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1.
Neonatology ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practices to detect and manage hyperbilirubinemia in newborn nurseries are highly variable. American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in 1999, 2004, and 2009 have generated, perhaps unintentionally, divergent practices that might not all be of equivalent value. Evidence-based progress is needed to define less invasive, less expensive, uniform, and safe methods to reduce ER visits and hospital readmissions for jaundice treatment and bilirubin encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: This research briefing is intended to inform readers of a new prospective quality improvement program aimed at testing the value of specific changes in newborn nursery hyperbilirubinemia detection and management. This new program includes predetermined means of assessing those specific changes, which relate to diagnosis, safety, outcomes, and cost. METHODS: In this briefing, we present the perceived problems in our present bilirubin management system, as voiced by stakeholders. We report our proposed means to test minimization of those problems utilizing already acquired data on approximately 400,000 well babies in the Intermountain Healthcare system of hospitals in the western USA. We then describe our methods of assessing specific outcomes in a pre- versus postpractice change analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The University of Utah Newborn Nursery will implement a quality improvement project in bilirubin management during 2020 to test the feasibility and effectiveness of several changes to our current bilirubin management program. We maintain that the improved understanding generated by this project will be a step toward new evidence-based strategies for reducing ER visits and hospital readmissions for jaundice treatment and preventing bilirubin encephalopathy.

2.
J Pediatr ; 219: 140-145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, phototherapy usage, and hospital readmission for jaundice among neonates with Down syndrome vs controls. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using 15 years of multihospital data. We created control reference intervals (5th, median, and 95th percentiles) for initial TSB values hourly during the first days after birth, and determined the proportion of neonates with Down syndrome whose TSB exceeded the 95th percentile control interval. We determined the proportion with an initial TSB exceeding the upper control reference interval, the highest TSB recorded, the percentage of neonates receiving phototherapy, and the rate of hospital readmission for jaundice treatment. RESULTS: We compared 357 neonates with Down syndrome with 377 368 controls. Compared with controls, those with Down syndrome had 4.7 times the risk (95% CI, 3.9-5.7; P < .0001) of an initial TSB exceeding the 95th percentile control interval (23.5% vs 5.0%), 8.9 times (95% CI, 8.1-9.8; P < .0001) the phototherapy usage (62.2% vs 7.0%), and 3.6 times (95% CI, 1.6-8.2; P = .0075) the readmission rate for jaundice (17.4 vs 4.8 per 1000 live births). CONCLUSIONS: Neonates with Down syndrome have a substantial risk of early hyperbilirubinemia. The American Academy of Pediatrics currently advises obtaining an early screening complete blood count from neonates with Down syndrome. We submit that assessing their TSB is also advisable.

