysis remained unossified on radiographs and CT in both species. The radiographs of both species showed that the nasal canal was divided by the nasal septum. The CT scan demonstrated the paranasal, frontal and maxillary sinuses. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is important in the comparative anatomy of ruminant species and may help the wildlife forensic officials to identify and differentiate the bones of these two species from those of other domestic and wild small ruminants.

Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Radiografia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 81(1): 82-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438190


BACKGROUND: Piglet mortality is a real concern to the pig farmers. The major cause is due to the late maturation of the immune system and dietary changes in postweaned piglets. The potential role of probiotic and zinc in the stimulation of the immune system is well established. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate alterations of T and B cells in the small intestine after dietary inclusion of probiotic and zinc in pre and post-weaned piglets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 healthy Large White Yorkshire (LWY) piglets, irrespective of sex obtained from 3 litters at the age-group of 20, 30 and 60 days. They were divided into a control group fed with basal diet and a treatment group fed with probiotic and zinc supplement along with the basal diet, consisting of three animals in each group. The piglets were weaned at 28 days of age. After sacrificing the animals at day 20, 30 and 60 from both the groups, the abdominal cavity was opened and small intestinal tissue samples were collected, processed and stained by indirect immunofluorescence technique. The slides were evaluated under the fluorescent light microscope. The data were statistically analysed. RESULTS: The different T and B cell subsets were recorded in the lining epithelium, core of villus, crypt area of lamina propria and Peyer's patch area. The number of CD4+, CD8+, IgA+ and IgM+ cells was higher in the treated piglets than the control group of animals, irrespective of segments of intestine and age-group. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the dietary supplementation of probiotic and zinc was found to be good additives as they can stimulate the immune response in piglets, especially during the critical early post-weaning period.

Probióticos , Zinco , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestino Delgado , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Suínos
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(1): 170-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491187


BACKGROUND: There is no previously reported information on the applied anatomy and clinical significance of the maxillofacial and mandibular regions of the barking deer and sambar deer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Therefore, the present study was designed to provide some important clinical landmarks related to tracking of the infraorbital, mental and mandibular nerves with its clinical implications in regional anaesthesia in both the species. RESULTS: In the present study, the distance between the most lateral bulging of the facial tuberosity to the infraorbital foramen and from the latter to the root of the alveolar tooth directly ventral to it was found to be 2.65 ± 0.01 cm and 0.90 ± ± 0.02 cm in males; 2.75 ± 0.01 cm, 1.11 ± 0.01 cm in females of barking deer and 4.57 ± 0.01 cm and 1.83 ± 0.02 cm in males; 4.52 ± 0.02 cm and 1.76 ± 0.02 cm in females of sambar deer. The infraorbital foramen was small, elliptical and was located at the level of first superior premolar teeth in barking deer and sambar deer. The facial tuberosity was located above the third superior premolar teeth in the barking deer but was located at the level of the first superior molar teeth in sambar deer. The distance between the lateral alveolar root of the third inferior incisor tooth to the mental foramen was 2.84 ± 0.01 cm in males, 2.78 ± 0.01 cm in females of barking deer and 3.04 ± 0.02 cm in males, 2.96 ± 0.01 cm in females of sambar deer which is an important landmark for achieving the location of the mental foramen nerve for the regional nerve block in both the species. The mandible of both the species showed oval-shaped mental foramen with unossified mandibular symphysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that most of the parameters showed a statistically significant difference between the sexes in barking deer and sambar deer; however, from the practical point of view, these differences were meager. The results were discussed with regard to their clinical applications in various regional anaesthesia performed in maxillofacial and mandibular regions of both the species.

Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Face , Feminino , Masculino , Mandíbula , Maxila
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(3): 605-617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789842


