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1.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(10): 1746-1754, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Except for a documented increase in osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations with older age, data on determinants of soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (sRANKL) and OPG concentrations in women are limited. We evaluated reproductive and lifestyle factors as potential sources of variation in circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study includes 2,016 controls [n = 1,552 (76%) postmenopausal, n = 757 (38%) using postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH)] from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Serum sRANKL was measured using an ELISA and serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations between these analytes and reproductive and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Older age at blood collection was associated with lower sRANKL concentrations in postmenopausal women (P trend ≤ 0.03) and higher OPG concentrations in all women (P trend ≤ 0.01). Longer duration of oral contraceptive use among premenopausal women and postmenopausal PMH users was associated with higher OPG (P trend ≤ 0.04). In postmenopausal non-PMH users, sRANKL concentrations were lower with longer duration of oral contraceptive use and current (vs. never) smoking (P ≤ 0.01). sRANKL concentrations were higher among women with higher BMI (P trend ≤ 0.01). The evaluated factors accounted for 12% of the variation in sRANKL concentrations and 21% of the variation in OPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations are minimally impacted by hormone-related factors in pre- and postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This study suggests circulating concentrations of sRANKL and OPG are unlikely to be strongly modified by hormone-related reproductive and lifestyle factors.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 807-816, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are observational data suggesting an inverse association between circulating concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. However, causality is uncertain and few studies have investigated this association by tumour receptor status. We aimed to investigate these associations under the causal framework of Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: We used summary association estimates extracted from published genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for SHBG and breast cancer, to perform two-sample MR analyses. Summary statistics were available for 122 977 overall breast cancer cases, of which 69 501 were estrogen receptor positive (ER+ve) and 21 468 were ER-ve, and 105 974 controls. To control for potential horizontal pleiotropy acting via body mass index (BMI), we performed multivariable inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR as the main analysis, with the robustness of this approach further tested in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The multivariable IVW MR analysis indicated a lower risk of overall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 0.98; P: 0.006) and ER+ve (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; P: 0.003) breast cancer, and a higher risk of ER-ve disease (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18; P: 0.047) per 25 nmol/L higher SHBG levels. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated the previous literature evidence coming from observational studies for a potentially causal inverse association between SHBG concentrations and risk of ER+ve breast cancer, but our findings also suggested a potential novel positive association with ER-ve disease that warrants further investigation, given the low prior probability of being true.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 41: 571-583, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) is usually indicated by alteration in serum-creatinine measurements when considerable transplant damage has already occurred. There is, therefore, a need for non-invasive early detection of immune signals that would precede the onset of rejection, prior to transplant damage. METHODS: We examined the RT-qPCR expression of 22 literature-based genes in peripheral blood samples from 248 patients in the Kidney Allograft Immune Biomarkers of Rejection Episodes (KALIBRE) study. To account for post-transplantation changes unrelated to rejection, we generated time-adjusted gene-expression residuals from linear mixed-effects models in stable patients. To select genes, we used penalised logistic regression based on 27 stable patients and 27 rejectors with biopsy-proven T-cell-mediated rejection, fulfilling strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We validated this signature in i) an independent group of stable patients and patients with concomitant T-cell and antibody-mediated-rejection, ii) patients from an independent study, iii) cross-sectional pre-biopsy samples from non-rejectors and iv) longitudinal follow-up samples covering the first post-transplant year from rejectors, non-rejectors and stable patients. FINDINGS: A parsimonious TCMR-signature (IFNG, IP-10, ITGA4, MARCH8, RORc, SEMA7A, WDR40A) showed cross-validated area-under-ROC curve 0.84 (0.77-0.88) (median, 2.5th-97.5th centile of fifty cross-validation cycles), sensitivity 0.67 (0.59-0.74) and specificity 0.85 (0.75-0.89). The estimated probability of TCMR increased seven weeks prior to the diagnostic biopsy and decreased after treatment. Gene expression in all patients showed pronounced variability, with up to 24% of the longitudinal samples in stable patients being TCMR-signature positive. In patients with borderline changes, up to 40% of pre-biopsy samples were TCMR-signature positive. INTERPRETATION: Molecular marker alterations in blood emerge well ahead of the time of clinically overt TCMR. Monitoring a TCMR-signature in peripheral blood could unravel T-cell-related pro-inflammatory activity and hidden immunological processes. This additional information could support clinical management decisions in cases of patients with stable but poor kidney function or with inconclusive biopsy results.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Transplante de Rim , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Polyomavirus/patogenicidade , Curva ROC , Semaforinas/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 473: 205-216, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427591

