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1.
Sex Health ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571477

RESUMO

Background:The kissing practices of heterosexual men are not well understood, despite the potential of kissing to be a significant risk factor for gonorrhoea transmission. This study aimed to explore kissing and sex practices among heterosexual men. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among heterosexual men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2016-2017 was conducted. Men were asked to report their number of kissing-only (in the absence of sex), sex-only (in the absence of kissing) and kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of each partner type was calculated, and multivariable negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations between the number of different types of partners and demographic characteristics. Results: Of the 2351 heterosexual men, men reported a mean of 2.98 kissing-only, 0.54 sex-only and 2.64 kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. Younger men had a mean higher number of kissing-only partners than older men (4.52 partners among men aged ≤24 years compared with 1.75 partners among men ≥35 years, P < 0.001). Men born in Europe had the most kissing-only partners (mean: 5.16 partners) and men born in Asia had the fewest kissing-only partners (mean: 1.61 partners). Men recently arrived in Australia, including travellers from overseas, had significantly more kissing-only partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 1.53; 95% CI: 1.31-1.80) than local men. Conclusions: This study provides novel data about kissing practices of heterosexual men. Studies assessing oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should include measurements of kissing until studies can clarify its contribution to transmission risk.

2.
Sex Health ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564778

RESUMO

Background:The prevalence of sexually transmissible infections has been low among female sex workers (FSWs) in Melbourne, Australia. However, the prevalence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia, especially at extragenital sites, has increased since the mid-2010s. Oro-anal sex (i.e. rimming) has been identified as a risk factor for extragenital gonorrhoea and chlamydia. However, rimming has rarely been studied among the FSW population. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of FSWs who had had rimming with their male clients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among FSWs attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia in March 2018 was conducted. All females aged ≥18 years and self-reported as a sex worker were eligible. The survey included questions related to the number of insertive and receptive rimming partners with their male clients in an average working week. Results: Forty-five FSWs completed the survey; five (11.1%; 95% CI: 3.7-24.1%) FSWs had had insertive rimming and 19 (42.2%; 95% CI: 27.7-57.8%) had had receptive rimming with their male clients in an average working week. The median number of insertive rimming partners was two (interquartile range (IQR) 1-5) and the median number of receptive rimming partners was one (IQR 1-3). Conclusion: Insertive rimming is more commonly practiced than receptive rimming among FSWs with their male clients in an average working week.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 795, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Notably, both international and local studies have found a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and risky sexual behaviours, such as condomless anal sex, substance misuse in conjunction with sex ('chemsex') and group sex, among men who have sex with men (MSM) dating application (app) users. Although the use of dating apps is an emerging sexual risk factor, little effort has been expended on the promotion of safe sex and good sexual health among the users of those apps. Therefore, the aim of the proposed study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive web-based intervention in improving the sexual health of MSM dating app users in Hong Kong. METHODS: A two-armed randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Chinese MSM dating app users will be recruited and randomly allocated into either the intervention (n = 200) or control group (n = 200). Subjects in the intervention group will receive the web-based intervention containing interactive content that (1) encourages a positive attitude towards consistent condom use and HIV/STI testing and negative attitude towards chemsex and group sex; (2) positions condom use and regular HIV/STI testing as normative; and (3) targets improved perceived self-efficacy concerning condom use and negotiation and HIV/STI testing. The control group will receive only web-based information without sexual health components. Subjects in both groups will be evaluated at baseline and three and 6 months after baseline. The primary outcome will be the frequency of condomless anal sex in the past 3 months. DISCUSSION: The proposed study will aid development of culturally relevant health promotion programmes aimed at minimising the potential harm of dating app use and promoting the sexual health of MSM dating app users. The web-based intervention, if found successful, will have important clinical and policy implications, as it can be adopted by the government and non-governmental organisations targeting MSM. Moreover, the proposed intervention can reach many MSM at relatively low cost, and thus has the potential to check the burgeoning HIV/STI epidemic among MSM in Hong Kong in a cost-effective manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International standard randomized controlled trial number (ISRCTN) registry: ISRCTN16681863 registered on 28 April 2020.

