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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013296, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672080

RESUMO

Background Programs targeting the standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRFs: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking) are critical to tackling coronary heart disease at a community level. However, myocardial infarction in SMuRF-less individuals is not uncommon. This study uses 2 sequential large, multicenter registries to examine the proportion and outcomes of SMuRF-less ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Methods and Results We identified 3081 STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease in the Australian GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and CONCORDANCE (Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome Care) registries, encompassing 42 hospitals, between 1999 and 2017. We examined the proportion that were SMuRF-less as well as outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or heart failure, during the index admission). Multivariate regression models were used to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events. Of STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease 19% also had no history of SMuRFs. This proportion increased from 14% to 23% during the study period (P=0.0067). SMuRF-less individuals had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than individuals with 1 or more SMuRFs. There were no clinically significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events at 6 months between the 2 groups. Conclusions A substantial and increasing proportion of STEMI presentations occur independently of SMuRFs. Discovery of new markers and mechanisms of disease beyond standard risk factors may facilitate novel preventative strategies. Studies to assess longer-term outcomes of SMuRF-less STEMI patients are warranted.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029379, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renal dysfunction predicts an increased risk of both early and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery. Cystatin C enables glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be estimated accurately and may be superior in this regard to creatinine-based estimates. We hypothesised, therefore, that cystatin C and derived estimates of GFR would independently predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery and would be superior in this respect to traditional estimates of GFR. The current study tests this hypothesis in a large and well-characterised cohort of patients. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Regional cardiothoracic centre in Northeast Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1010 patients undergoing non-emergent cardiac surgery between 2004 and 2007. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were measured preoperatively and demographic and clinical variables were recorded. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality, established from the National Records of Scotland. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up after surgery was 9.7 years (IQR 8.9-10.6 years), during which 297 participants died. Preoperative creatinine and cystatin C levels and estimates of GFR derived from these were all strong predictors of death using Cox regression and remained independently predictive after adjustment for the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, a well-validated clinical risk score and a range of other clinical predictors. Cystatin C-based measures were superior to creatinine-based estimates of GFR. CONCLUSIONS: Cystatin C and creatinine derived eGFR are powerful and independent predictors of long-term mortality following cardiac surgery. Estimates of GFR derived from cystatin C convey superior prognostic information to conventional creatinine-based estimates, but the observed differences are modest.

3.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2353-2361, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502315

RESUMO

AIMS: Major technological and procedural advancements have reinvigorated catheter ablation as adjunctive therapy for drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT). We examined temporal trends in VT ablations as compared to other interventional cardiovascular procedures namely, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation in Australia. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review of procedural numbers for VT ablations, AF ablations, and PCI was performed from 2008/09-2016/17 the Australian Institute of Health, Welfare and Aging (AIHW), and Medicare Australia (MA) databases. Linear regression models were fitted to compare the trends in population-adjusted procedural numbers over the 10-year period. Data from the AIHW and MA sources respectively showed that (a) PCI had a 1.3% (AIHW data P = .15) and 1.8% (MA data P < .001) population-adjusted increment per year, (b) AF ablations had a 12.7% (P < .001) and 11.7% (P < .001) per year population-adjusted increment, and (c) VT ablations showed an 18% (P < .001) and 12.7% (P < .001) per year population-adjusted increment. Growth of PCI was increasing at a lower rate than AF ablations (P < .001 for both AIHW and MA sources). Growth of VT ablation was significantly higher than AF ablations and PCI (AIHW: 18% vs 12.7% [P = .004] and 1.3% per year [P < .001]). CONCLUSION: Catheter-based VT ablation has increased significantly in Australia over the last decade, consistent with worldwide trends, and now surpassing all ablation procedures, including AF ablation and PCI for CAD. This data highlight the provision of additional resources to match the increasing demand for VT ablation procedures in Australia.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387283

