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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of preterm birth in Bangladesh is estimated to be 19.1%, the highest in the world. Although prenatal exposure to several metals has been linked with preterm birth, fewer prospective studies have investigated the socioeconomic factors that affect metal exposure, leading to preterm birth risk. OBJECTIVE: We aim to identify novel metal biomarkers and their critical exposure windows, as well as the upstream socioeconomic risk factors for preterm birth in rural Bangladeshi, to shed light for future interventional strategies. METHODS: This study included data from 780 mother-offspring pairs, who were recruited to participate in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh (2008-2011). Serum concentrations of 19 metals were measured in the first and second trimesters using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mediation analysis was performed to explore the upstream socioeconomic factors that affect the risk of preterm birth mediated via metal exposure concentrations. RESULTS: Early pregnancy exposure to serum zinc, arsenic, and strontium and mid-pregnancy exposure to barium were significantly associated with risk of preterm birth. Furthermore, younger marriage age was associated with an exponential increase in the risk of preterm birth, and women who married after 18 years old had a considerably lower risk of preterm birth. Mediation analysis indicated that these four elements mediated 30.2% of the effect of marriage age on preterm birth. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that maternal serum metal exposure mediates the impact of child marriage on the increased risk of preterm birth via metal exposures. The findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying such association and provide insights into future interventional strategies.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular immunity against tumor cells is highly dependent on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. However, few published studies have investigated associations between functional variants of MHC-I-related genes and clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients. METHODS: We performed a two-phase Cox proportional hazards regression analysis by using two previously published genome-wide association studies to evaluate associations between genetic variants in the MHC-I-related gene set and the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, followed by expression quantitative trait loci analysis. RESULTS: Of the 7811 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 89 genes of 1185 NSCLC patients in the discovery dataset of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, 24 SNPs remained statistically significant after validation in additional 984 NSCLC patients from the Harvard Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study. In a multivariate stepwise Cox model, three independent functional SNPs (ERAP1 rs469783 T > C, PSMF1 rs13040574 C > A and NCF2 rs36071574 G > A) remained significant with an adjusted hazards ratio (HR) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-0.89, P = 8.0 × 10-7], 0.86 (0.80-0.93, P = 9.4 × 10-5) and 1.31 (1.11-1.54, P = 0.001) for overall survival (OS), respectively. Further combined genotypes revealed a poor survival in a dose-response manner in association with the number of unfavorable genotypes (Ptrend < 0.0001 and 0.0002 for OS and disease-specific survival, respectively). Also, ERAP1 rs469783C and PSMF1 rs13040574A alleles were associated with higher mRNA expression levels of their genes. CONCLUSION: These potentially functional SNPs of the MHC-I-related genes may be biomarkers for NSCLC survival, possibly through modulating the expression of corresponding genes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5471, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727623

RESUMO

Tumor histology is an important predictor of therapeutic response and outcomes in lung cancer. Tissue sampling for pathologist review is the most reliable method for histology classification, however, recent advances in deep learning for medical image analysis allude to the utility of radiologic data in further describing disease characteristics and for risk stratification. In this study, we propose a radiomics approach to predicting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor histology from non-invasive standard-of-care computed tomography (CT) data. We trained and validated convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on a dataset comprising 311 early-stage NSCLC patients receiving surgical treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), with a focus on the two most common histological types: adenocarcinoma (ADC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). The CNNs were able to predict tumor histology with an AUC of 0.71(p = 0.018). We also found that using machine learning classifiers such as k-nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) on CNN-derived quantitative radiomics features yielded comparable discriminative performance, with AUC of up to 0.71 (p = 0.017). Our best performing CNN functioned as a robust probabilistic classifier in heterogeneous test sets, with qualitatively interpretable visual explanations to its predictions. Deep learning based radiomics can identify histological phenotypes in lung cancer. It has the potential to augment existing approaches and serve as a corrective aid for diagnosticians.

5.
Lung Cancer ; 155: 61-67, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer survivors have a high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer (SPLC). While national screening guidelines have been established for initial primary lung cancer (IPLC), no consensus guidelines exist for SPLC. Furthermore, the factors that contribute to SPLC risk have not been established. This study examines the potential for using serum metabolomics to identify metabolite biomarkers that differ between SPLC cases and IPLC controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this pilot case-control study, we applied an untargeted metabolomics approach based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) to serum samples of 82 SPLC cases and 82 frequency matched IPLC controls enrolled in the Boston Lung Cancer Study. Random forest and unconditional logistic regression models identified metabolites associated with SPLC. Candidate metabolites were integrated into a SPLC risk prediction model and the model performance was evaluated through a risk stratification approach. RESULTS: The untargeted analysis detected 1008 named and 316 unnamed metabolites among all study participants. Metabolites that were significantly associated with SPLC (False Discovery Rate q-value < 0.2) included 5-methylthioadenosine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.01; P = 2.8 × 10-4) and phenylacetylglutamine (OR = 2.65, 95 % CI 1.56-4.51; P = 3.2 × 10-4), each exhibiting approximately 1.5-fold increased levels among SPLC cases versus IPLC controls. In stratifying the study participants across quartiles of estimated SPLC risk, the risk prediction model identified a significantly higher proportion of SPLC cases in the fourth compared to the first quartile (68.3 % versus 39.0 %; P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: SPLC cases may have distinct metabolomic profiles compared to those in IPLC patients without SPLC. A risk stratification approach integrating metabolomics may be useful for distinguishing patients based on SPLC risk. Prospective validation studies are needed to further evaluate the potential for leveraging metabolomics in SPLC surveillance and screening.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 17(3): e1009254, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667223