4.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and appraise published data, to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in men who have sex with men (MSM) tested at each anatomical site, that is, at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase were searched for articles from 1st January 1981 (the year MG was first identified) to 1st June 2018. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported MG prevalence in MSM tested at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx, in at least 50 MSM, using nucleic acid amplification testing. Data were extracted by anatomical site, symptom and HIV status. Summary estimates (95% CIs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Forty-six studies met inclusion criteria, with 34 reporting estimates of MG prevalence at the urethra (13 753 samples), 25 at the rectum (8629 samples) and 7 at the pharynx (1871 samples). MG prevalence was 5.0% (95% CI 3.5 to 6.8; I2=94.0) at the urethra; 6.2% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.1; I2=88.1) at the rectum and 1.0% (95% CI 0.0 to 5.1; I2=96.0) at the pharynx. The prevalence of MG was significantly higher at urethral and rectal sites in symptomatic versus asymptomatic MSM (7.1% vs 2.2%, p<0.001; and 16.1% vs 7.5%, p=0.039, respectively). MG prevalence at the urethra was significantly higher in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative MSM (7.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: MG was common in MSM, particularly at urethral and rectal sites (5% to 6%). MG was more commonly detected in symptomatic men at both sites, and more common in HIV-positive men at the urethra. MG was uncommonly detected in the pharynx. Site-specific estimates are similar to those for chlamydia and will be helpful in informing testing practices in MSM. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017058326.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Victorian legislation prohibits sex workers from working when they have visible anogenital herpes or warts. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of asymptomatic female sex workers (FSW) diagnosed with anogenital herpes or warts by genital examination. METHODS: We analysed all computerised medical records of consultations with FSW at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018. All asymptomatic sex workers were offered screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and a genital examination to identify visible anogenital herpes or warts at MSHC. FSW consultations were categorised into either 'asymptomatic' or 'symptomatic' based on the presence of symptoms reported by the FSW to the triage nurse. The proportion of asymptomatic FSW diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes or warts during a routine screening examination was calculated. RESULTS: In 2018, 4055 consultations were provided to 1979 FSW. 3406 of these consultations were asymptomatic and all were examined by an experienced clinician for signs of STIs. Of these 3406 asymptomatic consultations, seven FSW (0.21%, 95% CI: 0.08% to 0.42%) were diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes and/or warts following a genital examination. Four were diagnosed with warts (0.12%, 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.30%), two with herpes (0.06%, 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.21%) and one with both herpes and warts (0.03%, 95% CI: 0.001% to 0.16%). CONCLUSION: Based on these data, approximately 500 asymptomatic FSW would need to be examined to identify one case of anogenital herpes or warts. Genital examinations consume considerable clinical resources, increase the duration of consultations and provide essentially no significant benefit to the mandated testing for gonorrhoea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis. Our clinic will use self-collected samples and no longer examine FSW who are asymptomatic.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132192

RESUMO

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the pharyngeal, urogenital, and anorectal sites is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM). Combining the three individual-site samples into a single pooled sample could result in significant cost savings, provided there is no significant sensitivity reduction. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of pooled samples for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic MSM using a nucleic acid amplification test. Asymptomatic MSM who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhoea were invited to participate. Paired samples were obtained from participants prior to administration of treatment. To form the pooled sample, the anorectal swab was agitated in the urine specimen transport tube and then discarded. The pharyngeal swab and 2 ml of urine sample were then added to the tube. The difference in sensitivity between testing of pooled samples and individual-site testing was calculated against an expanded gold standard, where an individual is considered positive if either pooled-sample or individual-site testing returns a positive result. All samples were tested using the Aptima Combo 2 assay. A total of 162 MSM were enrolled in the study. Sensitivities of pooled-sample testing were 86% (94/109; 95% confidence interval [CI], 79 to 92%]) for chlamydia and 91% (73/80; 95% CI, 83 to 96%) for gonorrhea. The sensitivity reduction was significant for chlamydia (P = 0.02) but not for gonorrhea (P = 0.34). Pooling caused 22 infections (15 chlamydia and 7 gonorrhoea) to be missed, and the majority were single-site infections (19/22). Pooling urogenital and extragenital samples from asymptomatic MSM reduced the sensitivity of detection by approximately 10% for chlamydia but not for gonorrhea.