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder often seen in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Individuals with diabetes are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular complications and this may be related, in part, to lipid abnormalities observed in these individuals. The objective of this systematic review is to compile the current scientific evidence of the effects of periodontal treatment on lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Through a systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science, 313 articles were identified. Of these, seven clinical trials which met all inclusion criteria were chosen for analysis. Between baseline and 3-month follow-up, there was a statistically significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol (mean differences (MD) -0.47 mmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI), -0.75, -0.18, p = 0.001)), triglycerides (MD -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI -0.24, -0.16, p < 0.00001)) favouring the intervention arm, and a statistically significant reduction in levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) (MD 0.06 mmol/L (95% CI 0.03, 0.08, p < 0.00001)) favouring the control arm. No significant differences were observed between baseline and 6-month follow-up levels for any lipid analysed. The heterogeneity between studies was high. This review foreshadows a potential benefit of periodontal therapy for lipid profiles in patients suffering from type 2 DM, however, well designed clinical trials using lipid profiles as primary outcome measures are warranted.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012379, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and death, which increases as CKD progresses to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). There has been increasing interest in developing innovative, effective and cost-efficient methods to engage with patient populations and improve health behaviours and outcomes. Worldwide there has been a tremendous increase in the use of technologies, with increasing interest in using eHealth interventions to improve patient access to relevant health information, enhance the quality of healthcare and encourage the adoption of healthy behaviours. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to evaluate the benefits and harms of using eHealth interventions to change health behaviours in people with CKD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 14 January 2019 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using an eHealth intervention to promote behaviour change in people with CKD were included. There were no restrictions on outcomes, language or publication type. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 43 studies with 6617 participants that evaluated the impact of an eHealth intervention in people with CKD. Included studies were heterogeneous in terms of eHealth modalities employed, type of intervention, CKD population studied and outcomes assessed. The majority of studies (39 studies) were conducted in an adult population, with 16 studies (37%) conducted in those on dialysis, 11 studies (26%) in the pre-dialysis population, 15 studies (35%) in transplant recipients and 1 studies (2%) in transplant candidates We identified six different eHealth modalities including: Telehealth; mobile or tablet application; text or email messages; electronic monitors; internet/websites; and video or DVD. Three studies used a combination of eHealth interventions. Interventions were categorised into six types: educational; reminder systems; self-monitoring; behavioural counselling; clinical decision-aid; and mixed intervention types. We identified 98 outcomes, which were categorised into nine domains: blood pressure (9 studies); biochemical parameters (6 studies); clinical end-points (16 studies); dietary intake (3 studies); quality of life (9 studies); medication adherence (10 studies); behaviour (7 studies); physical activity (1 study); and cost-effectiveness (7 studies).Only three outcomes could be meta-analysed as there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to study population and eHealth modalities utilised. There was found to be a reduction in interdialytic weight gain of 0.13kg (4 studies, 335 participants: MD -0.13, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.01; I2 = 0%) and a reduction in dietary sodium intake of 197 mg/day (2 studies, 181 participants: MD -197, 95% CI -540.7 to 146.8; I2 = 0%). Both dietary sodium and fluid management outcomes were graded as being of low evidence due to high or unclear risk of bias and indirectness (interdialytic weight gain) and high or unclear risk of bias and imprecision (dietary sodium intake). Three studies reported death (2799 participants, 146 events), with 45 deaths/1000 cases compared to standard care of 61 deaths/1000 cases (RR 0.74, CI 0.53 to 1.03; P = 0.08). We are uncertain whether using eHealth interventions, in addition to usual care, impact on the number of deaths as the certainty of this evidence was graded as low due to high or unclear risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: eHealth interventions may improve the management of dietary sodium intake and fluid management. However, overall these data suggest that current evidence for the use of eHealth interventions in the CKD population is of low quality, with uncertain effects due to methodological limitations and heterogeneity of eHealth modalities and intervention types. Our review has highlighted the need for robust, high quality research that reports a core (minimum) data set to enable meaningful evaluation of the literature.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Telemedicina , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistemas de Alerta
6.
Heart ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sex differences exist in the management of patients with a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) in primary care. METHODS: General practice records of patients aged ≥18 years with a history of CHD in a large general practice dataset in Australia, MedicineInsight, were analysed. Sex-specific, age-standardised proportions of patients prescribed with recommended medications; assessed for cardiovascular risk factors; and achieved treatment targets according to the General Practice Management Plan were reported. RESULTS: Records of 130 926 patients (47% women) from 438 sites were available from 2014 to 2018. Women were less likely to be prescribed with recommended medications (prescribed ≥3 medications: women 44%, men 61%; p<0.001). Younger patients, especially women aged <45 years, were substantially underprescribed (aged <45 years prescribed ≥3 medications: women 2%, men 8%; p<0.001). Lower proportions of women were assessed for cardiovascular risk factors (blood test for lipids: women 70%-76%, men 77%-81%; p<0.001). Body size was not commonly assessed (body mass index: women 59%, men 62%; p<0.001; waist: women 23%, men 25%; p<0.001). Higher proportions of women than men achieved targets for most risk factors (achieved ≥4 targets in patients assessed for all risk factors: women 82%, men 76%). CONCLUSION: Gaps in preventative management including prescription of indicated medications and risk factor monitoring have been reported from the late 1990s and this large-scale general practice data analysis indicate they still persist. Moreover, the gap is larger in women compared to men. We need new ways to address these gaps and the sex inequity.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(10): 1484-1491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) is an established therapeutic modality for ventricular tachycardia (VT). OBJECTIVE: We compared the clinical outcomes of CA for VT vs medical therapy from all previously performed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and compared these to contemporary observational studies. METHODS: A comprehensive database search through to August 2018 identified 8 eligible studies enrolling 797 patients. RESULTS: In RCTs, VT recurrence and electrical VT storm were significantly reduced in the CA group vs medical therapy group (relative risk [RR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.95, P = .01; RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.94, P = .02, respectively) at a mean follow-up of 22 months. All-cause or cardiac-specific mortality did not differ significantly (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.27, P = .62; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, P = .37, respectively). In 4 observational studies, including 3065 patients with a mean follow-up of 18.2 months, VT recurrence and mortality were significantly lower as compared to the RCTs (28.6% vs 39%, P < .001; 13.2% vs 18%, P = .01, respectively) despite greater incidence of electrical storm (33.2% vs 17%, P < .001), higher prevalence of nonischemic substrate (46.4% vs 3.6%, P < .001), and lower rate of implanted ICDs (68% vs 94.7%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis of RCT data shows that CA is superior to medical therapy for predominantly postinfarct, scar-related VT in terms of VT recurrence and electrical VT storm, with no reduction in mortality. Real-world observational studies also demonstrate significant reduction in VT recurrence and mortality, despite a sicker cohort, demonstrating replicability and translation of RCT data in the real world.