RESUMO

Steroid conversion (HSD11B1, HSD11B2, H6PD) and receptor genes (NR3C1, NR3C2) were examined in kidney-transplant recipients with "operational tolerance" and chronic rejection (CR), independently and within the context of 88 tolerance-associated genes. Associations with cellular types were explored. Peripheral whole-blood gene-expression levels (RT-qPCR-based) and cell counts were adjusted for immunosuppressant drug intake. Tolerant (n = 17), stable (n = 190) and CR patients (n = 37) were compared. Healthy controls (n = 14) were used as reference. The anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and the cortisol-activating HSD11B1 and H6PD genes were up-regulated in CR and were lowest in tolerant patients. The pro-inflammatory mineralocorticoid gene (NR3C2) was downregulated in stable and CR patients. NR3C1 was associated with neutrophils and NR3C2 with T-cells. Steroid conversion and receptor genes, alone, enabled classification of tolerant patients and were major contributors to gene-expression signatures of both, tolerance and CR, alongside known tolerance-associated genes, revealing a key role of steroid regulation and response in kidney transplantation.

9.
Transplantation ; 102(1): e10-e17, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of spontaneous kidney transplant tolerance has been associated with numerous B cell-related immune alterations. We have previously shown that tolerant recipients exhibit reduced B-cell receptor signalling and higher IL-10 production than healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether cluster of differentiation (CD)4 T cells from tolerant recipients also display an anti-inflammatory profile that could contribute to graft maintenance. METHODS: CD4 T cells were isolated from kidney transplant recipients who were identified as being tolerant recipients, patients with chronic rejection or healthy volunteers. CD4 T cells from the 3 groups were compared in terms of their gene expression profile, phenotype, and functionally upon activation. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis of transcription factors and signalling proteins, in addition to surface proteins expression and cytokine production, revealed that tolerant recipients possessed fewer Th17 cells and exhibited reduced Th17 responses, relative to patients with chronic rejection or healthy volunteers. Furthermore, impaired T-cell receptor signalling and altered cytokine cooperation by monocytes contributed to the development of Th17 cells in tolerant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that defective proinflammatory Th17 responses may contribute to the prolonged graft survival and stable graft function, which is observed in tolerant recipients in the absence of immunosuppressive agents.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Tolerância ao Transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(27): 7083-7088, 2017 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584086

RESUMO

CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs constitute a heterogeneous lymphocyte subpopulation essential for curtailing effector T cells and establishing peripheral tolerance. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are among the most effective agents in controlling effector T-cell responses in humans. However, CNIs also reduce the size of the Treg pool. The functional consequences of this negative effect and the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. We report here that CNIs compromise the overall Treg immunoregulatory capacity to a greater extent than would be predicted by the reduction in the size of the Treg compartment, given that they selectively promote the apoptosis of the resting and activated Treg subsets that are known to display the most powerful suppressive function. These effects are caused by reduced access to IL-2, because Tregs remain capable of translocating NFAT even in the presence of high CNI levels. Exogenous IL-2 restores the phenotypic changes and overall gene-expression effects exerted by CNIs and can even promote Treg expansion by enhancing antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression. In a skin transplant model, the addition of IL-2 synergizes with CNIs treatment, promoting intragraft accumulation of Tregs and prolonged allograft survival. Hence, the combination of IL-2 and CNIs constitutes an optimal immunomodulatory regimen that enhances the pool of suppressive Treg subsets while effectively controlling cytopathic T cells.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Transplante
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 138: 334-47, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23916492

RESUMO

Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase provides an in vivo model of intrauterine induction of enzymes participating in steroid anabolism and catabolism. Quantitative data for 93 steroid metabolites in urine from 111 patients and 7 controls (25 samples) were compared over the first six weeks of life. Net flux through the key anabolic enzymes was examined by comparison of the totals of steroids derived from the intermediates prior to and following each enzymatic step. Metabolic relationships were established on structural grounds and by Pearson correlation. The relative importance of each catabolic route was evaluated after summing metabolites classified according to their structure as fetal, neonatal, and classical (adult) type. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified the structure at C3-C5 as a key distinguishing feature of the major catabolic streams and demonstrated a split point in metabolic pattern in patients at 7 days. Changes with time in steroid metabolism, larger in patients than in controls, could be interpreted as reflecting increased cortisol demand post partum, the clinical onset of salt-wasting and a transition in catabolism from fetal to postnatal life. Faster involution of the fetal zone and pronounced enhancement of steroid production in zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa were indicated in patients. Predominant at birth were 'planar' fetal-type 5α-reduced metabolites, adapted to placental excretion, which gave way to additionally hydroxylated neonatal-type metabolites, facilitating renal excretion. Classical metabolism made gains over the study period. Overproduction of steroids in utero in 21-hydroxylase deficiency would have induced fetal catabolic pathways dependent on 5α-reduction. A progressive increase of steroids likely to arise from 5α-reductase type 2 activity, again more distinct in disease, was observed. We demonstrate that the key intermediates in the hypothetical 'backdoor' pathway of androgen synthesis are part of a broader catabolic network and should not be examined in isolation.