7.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(4): 265-270, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of hepatitis A are being reported more commonly among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. Australia has also reported a sharp increase in the number of cases of hepatitis A in 2017. This study aimed to determine the level of immunity to hepatitis A among MSM attending a large urban sexual health clinic in Victoria in the lead up to recent outbreak. METHODS: This was a retrospective audit of serological testing data from first-time MSM attendees at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018. We determined the proportion of MSM who were tested and who had serological detection of hepatitis A IgG, stratified by age and calendar year. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to investigate factors associated with testing for and detection of hepatitis A IgG. RESULTS: There were 16 609 first-time MSM attendees at MSHC over the 7-year period, of which 9718 (59%, 95% CI 58% to 60%) were tested for hepatitis A IgG. There was a 2% annual increase in the proportion of men tested (from 60% in 2012 to 69% in 2018; OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03, p=0.025). Men born outside of Australia/New Zealand, and younger men <30 years had higher odds of being tested. Of those tested, 44% (n=4304, 95% CI 43% to 45%) had hepatitis A IgG detected at their first visit, with no change over time (OR=1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.03, p=0.210). Detection of hepatitis A IgG was associated with being aged 30 years or older (adjusted OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.24, p<0.001) or being born overseas versus Australia/New Zealand (AOR=1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.31, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A immunity among MSM remains below the estimated 70% required to prevent outbreaks. Measures including increased testing and higher vaccination coverage are needed to prevent outbreaks and to limit the number of cases and deaths.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/imunologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sex Health ; 17(2): 149-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135076

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have shown that there is a peak in sexually transmissible infection (STI) cases and sexual activities around summer, but there has been no study examining whether kissing also follows a similar seasonal pattern. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal patterns of kissing and sex partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A short cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2016 and February 2017. Participants were asked to report the number of kissing-only, sex-only and kissing-with-sex male partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of male partners was calculated and stratified by Australia's seasons. The seasonal trend in the number of partners was assessed by negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: In total, 4391 MSM were included in the analysis. The number of kissing-only and sex-only partners increased significantly from autumn to summer among MSM in Melbourne (Ptrend <0.001). MSM reported the highest number of male partners for kissing-only (mean: 4.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 4.78-5.04) and sex-only (mean: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.83-1.99) around summer compared with other seasons. However, the number of kissing-with-sex partners remained stable across seasons. CONCLUSIONS: The study data suggest that there is a peak in kissing-only and sex-only partners among MSM around summer and holiday seasons.

9.
Sex Health ; 17(1): 53-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928612

RESUMO

Background Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are rising among female sex workers (FSW) in Australia. The rise might be explained by changes in sexual practices; however, there is limited behavioural data available. This study aimed to explore the current sexual practices among FSW in Melbourne. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between September 2017 and March 2018. Participants were asked about current sexual practices with male clients in an average working week. The frequency and proportion of each sexual practice was calculated. RESULTS: There were 180 questionnaires included in the analysis. The median age of the FSW was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-34). Most FSW (80.6%) worked in brothels. In an average working week, FSW had a median of 10 (IQR: 7-20) male clients. The most common sexual practices included: vaginal sex (98.3%), fellatio (97.2%), cunnilingus (92.2%) and tongue-kissing (83.7%). FSW had a median number of 10 (IQR: 6-18) vaginal, 10 (IQR: 5-18) fellatio, 7 (IQR: 2-10) cunnilingus and 6 (IQR: 2-10) tongue-kissing clients. Consistent condom use with all clients was highest for vaginal sex (97.1%), followed by anal sex (92.3%), then fellatio (78.9%). Only 3.1% used dental dams consistently for cunnilingus. CONCLUSION: Consistent condom use with all clients was high among FSWs, especially for vaginal and anal sex. However, one-fifth of FSW had condomless fellatio during an average working week. Tongue-kissing was more common than previously published. Peer-led sexual health education on safe sex practice for FSW is of high importance.