9.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(10): 602-611, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150009

RESUMO

Polypills can contain multiple pharmaceutical agents targeting the cardiovascular system. The use of polypills in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has received broad support; however, the use of polypills in the primary prevention of CVD is more controversial. This controversy stems from an inherent resistance to the medicalization of primary prevention, and the lower CVD event rate in this population means that smaller absolute benefits are derived. Indeed, drug-related adverse effects, such as from aspirin, might even outweigh the benefits. The role of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy for blood pressure (BP) lowering in combatting the widespread undertreatment of high BP - the leading modifiable risk factor contributing to the global burden of CVD - has gained momentum. Increasing evidence suggests that FDC pills containing multiple low doses of BP-lowering drugs produce more effective BP lowering than the use of fewer separate BP-lowering drugs at higher doses, without an increase in adverse effects. Trials of FDC pills comprising three half-dose or four quarter-dose BP-lowering drugs have shown substantial efficacy. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence on low-dose BP-lowering FDC pills and the justification for this approach in the context of polypills in the primary prevention of CVD.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(4): e005616, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies are low cost, scalable interventions with the potential to promote patient engagement and behavior change. We aimed to test whether a culturally sensitive text messaging intervention supporting secondary prevention improves the control of risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 822 patients (mean age, 56.4 [SD, 9.5] years; 14.1% women) with coronary heart disease and without diabetes mellitus from 37 hospitals in China were enrolled between August 2016 and March 2017. In addition to usual care, the control group (n=411) received 2 thank you messages/month; the intervention group (n=411) received 6 text messages/week for 6 months delivered by an automated computerized system. The messages provided educational and motivational information related to disease-specific knowledge, risk factor control, physical activity, and medication adherence. The primary end point was change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months. Secondary end points included the proportion with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, smoking status, and change in body mass index, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and physical activity (assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire). The end points were assessed using analyses of covariance. Follow-up was 99.6%. At 6 months, systolic blood pressure was not significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group, with a mean change (SD) of 3.2 (14.3) mm Hg and 2.0 (15.0) mm Hg ( P>0.05) from baseline, respectively (mean net change, -1.3 mm Hg [95% CI, -3.3 to 0.8]; P=0.221). There were no significant differences in the change in LDL-C level, physical activity, body mass index, or smoking status between the 2 groups. Nearly all patients in the intervention group reported the text messages to be useful (96.1%), easy to understand (98.8%), appropriate in frequency (93.8%), and reported being willing to receive future text messages (94.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Text messages supporting secondary prevention among patients with coronary heart disease did not lead to a greater reduction in blood pressure at 6 months. Mobile phone text messaging for secondary prevention was feasible and highly acceptable to patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02888769.