Assuntos
Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Esteroides/urina
12.
Steroids ; 78(5): 468-75, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454217

RESUMO

In 21-hydroxylase deficiency, urinary metabolites of 21-deoxycortisol, mainly derived from its 11oxo form 21-deoxycortisone, are indicators of intra-adrenal overproduction of 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In affected neonates these metabolites are numerous and most have not been previously described. This work forms the concluding part of a comprehensive study of urinary steroids, aiming to enhance the diagnosis of this disorder and to further elucidate steroid metabolism in neonates. Cortisol metabolites found in untreated patients, similarly almost exclusively present in their 11oxo form in neonates, have been included for completeness. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra were used together to determine the structure of hitherto undescribed 11oxo-pregnane(enes). Few GC-MS features were associated with the presence of the non-derivatizeable 11oxo group in pregnane(ene)s. GC-MS/MS contributed only to the characterization of structures outside the C-ring, as described in the preceding parts of this study. Parallels were found between the metabolism of 21-deoxycortisone and cortisone. The major metabolic pathway was that of classical 3α,5ß-reduction with a prominent further hydroxylation, predominantly at C6. Oxidation of the 6-hydroxyl was also common. We conclude that further oxygenated metabolites of 21-deoxycortisone have potential as more reliable markers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the early neonatal period, because their levels are higher during that period of life than for the classical marker 11oxo-pregnanetriol.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pregnanos/química , Pregnanos/urina , Pregnenos/química , Pregnenos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
13.
Steroids ; 77(13): 1487-501, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974828

RESUMO

Urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency contains a large range of androstane(ene)s, many of which have not been previously described. We present their characterization as the third part of a comprehensive study of urinary steroids, aiming to enhance the diagnosis of this disorder and to further elucidate steroid metabolism in neonates. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra were used together to determine the structure of hitherto undescribed androstane(ene)s. GC-MS/MS was pivotal for the structural characterization of 2-hydroxylated androstenediones but GC-MS was generally more informative for androstane(ene)s, in contrast to 17-hydroxylated pregnane(ene)s. Parallels were found between the GC-MS and GC-MS/MS characteristics of structurally similar androstenediones and progesterones without a substituent on the D-ring, but not with those of 17-hydroxylated progesterones. Assignment of 5α(ß) orientation, based on GC-MS characteristics, was possible for 11-oxo-androstanes. The major endogenous 3ß-hydroxy-5-enes in 21-hydroxylase deficiency did not differ from those in unaffected neonates. The key qualitative and quantitative differences encompassed 5α(ß)-androstanes and 3-oxo-androst-4-enes. Major positions of hydroxylation in these were C(2), C(6), C(11), C(16) and C(18). Additional oxo-groups were common at C(6), C(11) and C(16). We conclude that the presence of multiple further oxygenated metabolites of androstenedione in urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and their pattern indicate a predominance of the classical pathway of androgen synthesis and reflect an increased demand for clearance. The positions of oxygenation in androstane(ene)s are dependent on the configuration at C(3)-C(5).


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/urina , Androstanos/química , Androstanos/urina , Androstenos/química , Androstenos/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oxigênio/química
14.
Steroids ; 77(5): 382-93, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22210448

RESUMO

Urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency contains a large range of metabolites of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 21-deoxycortisol and androgens but few have been previously described. We present the second part of a comprehensive project to characterize and identify these in order to enhance diagnosis and to further elucidate neonatal steroid metabolism. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra were used together to determine the structure of the A- and B-rings containing an oxo group. Fragmentations indicating presence of 3-, 6-, and 7-oxo groups and also 1ß-, 2α-, 4ß-, and 6ß-hydroxyls are presented and discussed for the first time. Interpretation was aided by comparison with spectra of available relevant standards, of oxidation products of standards and urinary metabolites and of deuterated derivatives. Endogenous 1-enes and 2(3)-ene artifacts of non-hydrolyzed 3α-sulfates are also reported. D-ring and side chain structure was determined according to our previously published criteria. Likely metabolic relationships were also explored. We conclude that GC-MS combined with GC-MS/MS allows identification of the A- and B-ring structure of pregnane and pregnenes in the presence of an oxo group on one of these rings. Major oxygenations are 1ß, 15ß, 16α and 21-hydroxy and 6- and 7-oxo groups. Minor positions of hydroxylation are those at 2α, 4ß and 6ß. Three major metabolic streams exist in affected neonates in addition to the classical 3α-hydroxy-5ß-pregnane pathway, i.e. these of the 3-oxo-4-enes as well as 3α- and 3ß-hydroxy-5α-anes.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/urina , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/urina , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/enzimologia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Pregnanos/química , Pregnanos/metabolismo , Pregnanos/urina , Pregnenos/química , Pregnenos/metabolismo , Pregnenos/urina , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo
15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 121(3-5): 574-81, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20302934

