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1.
J Vis ; 21(3): 19, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735378

RESUMO

When we move through our environment, objects in the visual scene create optic flow patterns on the retina. Even though optic flow is ubiquitous in everyday life, it is not well understood how our eyes naturally respond to it. In small groups of human and non-human primates, optic flow triggers intuitive, uninstructed eye movements to the focus of expansion of the pattern (Knöll, Pillow, & Huk, 2018). Here, we investigate whether such intuitive oculomotor responses to optic flow are generalizable to a larger group of human observers and how eye movements are affected by motion signal strength and task instructions. Observers (N = 43) viewed expanding or contracting optic flow constructed by a cloud of moving dots radiating from or converging toward a focus of expansion that could randomly shift. Results show that 84% of observers tracked the focus of expansion with their eyes without being explicitly instructed to track. Intuitive tracking was tuned to motion signal strength: Saccades landed closer to the focus of expansion, and smooth tracking was more accurate when dot contrast, motion coherence, and translational speed were high. Under explicit tracking instruction, the eyes aligned with the focus of expansion more closely than without instruction. Our results highlight the sensitivity of intuitive eye movements as indicators of visual motion processing in dynamic contexts.

2.
Vision (Basel) ; 4(1)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033350

RESUMO

: While previous research has investigated key factors contributing to multisensory integration in isolation, relatively little is known regarding how these factors interact, especially when considering the enhancement of visual contrast sensitivity by a task-irrelevant sound. Here we explored how auditory stimulus properties, namely salience and temporal phase coherence in relation to the visual target, jointly affect the extent to which a sound can enhance visual contrast sensitivity. Visual contrast sensitivity was measured by a psychophysical task, where human adult participants reported the location of a visual Gabor pattern presented at various contrast levels. We expected the most enhanced contrast sensitivity, the lowest contrast threshold, when the visual stimulus was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound, weak in auditory salience, modulated in-phase with the visual stimulus (strong temporal phase coherence). Our expectations were confirmed, but only if we accounted for individual differences in optimal auditory salience level to induce maximal multisensory enhancement effects. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions between temporal phase coherence and stimulus effectiveness in determining the strength of multisensory enhancement of visual contrast as well as highlighting the importance of accounting for individual differences.

3.
IEEE Trans Haptics ; 12(4): 594-603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835230

RESUMO

The brain consistently faces a challenge of whether and how to combine the available information sources to estimate the properties of an object explored by hand. While object perception is an inference process involving multisensory inputs, thermal referral (TR) is an illusion demonstrating how the interaction between thermal and tactile systems can lead to deviations from physical reality-when observers touch three stimulators simultaneously with the middle three fingers of one hand but only the outer two stimulators are heated (or cooled), thermal uniformity is perceived across three fingers. Here, we used TR of warmth to examine the thermal-tactile interaction in object temperature perception. We show that TR is consistent with precision-weighted averaging of thermal sensation across tactile locations. Furthermore, we show that prolonged contact with TR stimulation results in adaptation to the local variations of veridical temperatures instead of the thermal uniformity perceived across three fingers. Our results illuminate the flexibility of processing that underlies thermal-tactile interactions and serve as a basis for thermal display design.


Assuntos
Ilusões/fisiologia , Temperatura , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física , Psicofísica , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 179: 73-89, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476696

