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1.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 269: 118853, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803467

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent spread of the disease COVID-19 became classified as a pandemic in March of 2020, leading to global safety measures introduced to limit the impact of the virus. This combination of safety measures has become commonly referred to as "lockdown". The associated industry and lifestyle changes led to reductions in the anthropogenic emission of atmospheric pollutants such as black carbon (BC), which is transported from the mid-latitudes into the Arctic during the winter and spring. Measurements of BC and other anthropogenic pollutants are of increasing importance in the Arctic due to the rapid warming observed there in the past few decades. It is believed that BC has a significant role in this warming, and so understanding the Arctic's response to reduced BC emissions at lower latitudes will provide insight into how future changes might mitigate further warming. Reductions in BC have been reported worldwide, and so in this study, the impact of these reductions on BC concentrations at the High Arctic site Villum Research Station was investigated. The effect was examined from March 2020, around when global lockdowns began, to June 2020, when the Arctic haze period ended and BC levels were once again low. Firstly, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) was used to assess this impact on BC concentrations by adjusting global anthropogenic pollution emission inventories to simulate those observed during the lockdown period and comparing the results to a similar model run with standard emission inventories. Secondly, equivalent BC data from an aethalometer at Villum Research Station were analysed, comparing the concentrations during the lockdown period to both aethalometer data from previous years and DEHM results from the lockdown period. It was found that when adjusted DEHM emission inventories were introduced from the 1st of March, the model predicted a reduction in BC concentrations beginning on the 10th of March and reached a 10% reduction by the 1st of April. This reduction fluctuated around 10% until the end of the Arctic haze period. Aethalometer data did not show any significant change from previous years, and no concentration reduction could be concluded from its comparison with DEHM results. This is likely because the predicted reduction of 10% is smaller than both the inter-annual and intra-annual variability of measured BC concentrations at Villum.

2.
Environ Res ; 203: 111886, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies on air pollution and disease have been based on millions of participants within a region or country, relying entirely on register-based confounder adjustment. We aimed to investigate the effects of increasing adjustment for register- and questionnaire-based covariates on the association between air pollution and cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 246,766 eligible participants randomly selected across Denmark in 2010 and 2013 and followed up until December 31, 2017, we identified 3,247 myocardial infarction (MI) cases, 4,166 stroke cases and 6,366 type 2 diabetes cases. Based on historical address-information, we calculated 5-year time-weighted exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 modelled using a validated air pollution model. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with increasing adjustment for a number of individual- and area-level register-based covariates as well as lifestyle covariates assessed through questionnaires. RESULTS: We found that a 5 µg/m3 higher PM2.5 was associated with HRs (95% CI) for MI, stroke and diabetes, of respectively, 1.18 (0.91-1.52), 1.11 (0.88-1.40) and 1.24 (1.03-1.50) in the fully adjusted models. For all three diseases, adjustment for either individual-level, area-level or lifestyle covariates, or combinations of these resulted in higher HRs compared to HRs adjusted only for age, sex and calendar-year, most marked for MI and diabetes. Further adjustment for lifestyle in models with full register-based individual- and area-level adjustment resulted in only minor changes in HRs for all three diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in studies of air pollution and cardiometabolic disease, which use an adjustment strategy with a broad range of register-based socioeconomic variables, there is no effect on risk estimates from subsequent lifestyle adjustment.

3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

5.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106502, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538368

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence indicates that exposure to air pollution not only impacts on physical health but is also linked with a deterioration in mental health. We conducted the first study to investigate exposure to ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during childhood and subsequent self-harm risk. The study cohort included persons born in Denmark between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2006 (N = 1,424,670), with information on daily exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 at residence from birth to 10th birthday. Follow-up began from 10th birthday until first hospital-presenting self-harm episode, death, or December 31, 2016, whichever came first. Incidence rate ratios estimated by Poisson regression models revealed a dose relationship between increasing PM2.5 exposure and rising self-harm risk. Exposure to 17-19 µg/m3 of PM2.5 on average per day from birth to 10th birthday was associated with a 1.45 fold (95% CI 1.37-1.53) subsequently elevated self-harm risk compared with a mean daily exposure of <13 µg/m3, whilst those exposed to 19 µg/m3 or above on average per day had a 1.59 times (1.45-1.75) elevated risk. Higher mean daily exposure to NO2 during childhood was also linked with increased self-harm risk, but the dose-response relationship observed was less evident than for PM2.5. Covariate adjustment attenuated the associations, but risk remained independently elevated. Although causality cannot be assumed, these novel findings indicate a potential etiological involvement of ambient air pollution in the development of mental ill health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Int ; 155: 106667, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disease and one of the most common chronic diseases among children. Exposure to ambient air pollution in early life and childhood may influence asthma aetiology, but it is uncertain which specific components of air pollution and exposure windows are of importance. The role of socio-economic status (SES) is also unclear. The aims of the present study are, therefore, to investigate how various exposure windows of different pollutants affect risk-induced asthma in early life and to explore the possible effect SES has on that relationship. METHODS: The study population was constructed using register data on all singleton births in the greater Stockholm area between 2006 and 2013. Exposure to ambient black carbon (BC), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), primary organic carbon (pOC) secondary organic aerosols (SOA), secondary inorganic aerosols, and oxidative potential at the residential address was modelled as mean values for the entire pregnancy period, the first year of life and the first three years of life. Swedish national registers were used to define the outcome: asthma diagnosis assessed at hospital during the first six years of life. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were modelled with Cox proportional hazards model with age as the underlying time-scale, adjusting for relevant potential confounding variables. RESULTS: An increased risk for developing childhood asthma was observed in association with exposure to PM2.5, pOC and SOA during the first three years of life. With an interquartile range increase in exposure, the HRs were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10), 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04), for PM2.5, pOC and SOA, respectively, in the fully adjusted models. Exposure during foetal life or the first year of life was not associated with asthma risk, and the other pollutants were not statistically significantly associated with increased risk. Furthermore, the increase in risk associated with PM2.5 and the components BC, pOC and SOA were stronger in areas with lower SES. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during the first three years of life may increase the risk for asthma in early childhood. The findings further imply a possible increased vulnerability to air pollution-attributed asthma among low SES children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model/Urban Background Model/Air Geographic Information System modelling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 using the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during a mean of 18.6 years' follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with HRs and 95% CIs of 1.19 (1.01-1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05-1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (1.06-1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and to road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.

10.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1147-1156, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on transportation noise and incident stroke are few and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate associations between road-traffic and railway noise and the risk of incident stroke in the entire Danish population. METHODS: We estimated road-traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades for all residential addresses across Denmark (2.8 million) for the period 1990-2017. Based on this, we estimated the 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 3.6 million Danes aged >35 years, of whom 184 523 developed incident stroke during follow-up from 2000 to 2017. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional-hazards models, with adjustment for various individual- and area-level demographic and socio-economic covariates collected from registries and air pollution [fine particulate matter with particles with a diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)]. RESULTS: A 10-dB increase in the 10-year mean road-traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.05] for all strokes. For road-traffic noise at the least exposed façade, the IRR per 10 dB was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04) for all strokes. Railway noise was not associated with a higher risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: Road-traffic noise increased the risk of stroke. These findings add to the evidence of road-traffic noise as a cardiovascular risk factor.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 28: 100605, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163948

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown higher mortality in association with exposure to air pollution. We investigated this association with focus on differences between socioeconomic groups. Methods: We included all Danes born between 1921 and 1985 aged 30-85 years from 1991 to 2015 (N = 4,401,348). We applied a nested case-control design and identified those who died during follow-up and selected five controls per case. We modelled NO2, fine particulate matter (PM2·5), black carbon (BC) particles, and ozone (O3) as five-year average concentrations at the residential addresses of 672,895 all natural cause mortality cases and 3,426,533 controls in conditional logistic regression with adjustment for individual and neighbourhood level socio-demographic variables. Findings: In single pollutant models, a 10 µg/m3 (BC: 1 µg/m3) increase in NO2, PM2·5, BC, and O3 was associated with natural cause mortality rate ratios (MRR) of 1·05 (95% confidence interval 1·04-1·06), 1·08 (1·04-1·13), 1·05 (1·02-1·08), and 0·96 (0·95-0·97), respectively. The patterns were similar for respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality. O3 was associated with higher risk of CVD mortality. The rate differences for a unit increase in PM2·5, NO2, and BC were largest among those with the lowest income; this pattern was not detected when considering the relative risk measure, MRR. Interpretation: Long-term concentration of air pollution at the residence was associated with higher natural cause mortality in the Danish population and the strength of the association differed by socioeconomic group. We recommend that future studies express socioeconomic differences in absolute rather than relative risk.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(12): 1818-1824, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based epidemiological studies of adults have examined the relationship between air pollution and leukaemias. METHODS: Using Danish National Cancer Registry data and Danish DEHM-UBM-AirGIS system-modelled air pollution exposures, we examined whether particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) averaged over 1, 5 or 10 years were associated with adult leukaemia in general or by subtype. In all, 14,986 adult cases diagnosed 1989-2014 and 51,624 age, sex and time-matched controls were included. Separate conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, assessed exposure to each pollutant with leukaemias. RESULTS: Fully adjusted models showed a higher risk of leukaemia with higher 1-, 5- and 10-year-average exposures to PM2.5 prior to diagnosis (e.g. OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32), and a positive relationship with 1-year average BC. Results were driven by participants 70 years and older (OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.58). Null findings for younger participants. Higher 1-year average PM2.5 exposures were associated with higher risks for acute myeloid and chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia. CONCLUSION: Among older adults, higher risk for leukaemia was associated with higher residential PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/etiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Int ; 143: 105983, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (Lden) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 µg/m3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM2.5 < 20 µg/m3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM10 and none with NO2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Int ; 144: 106046, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is an established carcinogen. Evidence for an association with brain tumors is, however, inconclusive. We investigated if individual particulate matter constituents were associated with brain tumor risk. METHODS: From comprehensive national registers, we identified all (n = 12 928) brain tumor cases, diagnosed in Denmark in the period 1989-2014, and selected 22 961 controls, matched on age, sex and year of birth. We established address histories and estimated 10-year mean residential outdoor concentrations of particulate matter < 2.5 µm, primarily emitted black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), and combined carbon (OC/BC), as well as secondary inorganic and organic PM air pollutants from a detailed dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) per inter quartile range (IQR) exposure. We adjusted for income, marital and employment status as well as area-level socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Total tumors of the brain were associated with OC/BC (OR: 1.053, 95%CI: 1.005-1.103, per IQR). The data suggested strongest associations for malignant tumors with ORs per IQR for OC/BC, BC and OC of 1.063 (95% CI: 1.007-1.123), 1.036 (95% CI: 1.006-1.067) and 1.030 (95%CI: 0.979-1.085), respectively. The results did not indicate adverse effects of other PM components. CONCLUSIONS: This large, population based study showed associations between primary emitted carbonaceous particles and risk for malignant brain tumors. As the first of its kind, this study needs replication.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140677, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721756

RESUMO

Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardant applied in parallel to or as a replacement product for regulated flame retardants. Detection of DP in environmental media all over the world in recent years necessitates the development of detailed global emission estimates for environmental model studies. Based on production, usage and disposal data two global atmospheric emission scenarios were made with a detailed geographical distribution. The total DP emission is estimated to be 0.02 t/year and 3.2 t/year in a low and high emission scenario, respectively, reflecting the uncertainties in production volumes and emission factors. The emission estimates are tested by implementation in the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, an advanced chemistry-transport model. An evaluation against measurements in the Arctic from the early 2010s, considered to represent background concentrations, shows that the predicted concentration range for the high emission scenario is in line with the measured range, whereas the predicted concentrations for the low emission estimate are more than a factor of 100 lower than the measurements, rendering the high emission estimate most probable.

17.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 81, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconclusive evidence has suggested a possible link between air pollution and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We investigated a range of air pollutants in relation to types of CNS tumors. METHODS: We identified all (n = 21,057) intracranial tumors in brain, meninges and cranial nerves diagnosed in Denmark between 1989 and 2014 and matched controls on age, sex and year of birth. We established personal 10-year mean residential outdoor exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrous oxides (NOX), primary emitted black carbon (BC) and ozone. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) linearly (per interquartile range (IQR)) and categorically. We accounted for personal income, employment, marital status, use of medication as well as socio-demographic conditions at area level. RESULTS: Malignant tumors of the intracranial CNS was associated with BC (OR: 1.034, 95%CI: 1.005-1.065 per IQR. For NOx the OR per IQR was 1.026 (95%CI: 0.998-1.056). For malignant non-glioma tumors of the brain we found associations with PM2.5 (OR: 1.267, 95%CI: 1.053-1.524 per IQR), BC (OR: 1.049, 95%CI: 0.996-1.106) and NOx (OR: 1.051, 95% CI: 0.996-1.110). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that air pollution is associated with malignant intracranial CNS tumors and malignant non-glioma of the brain. However, additional studies are needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nitroso/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fuligem/efeitos adversos
18.
Environ Int ; 142: 105891, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593048

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution has been linked to stroke, but few studies have examined in detail stroke subtypes and confounding by road traffic noise, which was recently associated with stroke. Here we examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of stroke (overall, ischemic, hemorrhagic), adjusting for road traffic noise. In a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort consisting of 23,423 nurses, recruited in 1993 or 1999, we identified 1,078 incident cases of stroke (944 ischemic and 134 hemorrhagic) up to December 31, 2014, defined as first-ever hospital contact. The full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained for each participant and the annual means of air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and road traffic noise were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for the associations of one-, three, and 23-year running mean of air pollutants with stroke adjusting for potential confounders and noise. In fully adjusted models, the HRs (95% CI) per interquartile range increase in one-year running mean of PM2.5 and overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were 1.12 (1.01-1.25), 1.13 (1.01-1.26), and 1.07 (0.80-1.44), respectively, and remained unchanged after adjustment for noise. Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was associated with the risk of stroke independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(2): e64-e73, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution affects neurological function, but its association with schizophrenia risk is unclear. We investigated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOX) as a whole and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) specifically, as well as PM10, and PM2·5, during childhood and subsequent schizophrenia risk. METHODS: People born in Denmark from 1980 to 1984 (N=230 844), who were residing in the country on their tenth birthday, and who had two Danish-born parents were followed-up from their tenth birthday until schizophrenia diagnosis or Dec 31, 2016. Mean daily exposure to each pollutant (NO2, NOX, PM10, and PM2·5) at all of an individual's residential addresses from birth to their tenth birthday was modelled. Incidence rate ratios, cumulative incidence, and population attributable risks were calculated using survival analysis techniques. FINDINGS: We analysed data between Aug 1, 2018, and Nov 15, 2019. Of 230 844 individuals included, 2189 cohort members were diagnosed with schizophrenia during follow-up. Higher concentrations of residential NO2 and NOX exposure during childhood were associated with subsequent elevated schizophrenia risk. People exposed to daily mean concentrations of more than 26·5 µg/m3 NO2 had a 1·62 (95% CI 1·41-1·87) times increased risk compared with people exposed to a mean daily concentration of less than 14·5 µg/m3. The absolute risks of developing schizophrenia by the age of 37 years when exposed to daily mean concentrations of more than 26·5 µg/m3 NO2 between birth and 10 years were 1·45% (95% CI 1·30-1·62%) for men and 1·03% (0·90-1·17) for women, whereas when exposed to a mean daily concentration of less than 14·5 µg/m3, the risk was 0·80% (95% CI 0·69-0·92%) for men and 0·67% (0·57-0·79) for women. Associations between exposure to PM2·5 or PM10 and schizophrenia risk were less consistent. INTERPRETATION: If the association between air pollution and schizophrenia is causal, reducing ambient air pollution including NO2 and NOX could have a potentially considerable effect on lowering schizophrenia incidence at the population level. Further investigations are necessary to establish a causal relationship. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation, Stanley Medical Research Institute, European Research Council, NordForsk, Novo Nordisk Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente
20.
Int J Cancer ; 147(7): 1874-1880, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175588

RESUMO

There is limited evidence regarding a possible association between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Previous epidemiological studies have relied on crude estimations for air pollution exposure and/or small numbers of NHL cases. The objective of our study was to analyze this association based on air pollution modeled at the address level and NHL cases identified from the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. We identified 20,874 incident NHL cases diagnosed between 1989 and 2014 and randomly selected 41,749 controls matched on age and gender among the entire Danish population. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted for individual and neighborhood level sociodemographic variables. There was no association between exposure to PM2.5 , BC, O3 , SO2 or NO2 and overall risk of NHL but several air pollutants were associated with higher risk of follicular lymphoma, but statistically insignificant, for example, PM2.5 (OR = 1.15 per 5 µg/m3 ; 95% CI: 0.98-1.34) and lower risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 0.92 per 5 µg/m3 ; 95% CI: 0.82-1.03). In this population-based study, we did not observe any convincing evidence of a higher overall risk for NHL with higher exposure to ambient air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
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