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) of the aerodigestive tract have similar etiological risk factors. Although genetic risk variants for individual cancers have been identified, an agnostic, genome-wide search for shared genetic susceptibility has not been performed. To identify novel and pleotropic SqCC risk variants, we performed a meta-analysis of GWAS data on lung SqCC (LuSqCC), oro/pharyngeal SqCC (OSqCC), laryngeal SqCC (LaSqCC) and esophageal SqCC (ESqCC) cancers, totaling 13,887 cases and 61,961 controls of European ancestry. We identified one novel genome-wide significant (Pmeta<5x10-8) aerodigestive SqCC susceptibility loci in the 2q33.1 region (rs56321285, TMEM273). Additionally, three previously unknown loci reached suggestive significance (Pmeta<5x10-7): 1q32.1 (rs12133735, near MDM4), 5q31.2 (rs13181561, TMEM173) and 19p13.11 (rs61494113, ABHD8). Multiple previously identified loci for aerodigestive SqCC also showed evidence of pleiotropy in at least another SqCC site, these include: 4q23 (ADH1B), 6p21.33 (STK19), 6p21.32 (HLA-DQB1), 9p21.33 (CDKN2B-AS1) and 13q13.1(BRCA2). Gene-based association and gene set enrichment identified a set of 48 SqCC-related genes rel to DNA damage and epigenetic regulation pathways. Our study highlights the importance of cross-cancer analyses to identify pleiotropic risk loci of histology-related cancers arising at distinct anatomical sites.

7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, are used to treat multiple cancers. Limited data exist as to the use of ICIs in patients with coexistent interstitial lung disease (ILD). We conducted a retrospective case series to assess clinical and radiologic outcomes of patients with ILD treated with PD-1 inhibitors. METHODS: Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, treated with pembrolizumab or nivolumab for oncologic indications, and had evidence of ILD on chest computed tomography scan not attributable to radiotherapy before initiation of ICI therapy. Outcomes of interest included mortality, hospitalizations for respiratory-related causes, development of pneumonitis, and radiologic change in ILD over a 1-year follow-up period. RESULTS: We included 41 patients in the analysis. At 1 year, 17 patients (41.5%) were alive, 23 had died (56.1%), and 1 (2.4%) was lost to follow-up. Of 23 deaths, 16 (69.6%) were due to cancer, 4 (17.4%) to causes excluding cancer and ILD, and 3 (13.0%) to hypoxemic respiratory failure from ILD- or ICI-induced pneumonitis. Three patients (7.3%) required hospitalization owing to ILD, including drug-induced pneumonitis, and 3 (7.3%) developed pneumonitis attributable to anti-PD-1 therapy. On follow-up computed tomography scans, 32 patients (78.0%) had stable or improved ILD and 9 (22.0%) had progression. CONCLUSION: Patients with ILD receiving PD-1 inhibitors more frequently died of cancer-related causes than from ILD. Further research is needed to determine the safety of ICIs in patients with ILD and if ILD subtype may help to refine ICI-associated risks.

8.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653773

RESUMO

Lung carcinogenesis is a complex and stepwise process involving accumulation of genetic mutations in signaling and oncogenic pathways via interactions with environmental factors and host susceptibility. Tobacco exposure is the leading cause of lung cancer, but its relationship to clinically relevant mutations and the composite tumor mutation burden (TMB) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the dose-response relationship in a retrospective observational study of 931 patients treated for advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between April 2013 and February 2020 at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Doubling smoking pack-years was associated with increased KRASG12C mutations and less frequent EGFRdel19 and EGFRL858R mutations, while doubling smoking-free months was associated with more frequent EGFRL858R. In advanced lung adenocarcinoma, doubling smoking pack-years was associated with an increase in TMB, while doubling smoking-free months was associated with a decrease in TMB, after controlling for age, gender and stage. There is a significant dose-response association of smoking history with genetic alterations in cancer-related pathways and tumor mutation burden in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