5.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856008

RESUMO

Intrahospital transport of a critically ill patient is often required to achieve a diagnostic and/or therapeutic objective. However, clinicians who recommend a procedure that requires transport are often not fully aware of the risks of transport. Clinicians involved in the care of critically ill children may therefore benefit from a clear enumeration of adverse events that have occurred during transport, risk factors for those events, and guidance for event prevention. The objective of this review was to collect all published harm and adverse events that occurred in critically ill children in the context of transport within a medical center, as well as the incidence of each type of event. A secondary objective was to identify what interventions have been previously studied that reduce events and to collect recommendations for harm prevention from study authors. Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and CINAHL were searched in January 2018 and again in December 2018. Terms indicating pediatric patients, intrahospital transport, critical illness, and adverse events were used. Titles and abstracts were screened and full text was reviewed for any article meeting inclusion criteria. If articles included both children and adults, incidence data were collected only if the number of pediatric patients could be ascertained. Of 471 full-text articles reviewed, 40 met inclusion criteria, of which 24 included only children, totaling 4104 patient transports. Heterogeneity was high, owing to a wide range of populations, settings, data collection methods, and outcomes. The incidence of adverse events varied widely between studies. Examples of harm included emergent tracheostomy, pneumothorax, and cardiac arrest requiring chest compressions. Respiratory and airway events were the most common type of adverse event. Hypothermia was common in infants. One transport-associated death was reported. When causation was assessed, most events were judged to have been preventable or potentially mitigated by improved double-checks and usage of checklists. Prospective studies demonstrated the superiority of mechanical ventilation over manual ventilation for intubated patients. Risk of adverse events during critical care transport appears to relate to the patient's underlying illness and degree of respiratory support. Recommendations for reducing these adverse events have frequently included the use of checklists. Other recommendations include optimization of the patient's physiological status before transport, training with transport equipment, double-checking of equipment before transport, and having experienced clinicians accompany the patient. All available recommendations for reducing transport-associated adverse events in included articles were collated and included.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transporting patients under anesthesia care incurs numerous potential risks, especially for those with critical illness. The purpose of this study is to identify and report all pediatric anesthesia transport-associated adverse events from a preexisting database of perioperative adverse events. METHODS: An extract of the Wake Up Safe database was obtained on December 14, 2017, and screened for anesthesia transport-associated complications. This was defined as events occurring during or immediately after transport or movement of a pediatric patient during or in proximity to their care by anesthesiologists, including repositioning and transfer to recovery or an inpatient unit, if the cause was noted to be associated with anesthesia or handover. Events were excluded if the narrative clearly states that an event was ongoing and not impacted by anesthesia transport, such as a patient who develops cardiac arrest that then requires emergent transfer to the operating room. The search methodology included specific existing data elements that indicate transport of the patient, handover or intensive care status preoperatively as well as a free-text search of the narrative for fragments of words indicating movement. Screened events were reviewed by 3 anesthesiologists for inclusion, and all data elements were extracted for analysis. RESULTS: Of 2971 events in the database extract, 63.8% met screening criteria and 5.0% (148 events) were related to transport. Events were primarily respiratory in nature. Nearly 40% of all reported events occurred in infants age ≤6 months. A total of 59.7% of events were at least somewhat preventable and 36.4% were associated with patient harm, usually temporary. Of the 86 reported cardiac arrests, 50 (58.1%) had respiratory causes, of which 74% related to anesthesia or perioperative team factors. Respiratory events occurred at all stages of care, with 21.4% during preoperative transport and 75.5% postoperatively. Ninety-three percent of unplanned extubations occurred in patients 6 months and younger. Ten medication events were noted, 2 of which resulted in cardiac arrest. Root causes in all events related primarily to provider and patient factors, with occasional references to verbal miscommunication. CONCLUSIONS: Five percent of reported pediatric anesthesia adverse events are associated with transport. Learning points highlight the risk of emergence from anesthesia during transport to recovery or intensive care unit (ICU). ICU patients undergoing anesthesia transport face risks relating to transitions in providers, equipment, sedation, and physical positioning. Sedation and neuromuscular blockade may be necessary for transport in some patients but has been associated with adverse events in others.

7.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(9): 659-668, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658112

RESUMO

Increased visibility of adverse encounters between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and law enforcement (LE) has stimulated a dialog among providers. There are a variety of contributing factors to the increase, including the recognized lack of training of LE professionals on the needs of individuals with ASD and the paucity of awareness of resources by the families of these individuals. The aim of this article is to provide insight into developmental-behavioral pediatric professionals, to enhance safety and reduce adverse outcomes for individuals with ASD in schools and the community.