RESUMO

Crossmodal sound-shape correspondence, the association of abstract shapes and nonsense words (e.g., "bouba-kiki" effect), is seen across cultures and languages. Recent research suggests that the sensitivity for such sound-shape pairings might increase with development. Here we examined one possible mechanism underlying developmental changes in sensitivity to sound-shape correspondences-if and how shape features, such as contour spikiness and the number and size of protrusions, might be weighted differently by children and adults. In Experiment 1, we asked participants to choose which of two nonsense words matched a given visual shape while manipulating contour spikiness and number and size of protrusions independently. We found that adults associated /i/ sounds with shapes having spiky contours and 3 small protrusions. Of these shape features, contour spikiness showed the strongest association. Whereas 9- to 11-year-olds showed adult-like responses, 6- to 8-year-olds prioritized protrusion number, not contour spikiness. Importantly, in Experiment 2, where contour spikiness was highlighted by presenting round and spikey shapes side by side, 6- to 8-year-olds could make associations based on contour spikiness. Our findings suggest that 6- to 8-year-olds prioritize different features of a shape when making sound-shape correspondence compared with adults. Interestingly, these shape-processing biases can be altered by context such that children can resemble adults when the relevant shape features are highlighted. Our results suggest that biases in visual shape processing and the ability to extract contextual information might be additional factors explaining developmental changes in sensitivity toward sound-shape correspondences. These changing developmental biases highlight the contribution of perceptual processing styles in crossmodal correspondence.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Som , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Psychol ; 54(3): 333-341, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498042

RESUMO

As a multi-ethnic country that is comprised of diverse cultural systems, there has been little research on the subcultural differences in emotional preferences in China. Also, little attention has been paid to examine how explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions influence emotional preferences interactively. In this study, we manipulated explicit attitudes towards emotions among Han (N = 62) and Mongolian Chinese individuals (N = 70). We assessed participants' implicit attitudes towards emotions to explore their contributions to emotional preferences. (a) Han Chinese had lower preferences for pleasant emotions than Mongolian Chinese after inducing contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, and (b) after priming contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, the more Han Chinese participants evaluated pleasant emotions as negative implicitly, the less they preferred to engage in pleasant emotional activities. These findings contribute to the growing literature of subcultural differences and demonstrate that explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions interactively influence individuals' emotional preferences between different subculture groups.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Atitude , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12707, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139964

RESUMO

Learning in a multisensory world is challenging as the information from different sensory dimensions may be inconsistent and confusing. By adulthood, learners optimally integrate bimodal (e.g. audio-visual, AV) stimulation by both low-level (e.g. temporal synchrony) and high-level (e.g. semantic congruency) properties of the stimuli to boost learning outcomes. However, it is unclear how this capacity emerges and develops. To approach this question, we examined whether preverbal infants were capable of utilizing high-level properties with grammar-like rule acquisition. In three experiments, we habituated pre-linguistic infants with an audio-visual (AV) temporal sequence that resembled a grammar-like rule (A-A-B). We varied the cross-modal semantic congruence of the AV stimuli (Exp 1: congruent syllables/faces; Exp 2: incongruent syllables/shapes; Exp 3: incongruent beeps/faces) while all the other low-level properties (e.g. temporal synchrony, sensory energy) were constant. Eight- to ten-month-old infants only learned the grammar-like rule from AV congruent stimuli pairs (Exp 1), not from incongruent AV pairs (Exp 2, 3). Our results show that similar to adults, preverbal infants' learning is influenced by a high-level multisensory integration gating system, pointing to a perceptual origin of bimodal learning advantage that was not previously acknowledged.


Assuntos
Semântica , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
8.
J Vis ; 17(3): 20, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355632

RESUMO

We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory thresholds. Auditory detection thresholds were lower-that is, auditory sensitivity was improved-for both amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds when observers engaged in a less demanding (compared to a more demanding) visual task. In accord with previous work, our findings suggest that visual-task demands can influence the processing of auditory information on an unrelated concurrent task, providing support for shared attentional resources. More importantly, our results suggest that attending to information in a different modality, cross-modal attention, can influence basic auditory contrast sensitivity functions, highlighting potential similarities between basic mechanisms for visual and auditory attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Som , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Vis ; 16(1): 12, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790844