10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(4): 246-250, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2017, there was an outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) serogroup C among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Victoria, Australia. A government-funded free meningococcal (MenACWY) vaccination programme targeting all MSM living in Victoria was launched between December 2017 and December 2018. The aim of this study was to examine the vaccine uptake among MSM attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical audit of MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) during the vaccination programme. We calculated the proportion of MSM who received the meningococcal vaccine on their first visit and at any time during the programme. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify the factors associated with the vaccine uptake on the first visit. RESULTS: Of the 10 370 MSM who attended MSHC, 55.5% received the vaccine on their first visit and 67.4% at any time during the programme. MSM had higher odds of receiving the vaccine on the first visit if they were aged 16-25 years (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.21; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.35) or 26-35 years (aOR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29) in comparison with MSM older than 35 years; were HIV-negative and not on pre-exposure prophylaxis (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.56 to 2.09); had more than four male partners in the last 12 months (aOR 1.16; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.27); had male partners only (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 1.96 to 2.55); or were born overseas (aOR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of the MSM attending a sexual health clinic received at least one dose of meningococcal vaccine. The vaccination programme coincided temporally with a dramatic reduction in the incidence of IMD. Vaccination should be further promoted among MSM and men who have sex with both men and women.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(2): 99-102, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual mixing between HIV-positive, HIV-negative, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users among men who have sex with men (MSM) is an important determinant of the incidence of infection. There have been very limited studies examining the patterns of sexual mixing in relation to HIV status and PrEP use in the era of PrEP. SETTING: Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia. METHODS: We included all MSM partnerships attending MSHC on the same day between 2011 and 2018. A chi-square trend test was used to examine the changes in the annual proportion of partnerships by HIV serostatus in 2011-2018 and by PrEP use in 2016-2018. RESULTS: Of the 1765 MSM partnerships who attended MSHC between 2011 and 2018, 1.3% of the partnerships were concordant HIV-positive, 91.0% were concordant HIV-negative, and 7.6% were HIV-discordant. The proportion of HIV-discordant partnerships increased from 0% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2018 (ptrend < 0.001). In 2016-2018, only a small proportion (1.2%) of concordant HIV-negative partnerships involved both men taking PrEP, whereas 6.0% involved at least one man taking PrEP. Overall, 79.1% of concordant HIV-negative partnerships were not protected against HIV (ie, neither man taking PrEP), and this proportion declined significantly from 84.3% in 2016 to 74.0% in 2018 (ptrend = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of sexual mixing by HIV status and PrEP use among MSM partnerships has changed over time. PrEP use in both men within MSM partnerships is not common. About 79% of concordant HIV-negative partnerships were not protected against HIV as neither man taking PrEP.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 454-463, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is detected in women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Identification of 4 G. vaginalis clades raised the possibility that pathogenic and commensal clades exist. We investigated the association of behavioral practices and Nugent Score with G. vaginalis clade distribution in women who have sex with women (WSW). METHODS: Longitudinal self-collected vaginal specimens were analyzed using established G. vaginalis species-specific and clade-typing polymerase chain reaction assays. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with detection of G. vaginalis clades, and multinomial regression assessed factors associated with number of clades. RESULTS: Clades 1, 2, and 3 and multiclade communities (<2 clades) were associated with Nugent-BV. Clade 1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.84) and multiclade communities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 9.51; 95% CI, 4.36-20.73) were also associated with Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota. Clade 4 was neither associated with Nugent-BV nor Lactobacillus-deficient microbiota (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.67-3.33). Specific clades were associated with differing behavioral practices. Clade 1 was associated with increasing number of recent sexual partners and smoking, whereas clade 2 was associated with penile-vaginal sex and sharing of sex toys with female partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. vaginalis clades have varying levels of pathogenicity in WSW, with acquisition occurring through sexual activity. These findings suggest that partner treatment may be an appropriate strategy to improve BV cure.

13.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(2): 110-114, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, an outbreak of hepatitis A among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) was reported in Victoria, Australia. In 2018, the Victorian government implemented a free hepatitis A vaccination programme targeting all Victorian MSM. This study aimed to determine hepatitis A vaccine uptake among MSM in a sexual health clinic in Melbourne. METHODS: All MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018 were included. Chart review was performed to determine the proportion of men vaccinated for at least one dose of hepatitis A and to examine why men did not receive the vaccine. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the factors associated with vaccine uptake. Vaccine uptake was defined as receipt of at least one dose of hepatitis A vaccine. RESULTS: Of the 9582 MSM who attended MSHC in 2018, 61.3% (95% CI 60.3% to 62.2%) self-reported already being immune to hepatitis A. Of the 3713 remaining eligible men, 62.7% (95% CI 61.1% to 64.2%) received at least one dose of the hepatitis A vaccine on the day of attendance. Compared with MSM not living with HIV and not taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), MSM taking PrEP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.62) were more likely to receive the vaccine. 1386 men (37.3%) did not receive the vaccine and 55.4% were not offered the vaccine by their treating clinician. 300 men (21.6%) were identified as non-immune after serological testing but did not return for vaccination. By the end of 2018, 85.5% of MSHC attendees (8196/9582) were immune to hepatitis A. CONCLUSION: The critical vaccination threshold for hepatitis A has been estimated at >70%. Continuation of the targeted hepatitis A vaccination programme will improve immunity among the MSM population to prevent ongoing transmission and the likelihood of future outbreaks.