11.
Aust Health Rev ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862349

RESUMO

ObjectiveTo describe the implementation of a model of integrated care for chronic disease in Western Sydney. This model was established on the basis of a partnership between the Local Health District and the Primary Health Network.MethodsThe Western Sydney Integrated Care Program (WSICP) focuses on people with type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery disease or congestive cardiac failure. We describe the design of the program, the processes involved and some of the challenges and barriers to integration.ResultsEarly data indicate a high uptake of services, with some evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions and presentations to the emergency department.ConclusionA model of integrated care has been successfully implemented and embedded into local practices. Preliminary data suggest that this is having an impact on the utilisation of hospital services.What is known about the topic?There is evidence that integrated models can improve cost-effectiveness and the quality of clinical care for people with chronic disease. However, most integrated models are small scale, focus on very specific populations and generally do not engage both primary care and acute hospitals.What does this paper add?This paper describes an effective partnership between state-funded hospital services in the WSLHD and the federally funded local Primary Health Network (PHN) of general practitioners. The paper outlines the design of the program and the structural, governance and clinical steps taken to embed integrated care into everyday clinical practice. In addition, preliminary results indicate a reduction in the use of hospital services by people who have received integrated care services.What are the implications for practitioners?Involvement of both primary care and the public hospital system is important for a successful and sustainable integrated care program. This is a long and challenging process, but it can lead to positive effects not just for individuals, but also for the health system as a whole.

12.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev ; 47(2): 86-90, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883472

RESUMO

Exercise and lifestyle risk factor management are critical for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease but are poorly adhered to. Mobile health interventions could enhance engagement; however, a one-size intervention approach cannot meet the needs of all people. We hypothesize a unifying digital platform that enables choice from a suite of evidence-based programs will enhance access, delivery, and engagement.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Prevenção Secundária , Telemedicina , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 150: 27-37, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health is the use of mobile technology in developing healthcare, with the aim of reminding and motivating patients to adopt a healthy lifestyle. We conducted a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of text-messaging interventions on HbA1c in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Two authors independently searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Randomized Control Trials and PsychInfo. The review included randomized control trials with at least 4 weeks follow up, evaluating the effect of text messaging on HbA1c, in patients with T2DM. Trials involving participants with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes or gestational diabetes, or other forms of telemedicine were excluded. Studies employing bi-directional messaging were excluded. RESULTS: 208 papers were identified as meeting inclusion criteria and their abstracts reviewed. Of these, we examined the full text article of forty-four studies. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the final review, with a total of 1710 participants. One study focused on medication adherence only, while the remaining had educational and motivational messages. Five studies showed a significant improvement in HbA1c with the intervention. The remaining studies demonstrated a trend to improvement in HbA1c. Our meta-analysis on 9 of the 11 studies found an overall reduction in HbA1c of 0.38% (-0.53; -0.23, p-value <0.001). CONCLUSION: Lifestyle-focused text messaging is a low cost initiative aimed at motivating patients with T2DM to adhere to a healthy lifestyle. We demonstrate that lifestyle focused text messaging is effective, with a significant improvement in HbA1c in the meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
14.
Med J Aust ; 210(7): 307-308, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906998
15.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862052