RESUMO

Collinearity and eye of origin were recently discovered to guide attention: Target search is impaired if it is overlapping with a collinear structure (Jingling & Tseng, 2013) but enhanced if the target is an ocular singleton (Zhaoping, 2008). Both are proposed to occur in V1, and we study their interaction here. In our 9 × 9 search display (Experiment 1), all columns consisted of horizontal bars except for one randomly selected column that contained orthogonal bars (collinear distractor). All columns were presented to one eye except for a randomly selected column that was presented to the other eye (ocular distractor). The target could be located on a distractor column (collinear congruent [CC]/ocular congruent [OC]) or not (collinear incongruent [CI]/ocular incongruent [OI]). We expected to find the best search performance for OC + CI targets and the worst search performance for OI + CC targets. The other combinations would depend on the relative strength of collinearity and ocular information in guiding attention. As expected, we observed collinear impairment, but surprisingly, we did not observe any search advantage for OC targets. Our subsequent experiments confirmed that OC search impairment also occurred when color-defined columns (Experiment 2), ocular singletons (Experiments 4 and 5), and noncollinear columns (Experiment 5) were used instead of collinear columns. However, the ocular effect disappeared when paired with luminance-defined columns (Experiments 3A and 3B). Although our results agree well with earlier findings that eye-of-origin information guides attention, they highlight that our previous understanding of search advantage by ocular singleton targets might have been oversimplified.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Área de Dependência-Independência , Humanos
10.
Dev Sci ; 19(3): 382-93, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26280911

RESUMO

Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Recursos Audiovisuais , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
11.
Conscious Cogn ; 31: 46-59, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25460240

RESUMO

Visual attention and perceptual grouping both help us from being overloaded by the vast amount of information, and attentional search is delayed when a target overlaps with a snake-like collinear distractor (Jingling & Tseng, 2013). We assessed whether awareness of the collinear distractor is required for this modulation. We first identified that visible long (=9 elements), but not short (=3 elements) collinear distractor slowed observers' detection of an overlapping target. Then we masked part of a long distractor (=9 elements) with continuous flashing color patches (=6 elements) so that the combined dichoptic percept to observers' awareness was a short collinear distractor (=3 elements). We found that the invisible collinear parts, like visible ones, can form a continuous contour to impair search, suggesting that conscious awareness is not a pre-requisite for contour integration and its interaction with selective attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estimulação Subliminar , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo
12.
J Vis ; 13(10): 24, 2013 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23988390

RESUMO

Perceptual grouping plays an indispensable role in figure-ground segregation and attention distribution. For example, a column pops out if it contains element bars orthogonal to uniformly oriented element bars. Jingling and Tseng (2013) have reported that contextual grouping in a column matters to visual search behavior: When a column is grouped into a collinear (snakelike) structure, a target positioned on it became harder to detect than on other noncollinear (ladderlike) columns. How and where perceptual grouping interferes with selective attention is still largely unknown. This article contributes to this little-studied area by asking whether collinear contour integration interacts with visual search before or after binocular fusion. We first identified that the previously mentioned search impairment occurs with a distractor of five or nine elements but not one element in a 9 × 9 search display. To pinpoint the site of this effect, we presented the search display with a short collinear bar (one element) to one eye and the extending collinear bars to the other eye, such that when properly fused, the combined binocular collinear length (nine elements) exceeded the critical length. No collinear search impairment was observed, implying that collinear information before binocular fusion shaped participants' search behavior, although contour extension from the other eye after binocular fusion enhanced the effect of collinearity on attention. Our results suggest that attention interacts with perceptual grouping as early as V1.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feminino , Área de Dependência-Independência , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Psychol Sci ; 24(7): 1341-7, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23722979

RESUMO

The perception of verticality is critical for balance control and interaction with the world. But this complex process fails badly under certain circumstances-usually as the result of an illusion. Here, we report on a real-world example of how the brain fails to disregard body position on a moving mountain tram and adopts an inappropriate frame of reference, which prompts passengers to perceive skyscrapers leaning by as much as 30°. To elucidate the sensory origin of this misperception, we conducted field experiments on the moving tram to systematically disentangle the contributions of four sensory systems known to affect verticality perception, namely, vestibular, tactile, proprioceptive, and visual cues. Our results refute the intuitive assumption that the perceived tilt of the buildings is based on visual error signals and demonstrate instead that a unified percept of verticality is a product of the synergistic interaction among multiple sensory systems and the contextual information available in the real world.


Assuntos
Sensação Gravitacional/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Postura , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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