14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694973

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis could be detected in saliva and if infection is specific to an anatomical site in the oropharynx. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal chlamydia at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2017-2018 were invited to participate upon returning for treatment. Swabs at the tonsillar fossae and posterior oropharynx and a saliva sample were collected. Throat samples were tested for C. trachomatis by the Aptima Combo 2 assay. The bacterial loads of C. trachomatis in all samples were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detecting the ompA gene. We calculated the positivity and bacterial load of C. trachomatis for all samples. Forty-two MSM were included. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24 to 33 years). Thirty-two participants (76.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 60.5% to 87.9%) had C. trachomatis detected by qPCR at both the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx, followed by 9.5% (n = 4; 95% CI, 2.7% to 22.6%) positive at the posterior oropharynx only and 4.8% (n = 2; 95% CI, 0.58% to 16.2%) positive at the tonsillar fossae only. Twenty-nine MSM had C. trachomatis detected in saliva (69.0%; 95% CI, 52.9% to 82.3%). The median C. trachomatis load in saliva was 446 copies/ml (IQR, 204 to 1,390 copies/ml), that in the tonsillar fossae was 893 copies/swab (IQR, 390 to 13,224 copies/ml), and that in the posterior oropharynx was 1,204 copies/swab (IQR, 330 to 16,211). There was no significant difference in C. trachomatis load between the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx (P = 0.119). Among MSM with oropharyngeal chlamydia, nearly three-quarters had chlamydia DNA detected in saliva, although the viability and implications for transmission are unknown.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea is increasing among men who have sex with men and is commonly found in the tonsils and at the posterior pharyngeal wall. To address this rise, investigators are currently trialling mouthwash to prevent oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. We aimed to determine which parts of the oropharynx were reached by different methods of mouthwash use (oral rinse, oral gargle and oral spray). METHODS: Twenty staff at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre participated in the study from March to May 2018. Participants were asked to use mouthwash mixed with food dye, by three application methods on three separate days: oral rinse (15 s and 60 s), oral gargle (15 s and 60 s) and oral spray (10 and 20 times). Photographs were taken after using each method. Three authors assessed the photographs of seven anatomical areas (tongue base, soft palate, uvula, anterior tonsillar pillar, posterior tonsillar pillar, tonsil, posterior pharyngeal wall) independently and scored the dye coverage from 0% to 100%. Scores were then averaged. RESULTS: The mean coverage at the sites ranged from 2 to 100. At the posterior pharyngeal wall, spraying 10 times had the highest mean coverage (29%) and was higher than a 15 s rinse (2%, p=0.001) or a 15 s gargle (8%, p=0.016). At the tonsils, there was no difference in mean coverage between spray and gargle at any dosage, but spraying 20 times had a higher mean coverage than a 15 s rinse (42% vs 12%, p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Overall, spray is more effective at reaching the tonsils and posterior pharyngeal wall compared with rinse and gargle. If mouthwash is effective in preventing oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, application methods that have greater coverage may be more efficacious.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrolide-resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) exceeds 50% in many regions and quinolone-resistance is increasing. We recently reported that resistance-guided therapy (RGT) using doxycycline followed by sitafloxacin or 2.5g-azithromycin cured 92% and 95% of macrolide-resistant and macrolide-susceptible infections, respectively. We now present the data on RGT using doxycycline-moxifloxacin, the regimen recommended in international guidelines, and extend the data on the efficacy of doxyxycline-2.5g azithromycin and subsequent de novo macrolide-resistance. METHODS: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2017-2018 with STI-related syndromes were treated with doxycycline for 7 days and recalled if positive for MG. Macrolide-susceptible cases then received 2.5g azithromycin (1g, then 500mg daily for 3 days) and resistant cases received moxifloxacin (400 mg daily, 7 days). Test of cure (TOC) was recommended 14-28 days post-completion of antimicrobials. Adherence and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 383 patients (81 females/106 heterosexual males/196 men-who-have-sex-with-men) were included. Microbial cure following doxycycline-azithromycin was 95.4% (95% CI 89.7-98.0) and doxycycline-moxifloxacin was 92.0%(88.1-94.6). De novo macrolide-resistance was detected in 4.6% of cases. Combining doxycycline-azithromycin data with our prior RGT study (n=186) yielded a pooled cure of 95.7% (91.6-97.8). ParC mutations implicated in moxifloxacin failure were present in 15-22% of macrolide-resistant cases at baseline. CONCLUSION: These findings support the inclusion of moxifloxacin in resistance-guided strategies and extend the evidence for use of 2.5g azithromycin, and presumptive use of doxycycline. These data provide an evidence-base for current UK, Australian and European guidelines for the treatment of MG, an STI which is increasingly challenging to cure.