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a highly prevalent disorder of pregnancy which portends a high risk for future type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence indicates lifestyle intervention prevents the development of diabetes, but most previously studied interventions are resource-intensive. Intervention programs that utilise newer technologies may be scalable at lower cost. This 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial tested the delivery of text messages linked to an activity monitor, adaptive physical activity goal setting, and limited face-to-face counseling, as an intervention to improve rates of post-partum glucose tolerance testing and lifestyle behaviours amongst women following a GDM pregnancy. Sixty subjects were randomised 2:1 intervention vs. control. Compared to control subjects, there were trends for intervention subjects to improve diet, increase physical activity, and lose weight. There was no difference between the groups in the rate of glucose tolerance testing. Only 46 (77%) subjects completed some, and 19 subjects completed all the elements of the final evaluation. Feedback regarding the text messages and activity monitor was highly positive. Overall, results suggest that a text message and activity monitor intervention is feasible for a larger study or even as a potentially scalable population health intervention. However, low completion rates necessitate carefully considered modification of the protocol.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
16.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(3): e12191, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered by mobile phones have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by supporting behavior change toward healthier lifestyles and treatment adherence. To allow replication and adaptation of these interventions across settings, it is important to fully understand how they have been developed. However, the development processes of these interventions have not previously been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically describe and compare the development process of text messaging interventions identified in the Text2PreventCVD systematic review. METHODS: We extracted data about the development process of the 9 interventions identified in the Text2PreventCVD systematic review. Data extraction, which was guided by frameworks for the development of complex interventions, considered the following development stages: intervention planning, design, development, and pretesting. Following data extraction, we invited the developers of the interventions to contribute to our study by reviewing the accuracy of the extracted data and providing additional data not reported in the available publications. RESULTS: A comprehensive description of the development process was available for 5 interventions. Multiple methodologies were used for the development of each intervention. Intervention planning involved gathering information from stakeholder consultations, literature reviews, examination of relevant theory, and preliminary qualitative research. Intervention design involved the use of behavior change theories and behavior change techniques. Intervention development involved (1) generating message content based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions; (2) conducting literature reviews and primary qualitative research to inform decisions about message frequency, timing, and level of tailoring; and (3) gathering end-user feedback concerning message readability, intervention acceptability, and perceived utility. Intervention pretesting involved pilot studies with samples of 10 to 30 participants receiving messages for a period ranging from 1 to 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The development process of the text messaging interventions examined was complex and comprehensive, involving multiple studies to guide decisions about the scope, content, and structure of the interventions. Additional research is needed to establish whether effective messaging systems can be adapted from work already done or whether this level of development is needed for application in other conditions and settings.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e022637, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects on depression scores of a lifestyle-focused cardiac support programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). DESIGN: Substudy and secondary analysis of a parallel-group, single-blind randomised controlled trial of patients with CHD. SETTING: A tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. INTERVENTION: The Tobacco, Exercise and dieT MEssages programme comprised four text messages per week for 6 months that provided education, motivation and support on diet, physical activity, general cardiac education and smoking, if relevant. The programme did not have any specific mental health component. OUTCOMES: Depression scores at 6 months measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Treatment effect across subgroups was measured using log-binomial regression model for the binary outcome (depressed/not depressed, where depressed is any score of PHQ-9 ≥5) with treatment, subgroup and treatment by subgroup interaction as fixed effects. RESULTS: Depression scores at 6 months were lower in the intervention group compared with the control group, mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.4, p<0.0001). The frequency of mild or greater depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores≥5) at 6 months was 21/333 (6.3%) in the intervention group and 86/350 (24.6%) in the control group (relative risk (RR) 0.26, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.40, p<0.001). This proportional reduction in depressive symptoms was similar across groups defined by age, sex, education, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, current drinking and history of depression, diabetes and hypertension. In particular, the rates of PHQ-9 ≥5 among people with a history of depression were 4/44 (9.1%) vs 29/62 (46.8%) in intervention vs control (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.51, p<0.001), and were 17/289 (5.9%) vs 57/288 (19.8%) among others (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.50, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among people with CHD, a cardiac support programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging was associated with fewer symptoms of mild-to-moderate depression at 6 months in the treatment group compared with controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12611000161921.

18.
Heart Lung Circ ; 27(11): 1381-1387, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid Access Cardiology (RAC) services are hospital co-located cardiologist-led outpatient clinics providing prompt assessment and management of chest pain. This service model is part of chest pain management in the United Kingdom. However, little data exists on RAC services in Australia. Our aim was to describe the introduction of RAC services to an Australian tertiary centre (utility, safety, and acceptability). METHODS: Referrals were accepted for low-intermediate risk chest pain. Referrer and patient clinical data was collected prospectively in the first year of RAC - 4 February 2015 to 4 February 2016. Data was linked to hospital presentations/admissions to identify readmissions/mortality data. RESULTS: Among 520 patients (55.0% male, mean age 55.2 years), 87.6% were referred from emergency and 68.4% assessed within 5 days. The final diagnosis was new coronary artery disease (CAD) in 7.9%, and 81.3% had ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, overweight/obesity, smoker, pre-existing CAD, and chronic renal failure). On average, 0.8 cardiac tests were ordered per person. In total, 35 (6.7%) had invasive coronary angiograms, with 51.4% having obstructive CAD. Patients reported in surveys (82.8% response rate) that 93.0% "strongly agreed" RAC services were useful to the community. Referrers were also "very satisfied" with RAC (7/17) or "satisfied" (9/17). Furthermore, of 336 referrals, referrers reported without RAC they would admit the patient in 11.3% of cases. There were 4.8% (25/520) unplanned cardiovascular readmissions and 0.6% (3/520) of these were for acute coronary syndromes and no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient RAC services are an accepted, effective and safe pathway for management of low-intermediate risk chest pain.

19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(10): 798-808, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the availability and affordability of essential medicines for diabetes. Our aim was to examine the availability and affordability of metformin, sulfonylureas, and insulin across multiple regions of the world and explore the effect of these on medicine use. METHODS: In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, participants aged 35-70 years (n=156 625) were recruited from 110 803 households, in 604 communities and 22 countries; availability (presence of any dose of medication in the pharmacy on the day of audit) and medicine cost data were collected from pharmacies with the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health audit tool. Our primary analysis was to describe the availability and affordability of metformin and insulin and also commonly used and prescribed combinations of two medicines for diabetes management (two oral drugs, metformin plus a sulphonylurea [either glibenclamide (also known as glyburide) or gliclazide] and one oral drug plus insulin [metformin plus insulin]). Medicines were defined as affordable if the cost of medicines was less than 20% of capacity-to-pay (the household income minus food expenditure). Our analyses included data collected in pharmacies and data from representative samples of households. Data on availability were ascertained during the pharmacy audit, as were data on cost of medications. These cost data were used to estimate the cost of a month's supply of essential medicines for diabetes. We estimated affordability of medicines using income data from household surveys. FINDINGS: Metformin was available in 113 (100%) of 113 pharmacies from high-income countries, 112 (88·2%) of 127 pharmacies in upper-middle-income countries, 179 (86·1%) of 208 pharmacies in lower-middle-income countries, 44 (64·7%) of 68 pharmacies in low-income countries (excluding India), and 88 (100%) of 88 pharmacies in India. Insulin was available in 106 (93·8%) pharmacies in high-income countries, 51 (40·2%) pharmacies in upper-middle-income countries, 61 (29·3%) pharmacies in lower-middle-income countries, seven (10·3%) pharmacies in lower-income countries, and 67 (76·1%) of 88 pharmacies in India. We estimated 0·7% of households in high-income countries and 26·9% of households in low-income countries could not afford metformin and 2·8% of households in high-income countries and 63·0% of households in low-income countries could not afford insulin. Among the 13 569 (8·6% of PURE participants) that reported a diagnosis of diabetes, 1222 (74·0%) participants reported diabetes medicine use in high-income countries compared with 143 (29·6%) participants in low-income countries. In multilevel models, availability and affordability were significantly associated with use of diabetes medicines. INTERPRETATION: Availability and affordability of essential diabetes medicines are poor in low-income and middle-income countries. Awareness of these global differences might importantly drive change in access for patients with diabetes. FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

20.
Psychosom Med ; 80(8): 754-763, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression after stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is common but often assumed to be undertreated without reliable evidence being available. Thus, we aimed to determine treatment rates and investigate the application of guidelines in these conditions. METHODS: Databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus were systematically searched without language restriction from inception to June 30, 2017. Prospective observational studies with consecutive recruitment reporting any antidepressant treatment in adults with depression after stroke or MI were included. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled estimates of treatment rates. RESULTS: Fifty-five studies reported 32 stroke cohorts (n = 8938; pooled frequency of depression = 34%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 29%-38%) and 17 MI cohorts (n = 10,767; pooled frequency of depression = 24%, 95% CI = 20%-28%). In 29 stroke cohorts, 24% (95% CI = 20%-27%) of 2280 depressed people used antidepressant medication. In 15 MI cohorts, 14% (95% CI = 8%-19%) of 2381 depressed people used antidepressant medication indicating a lower treatment rate than in stroke. Two studies reported use of psychosocial interventions, indicating that less than 10% of participants were treated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high frequency of depression after stroke and MI and the existence of efficacious treatment strategies, people often remain untreated. Innovative strategies are needed to increase the use of effective antidepressive interventions in patients with cardiovascular disease.

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