8.
Transfusion ; 59(10): 3113-3119, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An emergency-release blood transfusion (ERBT) protocol (uncrossmatched type O-negative red blood cells, AB plasma, AB platelets) is critical for neonatology practice. However, few reports of emergency transfusions are available. We conducted an ERBT quality improvement project as a basis for progress. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: For each ERBT in the past 8 years, we logged indications, products, locations and timing of the transfusions, and outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred forty-nine ERBTs were administered; 42% involved a single blood product, and 58% involved two or more. The incidence was 6.25 ERBT per 10,000 live births, with a higher rate (9.52 ERBT/10,000) in hospitals with a Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (p < 0.001). Seventy percent of ERBTs were administered in a NICU and 30% in a delivery room, operating room, or emergency department. Indications were abruption/previa (32.2%), congenital anemia (i.e., fetomaternal hemorrhage; 15.4%), umbilical cord accident (i.e., velamentous insertion; 15.0%), and bleeding/coagulopathy (12.8%). Fifty-eight percent of those with hemorrhage before birth did not have a hemoglobin value reported on the umbilical cord gas; thus, anemia was not recognized initially. None of the 149 ERBTs were administered using a blood warmer. The mortality rate of recipients was 35%. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we recommend including a hemoglobin value with every cord blood gas after emergency delivery to rapidly identify fetal anemia. We also discuss two potential improvements for future testing: 1) the use of a warming device for massive transfusion of neonates and 2) the use of low-titer group O cold-stored whole blood for massive hemorrhage in neonates.

9.
Transfusion ; 59(10): 3089-3092, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cases of massive hemorrhage in the US military, improved outcomes have been reported with the use of warm, fresh whole blood transfusions. Cold-stored low-titer type O whole blood (LTOWB) has become the preferred product for resuscitation of severe bleeding in deployed surgical units. Reports of LTOWB use in civilian trauma are becoming more frequent. CASE REPORT: We report our experience with emergency transfusion of LTOWB for a woman with massive postpartum hemorrhage. The patient had two previous cesarean section deliveries at term without complications. With her third elective cesarean section at term, blood loss during surgery was not excessive, but 3 to 4 hours later she had an estimated blood loss of 3600 mL. Despite measures to control the hemorrhage, she rapidly became hypotensive and tachycardic, and our massive transfusion protocol (MTP) was activated. The transfusion service had very recently incorporated LTOWB into Trauma Pack 1 of the MTP. She received two LTOWB units, after which her hemorrhaging ceased, blood pressure normalized, and she became alert. One hour later she received one unit of fresh frozen plasma and one unit of red blood cells (RBCs). The following morning she received one unit of crossmatched RBCs, for a hematocrit of 20.7%. She was discharged home on Day 4, and she remains healthy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of which we are aware of massive postpartum hemorrhage treated using LTOWB. Our positive experience leads us to speculate that this approach could have a role in massive obstetric hemorrhage.

10.
J Perinatol ; 39(11): 1555-1561, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To enhance the diagnosis of schistocyte-producing conditions, we compared routine manual schistocyte enumeration with automated fragmented red cell counts (FRCs). STUDY DESIGN: In neonates "suspected" of having sepsis, NEC, or DIC we compared manual schistocyte estimates vs. automated FRC counts. When the two disagreed, we used a "gold standard" from a  ≥ 1000 RBC differential. We also assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the FRC count in diagnosing sepsis, NEC, or DIC. RESULTS: We collected 270 CBCs from 90 neonates. The methods agreed in 63% (95% CI 55%-70%) of the CBCs. Among the 37% where they disagreed, the FRC count was more accurate in 100% (95% CI 88-100%). An elevated FRC count was specific for sepsis, and was sensitive and specific for necrotizing enterocolitis and DIC. CONCLUSIONS: Automated FRC counts have advantages over routine manual evaluation, larger sample size, lower expense, and superior accuracy in diagnosing schistocyte-producing conditions.

12.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451971

RESUMO

This review focuses on certain hematopoietic growth factors that are used as medications in clinical neonatology. It is important to note at the chapter onset that although all of the pharmacological agents mentioned in this review have been approved by the US Food and Drug administration for use in humans, none have been granted a specific FDA indication for neonates. Thus, in a sense, all of the agents mentioned in this chapter could be considered experimental, when used in neonates. However, a great many of the pharmacological agents utilized routinely in neonatology practice do not have a specific FDA indication for this population of patients. Consequently, many of the agents reviewed in this chapter are considered by some practitioners to be nonexperimental and are used when they judge such use to be "best practice" for the disorders under treatment.The medicinal uses of the agents in this chapter vary considerably, between geographic locations, and sometimes even within an institutions. "Consistent approaches" aimed at using these agents in uniform ways in the practice of neonatology are encouraged. Indeed some healthcare systems, and some individual NICUs, have developed written guidelines for using these agents within the practice group. Some such guidelines are provided in this review. It should be noted that these guidelines, or "consistent approaches," must be viewed as dynamic and changing, requiring adjustment and refinement as additional evidence accrues.