BACKGROUND: Probiotics and zinc are commonly used and beneficial in pig production. This work aimed to assess the effects of probiotic and zinc on the mucosal cells of the small intestine in respect to digestive capacity and immunity in pre- and post-weaned piglets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen Large White Yorkshire piglets were divided equally into control and treatment groups. The piglets were maintained in standard management conditions and were weaned at 28 days of age. The treatment group of piglets fed a mixture of probiotics orally at 1.25 × 109 CFU/day and zinc at 2000 ppm/day from birth to 10 days of age. At three different age-groups viz. day 20 (pre-weaning) and, day 30 and day 60 (post-weaning), the animals were sacrificed. For histomorphology, the tissue samples were processed and stained with Mayer's haematoxylin and eosin for routine study, combined periodic acid-Schiff-Alcian blue for mucopolysaccharides and Masson-Hamperl argentaffin technique for argentaffin cells. The stained slides were observed under the microscope. The samples were processed as per the standard procedure for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The statistical analysis of the data using the appropriate statistical tests was also conducted. RESULTS: The mucosal epithelium of villi and crypts were lined by enterocytes, goblet cells, argentaffin cells, microfold (M-cell) cells, tuft cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. The multipotent stem cells were located at the crypt base. The length of the enterocyte microvilli was significantly longer (p < 0.05) in the treatment group of piglets. The number of different types of goblet cells and argentaffin cells was more in treated piglets irrespective of segments of intestine and age. The intraepithelial lymphocytes were located in apical, nuclear and basal positions in the lining epithelium of both villus tip and base with their significant increase in the treatment group of piglets. The transmission electron microscopy revealed the frequent occurrence of tuft cells in the lining mucosa of the small intestine in treated piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation of probiotic and zinc induced the number of different mucosal cells of villi and crypts in the small intestine that might suggest the greater absorptive capacity of nutrients and effective immunity in critical pre and post-weaned piglets.

Probióticos , Animais , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestino Delgado , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame , Zinco
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1473-1478, oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134464


SUMMARY: The present study was designed to elaborate on the morphometry of the skull of non-descript goats in Mizoram state of India. The study was conducted on the skull of twelve (n=12) adult goats of either sex (n=6 males and n=6 females) collected from the local slaughterhouses. Altogether, forty-one different measurements were taken morphologically. In the present study, the cranial and facial bones were the major components of the skull with a total of thirty-two bones. There were three single and four paired cranial bones with a total of eleven bones. There were one single and the rest were paired facial bones with a total of twenty-one bones. The cranial bones were occipital, parietal, interparietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and temporal. The facial bones were maxilla, premaxilla (incisive), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), vomer, turbinate, mandible and hyoid. The skull measurements showed that the skull of the goat was elongated and dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (47.82±0.05). The length and width of the skull was 19.28±0.03 cm and 9.22±0.04 cm, respectively. There were two supraorbital foramina on both sides of the frontal bone. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the third superior premolar tooth. Single infraorbital foramen was located dorsally to the junction of the first and second superior premolar teeth on maxilla bone. The orbits were round and complete and situated on a frontolateral oblique plane. It can be concluded that the findings of this study would assist the comparative studies with other domesticated animals in the future and would be applicable in clinical veterinary practice and even in zooarchaeology.

RESUMEN: El estudio fue diseñado para elaborar la morfometría del cráneo de cabras no definidas en Mizoram. El estudio se realizó en el cráneo de 12 cabras adultas 6 machos y 6 hembras recolectadas de los mataderos locales. Se tomaron en total 41 medidas diferentes morfológicamente. Los huesos craneales y faciales fueron los componentes principales del cráneo con un total de 32 huesos. Se encontraron tres huesos craneales individuales y cuatro pares con un total de 11 huesos. Encontramos solo un hueso facial individual, los otros 22 eran pares de huesos faciales. Los huesos craneales comprendidos en el estudio fueron: occipital, parietal, interparietal, esfenoides, etmoides, frontal y temporal. Los huesos faciales estudiados fueron: maxilar, premaxilar (incisivo), palatino, pterigoideo, nasal, lagrimal, cigomático, vómer, conchas, mandíbula e hioides. Las medicio- nes mostraron que el cráneo de la cabra era alargado y dolicocefálico (47,82 ± 0,05). La longitud y el ancho del cráneo fueron 19,28 ± 0,03 cm y 9,22 ± 0,04 cm, respectivamente. Había dos forámenes supraorbitales a ambos lados del hueso frontal. La tuberosidad facial prominente se encontraba dorsalmente en el tercer diente premolar superior. El foramen infraorbitario único se localizó dorsalmente a la unión del primer y segundo dientes premolares superiores en el hueso maxilar. Las órbitas eran redondas y completas y situadas en un plano oblicuo frontolateral. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio motivarán y ayudarán a otros estudios comparativos con otros animales domesticados o en la práctica clínica veterinaria e incluso en zooarqueología.

Animais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Índia
Acta Virol ; 64(4): 396-408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985200


The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undoubtedly created an emerging disease of topmost public health priority spilling  throughout the globe. The diagnosis currently relies on a multiplex of criteria including the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and in vitro diagnostics. Presently, the real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) is considered as the most reliable assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and is being supplemented by other auxiliary tests, including serology and radiology. Many of these molecular and immunological tests have been validated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and commercial kits have been introduced in the field. But, considering the sensitivity and specificity based shortcomings and the lacunae in monitoring the spread of the virus, there is an immense need to develop integrated smart devices based on novel, safe, rapid and accurate diagnostic techniques and implement them on a large scale to curb this outbreak in the country and the world as a whole. Keywords: clinical manifestations; COVID-19; diagnosis; PCR; SARS-COV-2; serology.

Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19/tendências , Humanos , Índia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 968-974, Sept. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828972


Since there is a lack of comprehensive data on the applied anatomy of the head region of Indian one-humped camel and its clinical value during regional anesthesia; therefore, this study was designed to provide information on clinically important parameters and landmarks of the head region. This study involved some osteometric parameters of the maxillas and mandibles of six adult Indian one-humped camels without any apparent skeletal disorders. Then, a total of twenty one head measurements and indices were recorded in the present study. The supraorbital foramen distance, infraorbital foramen distance, skull length, skull width, cranial length, nasal length and skull width of the Indian one-humped camels were 6.35±0.047 cm, 8.41±0.076 cm, 48.75±0.244 cm, 22.66±0.108 cm, 32.73±0.484 cm and 16.89±0.283 cm, respectively. The skull index was 46.51±0.29 cm in the present study. In addition, the distances from facial tuberosity to the infra-orbital canal and from the latter to the root of the first upper premolar tooth were 2.91±0.068 cm and 3.21±0.078 cm, respectively. The length and height of the mandible were 42.98±0.624 cm and 22.58±0.287 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the distances from the lateral alveolar root to mental foramen and from the mental foramen to the caudal mandibular margin were 9.22±0.059 cm and 32.12±0.165 cm, respectively. In the present study, the distances from mandibular foramen to the base of the mandible as well as from the caudal margin of mandible to below of the mandibular foramen were 8.84±0.085 cm and 6.32±0.048 cm, respectively. Also, the distances from the base of mandible to fossa condylaris and from the latter to the maximum height of the mandible were 18.38±0.15 cm and 4.175±0.046 cm, respectively. Finally, the distance from the caudal margin of mandible to mandibular foramen and from the latter to mandibular angle were 5.88±0.055 cm and 8.29±0.079 cm, respectively. The morphometric information provided in this study will be important for clinical maneuvers around the head of the Indian native camels particularly for the regional anesthesia during treating head injury and dental extraction.

Dada la ausencia completa de datos sobre anatomía aplicada de la región de la cabeza del camello jorobado de la India y debido a su valor clínico durante la anestesia regional, este estudio fue diseñado para proporcionar información clínica importante sobre los parámetros de la región de la cabeza. Este estudio incluyó algunos parámetros osteométricos del maxilar y las mandíbulas de seis camellos adultos indios de una joroba sin aparentes trastornos del esqueleto. Se registró un total de 21 medidas en la cabeza e índices fueron incluídos en el estudio. La distancia del foramen supraorbitario, forámenes infraorbitarios, la longitud del cráneo, el ancho de cráneo, la longitud craneal, la longitud nasal y el ancho del cráneo de los camellos jorobados fueron de 6,35 ± 0,047 cm, 8,41 ± 0,076 cm, 48,75 ± 0,244 cm, 22,66 ± 0,108 cm, 32,73 ± 0,484 cm y 16,89 ± 0,283 cm, respectivamente. El índice del cráneo fue 46,51 ± 0,29 cm. Las distancias de tuberosidad facial del canal infraorbitario a la raíz del primer diente premolar superior fueron de 2,91 ± 0,068 cm y 3,21 ± 0,078 cm, respectivamente. La longitud y la altura de la mandíbula fueron 42,98 ± 0,624 cm y 22,58 ± 0,287 cm, respectivamente. Por otra parte, las distancias desde la raíz alveolar lateral al foramen mental y desde el foramen mental al margen mandibular caudal fueron 9,22 ± 0,059 cm y 32,12 ± 0,165 cm, respectivamente. Las distancias del foramen mandibular a la base de la mandíbula, así como del margen caudal de la mandíbula por debajo del foramen mandibular fueron 8,84 ± 0,085 cm y 6,32 ± 0,048 cm, respectivamente. También, las distancias desde la base mandibular a la fosa condilar, y desde este último a la altura máxima de la mandíbula fueron 18.38 ± 0.15 cm y 4.175 ± 0.046 cm, respectivamente. Por último, la distancia desde el margen caudal de la mandíbula al foramen mandibular, y de este al ángulo mandibular fueron 5,88 ± 0,055 cm y 8,29 ± 0,079 cm, respectivamente. La información morfométrica proporcionada en este estudio será importante para las maniobras clínicas en la cabeza de los camellos indios, en particular para la anestesia regional durante el tratamiento de lesiones en la cabeza y en la extracción dental.

Animais , Camelus/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Índia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia