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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762602

RESUMO

Altered redox biology challenges all cells, with compensatory responses often determining a cell's fate. When 15 lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1), a lipid peroxidizing enzyme abundant in asthmatic human airway epithelial cells (HAECs), binds phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein-1 (PEBP1), hydroperoxy-phospholipids, which drive ferroptotic cell death, are generated. Peroxidases, including glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), metabolize hydroperoxy-phospholipids to hydroxy derivatives to prevent ferroptotic death, but consume reduced glutathione (GSH). The cystine transporter, SLC7A11, critically restores/maintains intracellular GSH. We hypothesized high 15LO1-PEBP1-GPX4 activity drives abnormal asthmatic redox biology, evidenced by lower bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and intraepithelial cell GSH:oxidized GSH (GSSG), to enhance Type-2 (T2) inflammatory responses. GSH, GSSG (enzymatic assays), 15LO1, GPX4, SLC7A11 and T2 biomarkers (western blot and RNAseq) were measured in asthmatic and healthy control (HC) cells/fluids, with siRNA knockdown as appropriate. GSSG was higher and GSH:GSSG lower in asthmatic compared to HC BAL fluid, while intracellular GSH was lower in asthma. In vitro, T2 cytokine (IL-13) induced 15LO1 generated hydroperoxy-phospholipids, which lowered intracellular GSH and increased extracellular GSSG. Lowering GSH further by inhibiting SLC7A11 enhanced T2 inflammatory protein expression and ferroptosis. Ex vivo, redox imbalances corresponded to 15LO1 and SLC7A11 expression, T2 biomarkers and worsened clinical outcomes. Thus, 15LO1 pathway-induced redox biology perturbations worsen T2 inflammation and asthma control, supporting15LO1 as a therapeutic target.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. COPD patients with cachexia or weight loss have increased risk of death independent of body mass index (BMI) and lung function. We tested the hypothesis genetic variation is associated with weight loss in COPD using a genome-wide association study approach. METHODS: Participants with COPD (N = 4308) from three studies (COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and SPIROMICS) were analysed. Discovery analyses were performed in COPDGene with replication in SPIROMICS and ECLIPSE. In COPDGene, weight loss was defined as self-reported unintentional weight loss > 5% in the past year or low BMI (BMI < 20 kg/m2 ). In ECLIPSE and SPIROMICS, weight loss was calculated using available longitudinal visits. Stratified analyses were performed among African American (AA) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants with COPD. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed adjusting for confounders. Fine mapping was performed using a Bayesian approach integrating genetic association results with linkage disequilibrium and functional annotation. Significant gene networks were identified by integrating genetic regions associated with weight loss with skeletal muscle protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. RESULTS: At the single variant level, only the rs35368512 variant, intergenic to GRXCR1 and LINC02383, was associated with weight loss (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-5.6, P = 3.2 × 10-8 ) among AA COPD participants in COPDGene. At the gene level in COPDGene, EFNA2 and BAIAP2 were significantly associated with weight loss in AA and NHW COPD participants, respectively. The EFNA2 association replicated among AA from SPIROMICS (P = 0.0014), whereas the BAIAP2 association replicated in NHW from ECLIPSE (P = 0.025). The EFNA2 gene encodes the membrane-bound protein ephrin-A2 involved in the regulation of developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis such as skeletal muscle. The BAIAP2 gene encodes the insulin-responsive protein of mass 53 kD (IRSp53), a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation. Integration of the gene-based findings participants with PPI data revealed networks of genes involved in pathways such as Rho and synapse signalling. CONCLUSIONS: The EFNA2 and BAIAP2 genes were significantly associated with weight loss in COPD participants. Collectively, the integrative network analyses indicated genetic variation associated with weight loss in COPD may influence skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodelling.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446707

RESUMO

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , RNA/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Traqueia/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350278

RESUMO

Introduction: COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous and can be triggered by bacterial, viral, or noninfectious insults. Exacerbations are also heterogeneous in neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammatory responses. A noninvasive peripheral biomarker of COPD exacerbations characterised by bacterial/neutrophilic inflammation is lacking. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a key cytokine elevated during bacterial infection and mediates survival, proliferation, differentiation and function of neutrophils. Objective: We hypothesised that high peripheral G-CSF would be indicative of COPD exacerbations with a neutrophilic and bacterial phenotype associated with microbial dysbiosis. Methods: Serum G-CSF was measured during hospitalised exacerbation (day 0 or D0) and after 30 days of recovery (Day30 or D30) in 37 subjects. In a second cohort, serum and sputum cytokines were measured in 59 COPD patients during stable disease, at exacerbation, and at 2-weeks and 6-weeks following exacerbation. Results: Serum G-CSF was increased during exacerbation in a subset of patients. These exacerbations were enriched for bacterial but not viral or type-2 biologies. The median serum G-CSF level was 1.6-fold higher in bacterial exacerbation compared to nonbacterial exacerbation (22 pg·mL-1 versus 13 pg·mL-1, p=0.0007). Serum G-CSF classified bacterial exacerbations with an area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve equal to 0.76. Exacerbations with a two-fold or greater increase in serum G-CSF were characterised by neutrophilic inflammation, with increased sputum and blood neutrophils, and high sputum interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) levels. These exacerbations were preceded by dysbiosis, with decreased microbiome diversity and enrichment of respiratory pathogens such as Haemophilus and Moraxella. Furthermore, serum G-CSF at exacerbation classified neutrophilic-dysbiotic exacerbations (AUC for the ROC curve equal to 0.75). Conclusions: High serum G-CSF enriches for COPD exacerbations characterised by neutrophilic inflammation with underlying bacterial dysbiosis.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235210

RESUMO

Introduction: Continuing inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use does not benefit all patients with COPD, yet it is difficult to determine which patients may safely sustain ICS withdrawal. Although eosinophil levels can facilitate this decision, better biomarkers could improve personalised treatment decisions. Methods: We performed transcriptional profiling of sputum to explore the molecular biology and compared the predictive value of an unbiased gene signature versus sputum eosinophils for exacerbations after ICS withdrawal in COPD patients. RNA-sequencing data of induced sputum samples from 43 COPD patients were associated with the time to exacerbation after ICS withdrawal. Expression profiles of differentially expressed genes were summarised to create gene signatures. In addition, we built a Bayesian network model to determine coregulatory networks related to the onset of COPD exacerbations after ICS withdrawal. Results: In multivariate analyses, we identified a gene signature (LGALS12, ALOX15, CLC, IL1RL1, CD24, EMR4P) associated with the time to first exacerbation after ICS withdrawal. The addition of this gene signature to a multiple Cox regression model explained more variance of time to exacerbations compared to a model using sputum eosinophils. The gene signature correlated with sputum eosinophil as well as macrophage cell counts. The Bayesian network model identified three coregulatory gene networks as well as sex to be related to an early versus late/nonexacerbation phenotype. Conclusion: We identified a sputum gene expression signature that exhibited a higher predictive value for predicting COPD exacerbations after ICS withdrawal than sputum eosinophilia. Future studies should investigate the utility of this signature, which might enhance personalised ICS treatment in COPD patients.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1241-1254, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously described the contributions of increased total airway mucin concentrations to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the chronic bronchitic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we investigated the relative contribution of each of the major airway gel-forming mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, to the initiation, progression, and early diagnosis of airways disease in COPD. METHODS: SPIROMICS was a multicentre, observational study in patients aged 40-80 years recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA. In this analysis, MUC5AC and MUC5B were quantitated by stable isotope-labelled mass spectrometry in induced sputum samples from healthy never-smokers, ever-smokers at risk for COPD, and ever-smokers with COPD. Participants were extensively characterised using results from questionnaires, such as the COPD assessment test (CAT) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; quantitative CT, such as residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) and parametric response mapping-functional small airway disease (PRM-fSAD); and pulmonary function tests, such as FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (FEF25-75%). Absolute concentrations of both MUC5AC and MUC5B were related to cross-sectional (baseline, initial visit) and 3-year follow-up longitudinal data, including lung function, small airways obstruction, prospective acute exacerbations, and smoking status as primary outcomes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). FINDINGS: This analysis included 331 participants (mean age 63 years [SEM 9·40]), of whom 40 were healthy never-smokers, 90 were at-risk ever-smokers, and 201 were ever-smokers with COPD. Increased MUC5AC concentrations were more reliably associated with manifestations of COPD than were MUC5B concentrations, including decreased FEV1 and FEF25-75%, and increased prospective exacerbation frequency, RV/TLC, PRM-fSAD, and COPD assessment scores. MUC5AC concentrations were more reactive to cigarette smoke exposure than were MUC5B concentrations. Longitudinal data from 3-year follow-up visits generated a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for two or more exacerbations of 1·24 (95% CI 1·04-1·47, p=0·015) for individuals with high baseline MUC5AC concentration. Increased MUC5AC, but not MUC5B, concentration at baseline was a significant predictor of FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, and CAT score decline during the 3-year follow-up. Moreover, current smokers in the at-risk group showed raised MUC5AC concentrations at initial visits and decreased lung function over 3 years. By contrast, former smokers in the at-risk group showed normal MUC5AC concentrations at the initial visit and preserved lung function over 3 years. INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that increased MUC5AC concentration in the airways might contribute to COPD initiation, progression, exacerbation risk, and overall pathogenesis. Compared with MUC5B, greater relative changes in MUC5AC concentrations were observed as a function of COPD severity, and MUC5AC concentration seems to be an objective biomarker to detect disease in at-risk and pre-COPD individuals. These data suggest that MUC5AC-producing pathways could be potential targets for future therapeutic strategies. Thus, MUC5AC could be a novel biomarker for COPD prognosis and for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