13.
Anesth Analg ; 129(4): 1118-1123, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unconscious racial bias in anesthesia care has been shown to exist. We hypothesized that black children may undergo inhalation induction less often, receive less support from child life, have fewer opportunities to have a family member present for induction, and receive premedication with oral midazolam less often. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on those <18 years of age from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2018 including age, sex, race, height, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, surgical service, and deidentified anesthesiology attending physician. Outcome data included mask versus intravenous induction, midazolam premedication, child life consultation, and family member presence. Racial differences between all outcomes were assessed in the cohort using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 33,717 Caucasian and 3901 black children were eligible for the study. For the primary outcome, black children 10-14 years were 1.3 times more likely than Caucasian children to receive mask induction (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.6; P = .001). Child life consultation was poorly documented (<0.5%) and not analyzed. Black children <15 years of age were at least 31% less likely than Caucasians to have a family member present for induction (AOR range, 0.4-0.6; 95% CI range, 0.31-0.84; P < .010). Black children <5 years of age were 13% less likely than Caucasians to have midazolam given preoperatively (AOR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that disparities in strategies for mitigating anxiety in the peri-induction period exist and adultification may be 1 cause for this bias. Black children 10 to 14 years of age are 1.3 times as likely as their Caucasian peers to be offered inhalation induction to reduce anxiety. However, black children are less likely to receive premedication with midazolam in the perioperative period or to have family members present at induction. The cause of this difference is unclear, and further prospective studies are needed to fully understand this difference.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Anestesia Geral , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/psicologia , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pré-Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia
14.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41 Suppl 1: 95-101, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069991

RESUMO

Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a group of genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorders characterized by premature destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) with clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to marked hemolytic anemia. There are three main categories of HHA: (a) RBC membrane defects; (b) hemoglobinopathies/thalassemias; and (c) RBC enzyme deficiencies. Hyperbilirubinemia is a frequent consequence of hemolytic anemia and can lead to bilirubin-associated neurotoxicity in neonates and to jaundice, and formation of gall stones in adults. Hyperbilirubinemia can also be caused by impaired bilirubin conjugation due to polymorphisms and mutations in genes involved in bilirubin metabolism (eg, UGT1A1). Neonates with HHA and co-inherited variants impairing bilirubin conjugation are at increased risk of bilirubin-associated toxicity. Prior to the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), molecular diagnosis of these disorders was limited to targeted single gene Sanger sequencing. However, NGS is making its way into the standard diagnostic workup of complex and multigene disorders like HHA. This review will focus on the molecular updates of HHA with particular focus on the neonatal and pediatric population.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Congênita , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Adulto , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/sangue , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/genética , Membrana Eritrocítica/genética , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/sangue , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/sangue , Hiperbilirrubinemia/diagnóstico , Hiperbilirrubinemia/genética , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangue , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/genética , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Patologia Molecular
15.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 77: 95-100, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Small for gestational age infants (SGA), infants of diabetic mothers (IDM), and very low birth weight infants (VLBW) are at risk for congenital iron deficiency. We evaluated the iron status of SGA, IDM, and VLBW neonates at birth and sought mechanistic explanations in those with iron deficiency. METHODS: This was a prospective study. If congenital iron deficiency was present, maternal iron studies were obtained. When neonates were two weeks old, their iron status was reevaluated. RESULTS: Sixteen of 180 neonates screened were iron deficient at birth. The Body Mass Index of the 16 mothers was high. These mothers often had mild iron deficiency and measurable hepcidin levels. Two weeks after birth, neonates had improved iron measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Among SGA, IDM, and VLBW neonates, maternal obesity is a risk factor for congenital iron deficiency. We speculate that elevated hepcidin levels in obese pregnant women impede iron absorption and interfere with transplacental iron transfer.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Sangue Fetal , Ferro/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 76: 59-62, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777730

RESUMO

Serum ferritin reflects total body iron stores, thus a low serum ferritin is used as a parameter of iron deficiency. In healthy adults in Japan, urine ferritin levels were about 5% of serum ferritin levels, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. It is not known whether a low urine ferritin could serve as a non-invasive screen for iron deficiency. If so, this might be useful for neonates and young children, avoiding phlebotomy to screen for iron deficiency. However, for urinary ferritin screening to be feasible, ferritin must be measurable in the urine and correlate with serum ferritin. Testing should also clarify whether the iron content of ferritin in serum and urine are similar. In this pilot feasibility study we measured ferritin in paired serum and urine samples of healthy adult males, healthy term neonates, growing preterm neonates, and children who had very high serum ferritin levels from liver disorders or iron overload. We detected ferritin in every urine sample, and found a correlation with paired serum ferritin (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.78 of log10-transformed values). These findings suggest merit in further studying urinary ferritin in select populations, as a potential non-invasive screen to assess iron stores.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/sangue , Ferritinas/urina , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Hepatopatias , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
17.
Neonatology ; 115(3): 242-246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) is a potentially devastating condition that can lead to death or life-long neurodevelopmental handicaps. ABE is particularly tragic because it is, in theory, completely preventable. Progress toward its prevention has been hampered by the perception that the extreme hyperbilirubinemia giving rise to ABE typically has no clear causation, with the majority of previous cases being labeled as "idiopathic" neonatal jaundice. OBJECTIVES: This research briefing is intended to inform readers of a new prospective study aimed at clarifying the causes of ABE. This is accomplished by identifying qualifying patients with ABE anywhere in the USA and then documenting their clinical characteristics and the results of testing 28 specific genetic associations in a web-based, institutional review board-approved, REDCap (research electronic data capture) deidentified registry. METHODS: In this research briefing, we present an overview of ABE and discuss the problem that most patients in the past have been labeled as having "idiopathic" hyperbilirubinemia. We also present data supporting a new theory that most (perhaps all) ABE patients have mutations or polymorphisms in genes involved in bilirubin production or metabolism. We introduce a new registry seeking to enroll 100 neonates with ABE as a voluntary, deidentified database, with next generation sequencing of 28 genes involved in bilirubin production/metabolism provided to enrollees at no cost. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The Neonatal Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy Registry (NABER) study will correlate deidentified clinical and genetic data in order to clarify the underlying causes of hyperbilirubinemia in current ABE patients. We maintain that the improved understanding this study produces will constitute a needed step toward devising new clinical pathways and strategies for preventing ABE in neonates.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/genética , Kernicterus/genética , Sistema de Registros , Bilirrubina/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kernicterus/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
18.
Neonatology ; 115(1): 5-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistocytes are circulating erythrocyte fragments. They can be identified microscopically from a blood smear; but automated systems evaluate more cells and avoid inconsistencies in microscopy. Studies using adult subjects indicate that automated quantification of schistocytes can be clinically useful. However, reference intervals for automated schistocyte counts of neonates have not been published, and the relevance of a high automated schistocyte count from neonates has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: Using retrospective automated neonatal complete blood count (CBC) data, we created reference intervals for fragmented red cells (FRCs) and sought to discover the clinical conditions of neonates with high FRCs (above the upper reference interval). RESULTS: We created reference intervals based on 39,949 CBCs from 15,655 neonates 0-90 days old. The lower reference interval was 0 FRC/µL and the upper interval was 100,000/µL. The highest FRCs (96 CBCs from 44 neonates) were > 250,000/µL. These neonates clustered into the following groups: 37% had sepsis, 29% had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), 17% had a genetic syndrome, 14% necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and 7% had iron deficiency (some had more than one diagnosis). Based on the reference intervals, we divided the 39,949 FRC values into 3 groups: (1) < 100,000/µL ("normal"), (2) 100,000-200,000/µL ("moderately elevated"), and (3) > 200,000/µL ("extremely elevated"). The odds that a microangiopathic condition (DIC, sepsis, NEC) or a microcytic disorder (iron deficiency) were present were significantly higher in the moderately elevated, and more so in the extremely elevated group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a high FRC could prompt investigation into, or inform follow-up of, a neonatal microangiopathic or extremely microcytic disorder.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial , Contagem de Eritrócitos/instrumentação , Contagem de Eritrócitos/métodos , Eritrócitos Anormais/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/sangue , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Utah
19.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(3): 265-270, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy in pediatric patients often requires anesthesia and poses environmental challenges. Monitoring must be done remotely to limit radiation exposure to the provider. Airway access can be limited by masks or frames. Care is often delivered in relatively inaccessible locations in the hospital. While individual institutions have reported their outcomes, this case series aims to review a multicenter registry of significant adverse events and make recommendations for improved care. METHODS: Wake Up Safe: The Pediatric Quality Improvement Initiative maintains a multisite, voluntary registry of pediatric perianesthetic significant adverse events. This was queried for reports from radiation oncology from January 1, 2010 to May 10, 2018. The database contained 3,379 significant adverse events from approximately 3.3 million anesthetics. All 33 institutions submitted data on a standardized form to a central data repository (Axio Research, Seattle Washington). Prior to each significant adverse events case submission, three anesthesiologists who were not involved in the event analyzed the event using a standardized root cause analysis method to identify the causal or contributing factor(s). RESULTS: Six significant adverse events were identified. In three, incorrect programming of a propofol infusion resulted in overdose. In case one, the 3-year-old female became hypotensive, requiring vasopressors and volume resuscitation. In the second, the 2-year-old female experienced airway obstruction and apnea requiring chin lift. In case three, the child suffered no consequences despite a noted overdose of propofol infusion. In case four, a 2-year-old female with recent respiratory infection suffered laryngospasm during an unmonitored transport to the recovery area. She developed profound oxygen desaturation with bradycardia treated with succinylcholine and chest compressions. In case five, a 6-year-old former premature child suffered laryngospasm at the conclusion of mask creation under general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway. The radiation mask delayed recognition of copious secretions. Finally, in case six, a 6-year-old undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery in a head halo suffered bronchospasm and unintended extubation during therapy which required multiple attempts at reintubation by multiple providers ultimately requiring cancellation of the treatment and transport to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: There were few radiation oncology significant adverse events, but analysis has led to the identification of several specific opportunities for improvement in pediatric anesthesia for radiation oncology.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Propofol , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos
20.
Pediatr Dent ; 40(4): 279-284, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345967

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the lower dental midline position after premature unilateral loss of a primary mandibular canine with dental midline position after normal primary mandibular canine exfoliation. Methods: Dental casts were identified from growth studies at the University of Iowa and the University of Toronto. Two groups of dental casts were identified: (1) premature unilateral loss; and (2) normal asymmetric exfoliation of a single primary mandibular canine. The first set of casts displaying unilateral primary canine loss (time one) and the second set of casts displaying full permanent dentition (time two) were collected. The palatal rugae and palatal raphe were used to construct a median palatal plane (MPP). Dental midline position at each time point was measured from the MPP. Results: A total of 56 cases (15 premature, 41 normal) were identified. The mean lower dental midline changes from time one to time two for the premature and normal loss groups were 1.32±0.83 mm and 0.97±0.91 mm, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant regarding group (P=0.62), gender (P=0.91), or the interaction effect of group and gender (P=0.85). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in midline shift between the 15 individuals with premature unilateral primary canine loss and the 41 individuals with normal, asymmetric unilateral loss of a primary canine.


Assuntos
Dente Canino , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Dentição Permanente , Perda de Dente , Dente Decíduo , Criança , Modelos Dentários , Assimetria Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão
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