RESUMO

In neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency the specific marker 11-oxo-pregnanetriol is at low levels in the first days of life and this drives the search for alternatives. We describe the structural characterisation of a new early marker, 3beta,16alpha,17alpha-trihydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-7,20-dione. Urine samples from 87 untreated and 11 recently treated newborns with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (42 males and 56 females) between birth and 40 days of age and control samples from 7 healthy neonates (4 males, 3 females) were compared. Steroids were analyzed as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis. Microchemical methods and deuterated derivatives were used. The new steroid was identified by comparison with 3beta,16alpha,17alpha-trihydroxy-preg-5-en-20-one and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-7,20-dione standards. It was present for the first 4 weeks after birth (with a maximum around day 4) and showed a marked inter-individual variability. No effect of treatment was evident and levels were much higher than for 11-oxo-pregnanetriol in the first days of life. Only traces were found in controls. The likely involvement of oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7B1) from the 'acidic' pathway of bile acid synthesis and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 in the generation of the 7-oxo group is discussed. We conclude that this steroid is a useful early marker of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Precoce , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pregnanodionas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Steroids ; 75(1): 34-52, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19799922

RESUMO

Steroid metabolites in urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency are predominantly polyhydroxylated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androgen metabolites, and most have incompletely defined structure. This study forms part of a comprehensive project to characterize and identify these in order to enhance diagnosis and to further elucidate neonatal types of steroid metabolism. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra, obtained with constant excitation conditions, were used together to determine the structure of the D-ring and the side chain of 20-oxo and 20-hydroxy pregnane(ene)s without oxo groups on the A-, B-, and C-ring. All possible combinations of D-ring and side chain configuration were considered. Most fragmentations could be interpreted as partial or complete D-ring cleavages with loss of the side chain, aided by comparison with spectra of deuterated derivatives and of borohydride reduced metabolites. Possible rearrangement ions are also discussed. More than 140 endogenous metabolites were characterized. GC-MS/MS was especially beneficial for characterization of compounds with 16,17-dihydroxy-20-oxo structure, interpreted as markers of intra-uterine enzyme induction. It also assisted the differentiation of 16-hydroxy-20-oxo metabolites, present in urine of non-affected neonates, from the diagnostic 17-hydroxy-20-oxosteroids and enabled the detection of 15,17-dihydroxy-20-oxo compounds in low concentrations. The presence of 17,21-dihydroxylated pregnane(ene)s despite the deficit in CYP21A2 is discussed. We conclude that GC-MS combined with GC-MS/MS allows reliable identification of the structure of the D-ring and side chain of pregnane(ene)s without prior isolation, even when in low concentrations in urine.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Esteroides/urina , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/química , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/enzimologia , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Hidroxiprogesteronas/química , Hidroxiprogesteronas/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pregnanos/química , Pregnanos/metabolismo , Pregnanos/urina , Pregnenos/química , Pregnenos/metabolismo , Pregnenos/urina , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/metabolismo
17.
Steroids ; 73(3): 309-19, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18177910

RESUMO

Urinary steroid profile analysis requires enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates and this is achieved simultaneously using Helix pomatia juice (HPJ), but steroids with 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene structure undergo transformation and yield of 5alpha-reduced corticosteroid glucuronides is poor. We describe the use of sodium ascorbate to solve these problems and provide a basis for its mode of action. Steroid conjugates were extracted from urine, hydrolyzed in acetate buffer with HPJ and sodium ascorbate and analyzed as methyloxime-trimethylsilylether derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ranges of temperature, pH and ascorbate, substrate and HPJ concentrations were compared for urine and pure standards. Activity of other antioxidants and that of bacterial cholesterol oxidase were examined. Helix pomatia enzyme preparations from different commercial sources were compared. Loss of 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroids was enzyme-dependant, since it required HPJ, was saturable, subject to substrate competition and heat-inactivated. Products were 3-oxo-4-ene steroids and 4,6-diene and 6-oxy derivatives of these but the latter were not formed from 3-oxo-4-ene precursors. Ascorbate, other antioxidants or oxygen exclusion diminished activity. These characteristics were shared by cholesterol oxidase. Yield of 5alpha-reduced steroids was diminished by pre-incubation of HPJ before ascorbate addition and this was reversed if ascorbate was added to the pre-incubation mixture. We conclude that transformation of 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroids by HPJ is due to cholesterol oxidase and is diminished by antioxidants or oxygen denial. Yield of 5alpha-reduced steroids is low due to oxidative damage of beta-glucuronidase during hydrolysis, prevented by ascorbate. These features are shared by most commercial Helix pomatia enzyme preparations tested.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Helix (caramujos)/química , Esteroides/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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