7.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 66, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The large airway epithelial barrier provides one of the first lines of defense against respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Substantial inter-individual variability in individual disease courses is hypothesized to be partially mediated by the differential regulation of the genes that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are involved in the subsequent host response. Here, we comprehensively investigated non-genetic and genetic factors influencing COVID-19-relevant bronchial epithelial gene expression. METHODS: We analyzed RNA-sequencing data from bronchial epithelial brushings obtained from uninfected individuals. We related ACE2 gene expression to host and environmental factors in the SPIROMICS cohort of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and replicated these associations in two asthma cohorts, SARP and MAST. To identify airway biology beyond ACE2 binding that may contribute to increased susceptibility, we used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if gene expression changes indicative of a suppressed airway immune response observed early in SARS-CoV-2 infection are also observed in association with host factors. To identify host genetic variants affecting COVID-19 susceptibility in SPIROMICS, we performed expression quantitative trait (eQTL) mapping and investigated the phenotypic associations of the eQTL variants. RESULTS: We found that ACE2 expression was higher in relation to active smoking, obesity, and hypertension that are known risk factors of COVID-19 severity, while an association with interferon-related inflammation was driven by the truncated, non-binding ACE2 isoform. We discovered that expression patterns of a suppressed airway immune response to early SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to other viruses, are similar to patterns associated with obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, which may thus contribute to a COVID-19-susceptible airway environment. eQTL mapping identified regulatory variants for genes implicated in COVID-19, some of which had pheWAS evidence for their potential role in respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that clinically relevant variation in the expression of COVID-19-related genes is associated with host factors, environmental exposures, and likely host genetic variation.


Assuntos
Brônquios , COVID-19/genética , Mucosa Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Asma/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(11): 1822-1831, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631079

RESUMO

Rationale: Diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on abnormal spirometry. However, spirometry may underestimate the effects of smoking, missing smokers with respiratory disease who have minimal or no airflow obstruction. Objectives: To develop a multidimensional definition of a lung-related "resilient smoker" that is useful in research studies and then identify a resilient smoker subgroup in the SPIROMICS (SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study) cohort using this definition. Methods: We performed a three-round modified Delphi survey among a panel of COPD experts to identify and reach a consensus on clinical and radiographic domains to be included in a lung-related resilient smoker definition. Consensus on domains of resilience was defined as ⩾80% of experts voting "agree" or "strongly agree" on a 5-point Likert scale. The Delphi-derived definition of resilience was applied to SPIROMICS to identify resilient smokers, whom we then characterized using known biomarkers of COPD. Results: Consensus was achieved on 6 of 12 diagnostic items, which include cough and sputum production, dyspnea, radiographic measures of emphysema and small airways disease, exacerbations, and decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Although 892 SPIROMICS participants were classified as smokers with preserved lung function by spirometry, only 149 participants (16.7%) qualified as resilient smokers by our definition. Blood biomarker expression of CRP (C-reactive protein) and sTNFRSF1A (soluble tumor necrosis receptor factor1A) was lower in resilient than nonresilient smokers (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). Conclusions: A Delphi-derived consensus definition of resilient smoker identified 83.3% of smokers with preserved spirometry as "nonresilient" based on the presence of adverse effects of smoking on the lung. Resilient smokers were biologically distinct from nonresilient smokers based on CRP measurements. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumar , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria
9.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 14, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547327