17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(10): ofz376, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660341

RESUMO

Background: HIV and bacterial sexually transmissible infection (STI) notifications among men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased in Australia and many other countries. The relationship between HIV infection and other STIs has been demonstrated previously. However, the relationship between the cumulative history of STIs and subsequent HIV infection remains largely unexplored and limits our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the elevated HIV risk. Methods: Data from HIV-negative MSM who attended high-HIV caseload primary care clinics in Melbourne, Australia, from 2007 to 2014 with 2 or more HIV and STI tests were included. Controlling for sexual behaviors self-reported at clinic visits, discrete time survival analyses using generalized linear modeling estimated the effect of an STI at the prior test event and the cumulative history of STIs (none, 1, 2, or more [repeated]) on risk of HIV infection. Results: A total of 8941 MSM met the study criteria; 227 (2.5%) were diagnosed with HIV over the follow-up period. Adjusting for sexual behaviors, a cumulative history of repeated rectal gonorrhea infections (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68-14.50) and a single rectal gonorrhea infection (aHR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.15-3.79) were associated with increased HIV infection risk. Conclusions: Repeated and single rectal gonorrhea infections were independently associated with increased HIV infection risk. These findings suggest that MSM with any history of rectal gonorrhea, particularly repeat rectal gonorrhea, represent a group for whom preventive interventions for HIV should be emphasized.

18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(9): ofz326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660405

RESUMO

Improved knowledge of factors that promote outbreaks of enteric pathogens among men who have sex with men (MSM) could enable targeted public health interventions. We detected enteric pathogens in 57 of 519 (11%) asymptomatic MSM, and we found that enteric pathogen detection was associated with both oroanal sex (rimming) and group sex.

19.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6271-6275, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521414

RESUMO

The Victorian Government introduced a time-limited quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination catch-up program targeting gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) aged up to 26 years in 2017. As of 2017, men aged ≥20 years were not eligible for the school-based HPV vaccination program. This study examined the prevalence of anal HPV among 496 MSM aged 20-26 years before they received the first dose of the HPV vaccine at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. More than half (56.5%) had any high-risk HPV genotypes detected in the anus. Almost half (43.1%) had at least one quadrivalent HPV vaccine-preventable genotype (6, 11, 16 or 18) and one-fifth (21.0%) had HPV 16 detected in the anus. These findings suggest that a targeted catch-up HPV vaccination program for MSM is still beneficial to protect against high-risk HPV genotypes associated with anal cancer, as well as low-risk HPV genotypes.

20.
Vaccine ; 37(46): 6907-6914, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia introduced a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for females aged 12-13 years in 2007, with a three-year catch-up to age 26; and for boys aged 12-13 from 2013, with a two-year catch-up to age 15. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of penile HPV between teenage heterosexual males in cohorts eligible or non-eligible for the school-based male vaccination program. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, sexually active heterosexual males aged 17-19 were recruited from sexual health centres and community sources across Australia. Males provided a self-collected penile swab for 37 HPV genotypes using Roche Linear Array and completed a questionnaire. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of HPV between males in two periods: 2014-2015 (preceding implementation of school-based male vaccination) and 2016-2017 (eligible for school-based male vaccination). Self-reported vaccine doses were confirmed with doses reported to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register. RESULTS: Overall, 152 males were recruited in 2014-2015 and 146 in 2016-2017. Numbers of female sex partners and condom use did not differ between the two periods. The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable [4vHPV] genotypes (6/11/16/18) was low in both periods (2.6% [2014-15] versus 0.7% [2016-17]; p = 0.371; aPR 0.28 [95% CI: 0.03-2.62]). Compared with men in 2014-2015, men in 2016-2017 had a lower prevalence of any of the 37 HPV genotypes tested (21.7% versus 11.6%; aPR 0.62 [95% CI: 0.36-1.07]) and any of the 13 high-risk genotypes tested (15.8% versus 7.5%; aPR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.30-1.19]). Prevalence of low-risk HPV genotypes did not differ between the two periods. Of the males recruited in 2016-2017, 55% had received ≥1 vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among teenage heterosexual males in both cohorts was low, presumably due to herd protection from the female-only vaccination program. Further studies are required to determine the impact of universal HPV vaccination on HPV prevalence in males.

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