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous in development, progression, and phenotypes. Little is known about the lung microbiome, sampled by bronchoscopy, in milder COPD and its relationships to clinical features that reflect disease heterogeneity (lung function, symptom burden, and functional impairment). Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 181 never-smokers and ever-smokers with or without COPD (GOLD 0-2) enrolled in the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we find that lung bacterial composition associates with several clinical features, in particular bronchodilator responsiveness, peak expiratory flow rate, and forced expiratory flow rate between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75). Measures of symptom burden (COPD Assessment Test) and functional impairment (six-minute walk distance) also associate with disparate lung microbiota composition. Drivers of these relationships include members of the Streptococcus, Prevotella, Veillonella, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, lung microbiota differences may contribute to airway dysfunction and airway disease in milder COPD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Espirometria
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(8): 957-968, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180550

RESUMO

Rationale: The relative roles of mucus plugs and emphysema in mechanisms of airflow limitation and hypoxemia in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are uncertain.Objectives: To relate image-based measures of mucus plugs and emphysema to measures of airflow obstruction and oxygenation in patients with COPD.Methods: We analyzed computed tomographic (CT) lung images and lung function in participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study. Radiologists scored mucus plugs on CT lung images, and imaging software automatically quantified emphysema percentage. Unadjusted and adjusted relationships between mucus plug score, emphysema percentage, and lung function were determined using regression.Measurements and Main Results: Among 400 smokers, 229 (57%) had mucus plugs and 207 (52%) had emphysema, and subgroups could be identified with mucus-dominant and emphysema-dominant disease. Only 33% of smokers with high mucus plug scores had mucus symptoms. Mucus plug score and emphysema percentage were independently associated with lower values for FEV1 and peripheral oxygen saturation (P < 0.001). The relationships between mucus plug score and lung function outcomes were strongest in smokers with limited emphysema (P < 0.001). Compared with smokers with low mucus plug scores, those with high scores had worse COPD Assessment Test scores (17.4 ± 7.7 vs. 14.4 ± 13.3), more frequent annual exacerbations (0.75 ± 1.1 vs. 0.43 ± 0.85), and shorter 6-minute-walk distance (329 ± 115 vs. 392 ± 117 m) (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Symptomatically silent mucus plugs are highly prevalent in smokers and independently associate with lung function outcomes. These data provide rationale for targeting patients with mucus-high/emphysema-low COPD in clinical trials of mucoactive treatments.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01969344).


Assuntos
Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Muco , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Capacidade Vital
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(8): 987-997, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007162

RESUMO

Rationale: Black adults have worse health outcomes compared with white adults in certain chronic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Objectives: To determine to what degree disadvantage by individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in COPD outcomes.Methods: Individual and neighborhood-scale sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 2,649 current or former adult smokers with and without COPD at recruitment into SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). We assessed whether racial differences in symptom, functional, and imaging outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test score, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, 6-minute-walk test distance, and computed tomography [CT] scan metrics) and severe exacerbation risk were explained by individual or neighborhood SES. Using generalized linear mixed model regression, we compared respiratory outcomes by race, adjusting for confounders and individual-level and neighborhood-level descriptors of SES both separately and sequentially.Measurements and Main Results: After adjusting for COPD risk factors, Black participants had significantly worse respiratory symptoms and quality of life (modified Medical Research Council scale, COPD Assessment Test, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire), higher risk of severe exacerbations and higher percentage of emphysema, thicker airways (internal perimeter of 10 mm), and more air trapping on CT metrics compared with white participants. In addition, the association between Black race and respiratory outcomes was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual-level SES, which explained up to 12-35% of racial disparities. Further adjustment showed that neighborhood-level SES explained another 26-54% of the racial disparities in respiratory outcomes. Even after accounting for both individual and neighborhood SES factors, Black individuals continued to have increased severe exacerbation risk and persistently worse CT outcomes (emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall thickness).Conclusions: Disadvantages by individual- and neighborhood-level SES each partly explain disparities in respiratory outcomes between Black individuals and white individuals. Strategies to narrow the gap in SES disadvantages may help to reduce race-related health disparities in COPD; however, further work is needed to identify additional risk factors contributing to persistent disparities.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(3): 894-909, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chr17q12-21.2 region is the strongest and most consistently associated region with asthma susceptibility. The functional genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not obvious due to linkage disequilibrium. OBJECTIVES: We sought to comprehensively investigate whole-genome sequence and RNA sequence from human bronchial epithelial cells to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma severity in the Severe Asthma Research Program. METHODS: Expression quantitative trait loci analysis (n = 114), correlation analysis (n = 156) of gene expression and asthma phenotypes, and pathway analysis were performed in bronchial epithelial cells and replicated. Genetic association for asthma severity (426 severe vs 531 nonsevere asthma) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (n = 273) was performed. RESULTS: Multiple SNPs in gasdermin B (GSDMB) associated with asthma severity (odds ratio, >1.25) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (P < .05). Expression quantitative trait loci analyses identified multiple SNPs associated with expression levels of post-GPI attachment to proteins 3, GSDMB, or gasdermin A (3.1 × 10-9 

Assuntos
Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Genótipo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5854, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203890

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by peak viral load in the upper airway prior to or at the time of symptom onset, an unusual feature that has enabled widespread transmission of the virus and precipitated a global pandemic. How SARS-CoV-2 is able to achieve high titer in the absence of symptoms remains unclear. Here, we examine the upper airway host transcriptional response in patients with COVID-19 (n = 93), other viral (n = 41) or non-viral (n = 100) acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Compared with other viral ARIs, COVID-19 is characterized by a pronounced interferon response but attenuated activation of other innate immune pathways, including toll-like receptor, interleukin and chemokine signaling. The IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways are markedly less responsive to SARS-CoV-2, commensurate with a signature of diminished neutrophil and macrophage recruitment. This pattern resembles previously described distinctions between symptomatic and asymptomatic viral infections and may partly explain the propensity for pre-symptomatic transmission in COVID-19. We further use machine learning to build 27-, 10- and 3-gene classifiers that differentiate COVID-19 from other ARIs with AUROCs of 0.981, 0.954 and 0.885, respectively. Classifier performance is stable across a wide range of viral load, suggesting utility in mitigating false positive or false negative results of direct SARS-CoV-2 tests.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20133, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208859

RESUMO

COPD, chronic bronchitis (CB) and active smoking have all been associated with goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) in small studies. Active smoking is strongly associated with CB, but there is a disconnect between CB clinical symptoms and pathology. Chronic cough and sputum production poorly correlate with the presence of GCH or COPD. We hypothesized that the primary determinant of GCH in ever smokers with or without airflow obstruction is active smoking. Goblet Cell Density (GCD) was measured in 71 current or former smokers [32 subjects without COPD and 39 COPD subjects]. Endobronchial mucosal biopsies were stained with Periodic Acid Schiff-Alcian Blue, and GCD was measured as number of goblet cells/mm basement membrane. GCD was divided into tertiles based on log10 transformed values. Log10GCD was greater in current smokers compared to former smokers. Those with classically defined CB or SGRQ defined CB had a greater log10 GCD compared to those without CB. Current smoking was independently associated with tertile 3 (high log10GCD) whereas CB was not in multivariable regression when adjusting for lung function and demographics. These results suggest that GCH is induced by active smoke exposure and does not necessarily correlate with the clinical symptoms of CB.


Assuntos
Bronquite Crônica/patologia , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Fumar/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumantes
15.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 370-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108110

RESUMO

Ratrionale: The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, also known in humans as LL-37, is a defensin secreted by immune and airway epithelial cells. Deficiencies in this peptide may contribute to adverse pulmonary outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: Using clinical and biological samples from the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we assessed the associations of plasma cathelicidin levels with cross-sectional and longitudinal COPD outcomes. Methods: A total of 1609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD and available plasma samples were analyzed. Cathelicidin was modeled dichotomously (lowest quartile [< 50 ng/ml] versus highest 75% [≥ 50 ng/ml]) and continuously per 10 ng/ml. Fixed-effect multilevel regression analyses were used to assess associations between cathelicidin and cross-sectional as well as longitudinal lung function. The associations between cathelicidin and participant-reported retrospective and prospective COPD exacerbations were assessed via logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: Cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml (N=383) was associated with female sex, black race, and lower body mass index (BMI).At baseline,cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml was independently associated with 3.55% lower % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)(95% confidence interval [CI] -6.22% to -0.88% predicted; p=0.01), while every 10 ng/ml lower cathelicidin was independently associated with 0.65% lower % predicted FEV1 (95% CI -1.01% to -0.28% predicted; p< 0.001). No independent associations with longitudinal lung function decline or participant-reported COPD exacerbations were observed. Conclusions: Reduced cathelicidin is associated with lower lung function at baseline. Plasma cathelicidin may potentially identify COPD patients at increased risk for more severe lung disease.

16.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(557)2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817366

RESUMO

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) drive hepatic fibrosis. Therapies that inactivate HSCs have clinical potential as antifibrotic agents. We previously identified acid ceramidase (aCDase) as an antifibrotic target. We showed that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) reduce hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting aCDase and increasing the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide. We now demonstrate that targeting aCDase inhibits YAP/TAZ activity by potentiating its phosphorylation-mediated proteasomal degradation via the ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein ß-TrCP. In mouse models of fibrosis, pharmacologic inhibition of aCDase or genetic knockout of aCDase in HSCs reduces fibrosis, stromal stiffness, and YAP/TAZ activity. In patients with advanced fibrosis, aCDase expression in HSCs is increased. Consistently, a signature of the genes most down-regulated by ceramide identifies patients with advanced fibrosis who could benefit from aCDase targeting. The findings implicate ceramide as a critical regulator of YAP/TAZ signaling and HSC activation and highlight aCDase as a therapeutic target for the treatment of fibrosis.


Assuntos
Ceramidase Ácida , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Fibrose , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10562, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601308

RESUMO

Levels of iron and iron-related proteins including ferritin are higher in the lung tissue and lavage fluid of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), when compared to healthy controls. Whether more iron in the extracellular milieu of the lung associates with distinct clinical phenotypes of COPD, including increased exacerbation susceptibility, is unknown. We measured iron and ferritin levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of participants enrolled in the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD (SPIROMICS) bronchoscopy sub-study (n = 195). BALF Iron parameters were compared to systemic markers of iron availability and tested for association with FEV1 % predicted and exacerbation frequency. Exacerbations were modelled using a zero-inflated negative binomial model using age, sex, smoking, and FEV1 % predicted as clinical covariates. BALF iron and ferritin were higher in participants with COPD and in smokers without COPD when compared to non-smoker control participants but did not correlate with systemic iron markers. BALF ferritin and iron were elevated in participants who had COPD exacerbations, with a 2-fold increase in BALF ferritin and iron conveying a 24% and 2-fold increase in exacerbation risk, respectively. Similar associations were not observed with plasma ferritin. Increased airway iron levels may be representative of a distinct pathobiological phenomenon that results in more frequent COPD exacerbation events, contributing to disease progression in these individuals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Ferro/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/fisiologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511476

RESUMO

We studied the host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 by performing metagenomic sequencing of upper airway samples in 238 patients with COVID-19, other viral or non-viral acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Compared to other viral ARIs, COVID-19 was characterized by a diminished innate immune response, with reduced expression of genes involved in toll-like receptor and interleukin signaling, chemokine binding, neutrophil degranulation and interactions with lymphoid cells. Patients with COVID-19 also exhibited significantly reduced proportions of neutrophils and macrophages, and increased proportions of goblet, dendritic and B-cells, compared to other viral ARIs. Using machine learning, we built 26-, 10- and 3-gene classifiers that differentiated COVID-19 from other acute respiratory illnesses with AUCs of 0.980, 0.950 and 0.871, respectively. Classifier performance was stable at low viral loads, suggesting utility in settings where direct detection of viral nucleic acid may be unsuccessful. Taken together, our results illuminate unique aspects of the host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to other respiratory viruses and demonstrate the feasibility of COVID-19 diagnostics based on patient gene expression.

19.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(1): 84-89, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714272

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The biology underlying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous. Targeting therapies to patient subgroups, or 'molecular phenotypes', based on their underlying biology is emerging as an efficacious treatment strategy. This review summarizes the role of airway sample gene expression profiling in understanding molecular phenotypes in obstructive lung disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent gene expression studies have reinforced the importance of Type two (T2) inflammation in asthma and COPD subgroups. Studies in asthma also suggest that the molecular phenotype with enhanced T2 inflammation is itself heterogeneous with a subgroup that has steroid-refractory inflammation. Other inflammatory pathways are also emerging as implicated in asthma and COPD molecular phenotypes, including Type one and Type 17 adaptive immune responses and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6. SUMMARY: Genomic profiling studies are advancing our understanding of the complex biology contributing to asthma and COPD molecular phenotypes. Recent studies suggest that asthma and COPD subgroups may benefit from different treatment strategies than those currently in practice.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia
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