10.
Environ Int ; 151: 106448, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is known to induce detrimental health effects in exposed populations, including hematotoxicity and genotoxicity. Complete blood count (CBC) is a cost-effective and easy way to determine toxicity, and variations in proportion of different types of leukocytes: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are further evidence of hematotoxicity. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically evaluate effects of occupational Pb exposure on NLR and LMR, and their associations with genotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was aimed to systematically assess the effects of current occupational Pb exposure on NLR and LMR, and their associations with genotoxicity. METHODS: Our investigation was performed on 1176 workers from a newly built battery factory in North China. The workers had just entered their current job position in recent years and most of them had no previous history of occupational exposure to Pb. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and leukocytes indices were detected for all participants. Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (MN; n = 675) and alkaline comet assay (% tail DNA; n = 869) were used to assess genotoxicity. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between leukocytes indices, genotoxic biomarkers and BLLs with adjustment for covariates. Spearman correlation and mediation analyses were used to investigate relationships between NLR and genotoxicity. RESULTS: Among all the exposed workers, NLR increased with increasing BLLs. However, WBC and LMR did not change significantly. Significant and dose-dependent increases in both MN frequencies and % tail DNA were observed among groups with different exposure doses. Compared with the normal NLR group (1.48 ≤ NLR < 4.58), the high NLR group (NLR ≥ 4.58) had higher % tail DNA. In addition, there was a significant and positive association between NLR and % tail DNA among all the workers, and % tail DNA mediated 15% of the effect of Pb on increasing NLR. CONCLUSION: Our large-scale population study shows that Pb exposure increased NLR and induced genotoxicity. There was an association between elevated NLR and DNA damage. In addition, the mediation effect of % tail DNA on the relationship between BLLs and NLR provided mechanistic evidence that certain mechanisms, e.g. inflammation, may be involved in elevation of NLR from Pb exposure. Therefore, NLR may be a convenient and sensitive biomarker for indication of Pb toxicity. Further studies are needed to validate the proposed mechanism and NLR as a biomarker.

11.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 13, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430880

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, particularly because of its high mortality rate in patients who are diagnosed at late stages. Conventional biomarkers originating from blood are widely used for cancer diagnosis, but their low sensitivity and specificity limit their widespread application in cancer screening among the general population. Currently, emerging studies are exploiting novel, highly-accurate biomarkers in human body fluids that are obtainable through minimally invasive techniques, which is defined as liquid biopsy. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding RNAs generated mainly by pre-mRNA splicing. Following the rapid development of high-throughput transcriptome analysis techniques, numerous circRNAs have been recognized to exist stably and at high levels in body fluids, including plasma, serum, exosomes, and urine. CircRNA expression patterns exhibit distinctly differences between patients with cancer and healthy controls, suggesting that circRNAs in body fluids potentially represent novel biomarkers for monitoring cancer development and progression. In this study, we summarized the expression of circRNAs in body fluids in a pan-cancer dataset and characterized their clinical applications in liquid biopsy for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, a user-friendly web interface was developed to visualize each circRNA in fluids ( https://mulongdu.shinyapps.io/circrnas_in_fluids/ ).

12.
Transl Res ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400994

RESUMO

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway controls reproductive functions and cancer growth and progression. However, few studies investigated roles of genetic variants of GnRH pathway genes in survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, we first evaluated associations between 22,528 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 101 GnRH pathway genes and survival of 1185 NSCLC patients using a dataset from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We found 572 SNPs to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) of NSCLC (P ≤ 0.05, Bayesian false discovery probability ≤0.80). We then validated these SNPs in another dataset with 984 NSCLC patients from the Harvard Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study. Finally, two independent SNPs (HBEGF rs4150236G>A and ITPR3 rs116454384C>T) remained significantly associated with NSCLC OS in the combined analysis with hazards ratios of 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.76-0.92, P = 0.0003) and 0.85 (0.78-0.94, 0.0012), respectively; their genetic score (the number of protective genotypes) was associated with a better OS and disease-specific survival (Ptrend = 0.0002 and 0.0001, respectively). Further expression quantitative trail loci analysis showed a significant correlation between ITPR3 rs116454384 T allele and an increased mRNA expression level in both whole blood and normal lung tissue, and high ITPR3 mRNA expression levels in tumors were associated with a better survival of NSCLC patients. Because ITPR3 mutations were rare in tumors, ITPR3 rs116454384C>T likely had an effect on cancer progression by regulating the gene expression. Therefore, genetic variants of HBEGF rs4150236G>A and ITPR3 rs116454384C>T may be predictors for NSCLC survival, but HBEGF rs4150236G>A functional relevance remains to be determined.

13.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 14, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) can be detected on computed tomography (CT) in lung cancer patients and have an association with mortality in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the significance of ILA for mortality in patients with stage I NSCLC using Boston Lung Cancer Study cohort. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-one patients with stage I NSCLC from 2000 to 2011 were investigated in this retrospective study (median age, 69 years; 93 males, 138 females). ILA was scored on baseline CT scans prior to treatment using a 3-point scale (0 = no evidence of ILA, 1 = equivocal for ILA, 2 = ILA) by a sequential reading method. ILA score 2 was considered the presence of ILA. The difference of overall survival (OS) for patients with different ILA scores were tested via log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) including ILA score, age, sex, smoking status, and treatment as the confounding variables. RESULTS: ILA was present in 22 out of 231 patients (9.5%) with stage I NSCLC. The presence of ILA was associated with shorter OS (patients with ILA score 2, median 3.85 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.36 - not reached (NR)]; patients with ILA score 0 or 1, median 10.16 years [95%CI: 8.65 - NR]; P <  0.0001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, the presence of ILA remained significant for increased risk for death (HR = 2.88, P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: ILA was detected on CT in 9.5% of patients with stage I NSCLC. The presence of ILA was significantly associated with a shorter OS and could be an imaging marker of shorter survival in stage I NSCLC.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034569, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502483

RESUMO

Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) confers high mortality risk among critically ill patients. Identification of biomarkers associated with ARDS risk may guide clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: To systematically evaluate the association of blood metabolites with ARDS risk and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, data from the Molecular Epidemiology of ARDS (MEARDS) study, a prospective cohort of 403 patients with ARDS and 1227 non-ARDS controls, were analyzed. Patients were recruited in intensive care units (ICUs) at Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, both in Boston, Massachusetts, from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was performed from December 9, 2018, to January 4, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants were followed up daily for ARDS development defined by Berlin criteria, requiring fulfillment of chest radiograph and oxygenation criteria on the same calendar day during invasive ventilatory assistance. A 2-stage study design was used to explore novel metabolites associated with ARDS risk and survival. Results: Of the 1630 participants from MEARDS who were admitted to the ICU , 403 (24.7%) were diagnosed with ARDS (mean [SD] age, 63.0 [17.0] years; 251 [62.3%] male) and 1227 (75.3%) were at-risk but did not have ARDS (mean [SD] age, 62.3 [16.9] years; 753 [61.4%] male). Mendelian randomization suggested that genetically regulated serum mannose was associated with ARDS risk (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53-0.78; P = 7.46 × 10-6) in the discovery stage. In the functional validation stage incorporating 83 participants with ARDS and matched at-risk participants in the control group from the ICU, the protective association of mannose with ARDS risk was validated (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.97; P = .03). Furthermore, serum mannose was associated with 28-day (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.56; P = 6.95 × 10-4) and 60-day (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19-0.71; P = 3.12 × 10-3) mortality and 28-day (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.74; P = 6.41 × 10-4) and 60-day (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37-0.80; P = 2.11 × 10-3) survival. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetically regulated serum mannose appeared to be associated with ARDS risk and outcome, and increased serum mannose at admission was associated with reduced ARDS risk and better survival. These findings could inform prevention and clinical intervention in ARDS cases, which have increased with the expansion of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Manose/sangue , /mortalidade , APACHE , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
15.
Cancer Res ; 81(6): 1607-1615, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472890

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death globally. An improved risk stratification strategy can increase efficiency of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening. Here we assessed whether individual's genetic background has clinical utility for risk stratification in the context of LDCT screening. On the basis of 13,119 patients with lung cancer and 10,008 controls with European ancestry in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, we constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) via 10-fold cross-validation with regularized penalized regression. The performance of risk model integrating PRS, including calibration and ability to discriminate, was assessed using UK Biobank data (N = 335,931). Absolute risk was estimated on the basis of age-specific lung cancer incidence and all-cause mortality as competing risk. To evaluate its potential clinical utility, the PRS distribution was simulated in the National Lung Screening Trial (N = 50,772 participants). The lung cancer ORs for individuals at the top decile of the PRS distribution versus those at bottom 10% was 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92-3.00; P = 1.80 × 10-14] in the validation set (P trend = 5.26 × 10-20). The OR per SD of PRS increase was 1.26 (95% CI = 1.20-1.32; P = 9.69 × 10-23) for overall lung cancer risk in the validation set. When considering absolute risks, individuals at different PRS deciles showed differential trajectories of 5-year and cumulative absolute risk. The age reaching the LDCT screening recommendation threshold can vary by 4 to 8 years, depending on the individual's genetic background, smoking status, and family history. Collectively, these results suggest that individual's genetic background may inform the optimal lung cancer LDCT screening strategy. SIGNIFICANCE: Three large-scale datasets reveal that, after accounting for risk factors, an individual's genetics can affect their lung cancer risk trajectory, thus may inform the optimal timing for LDCT screening.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419122

RESUMO

Up to 95% of the liquid volume in an e-cigarette consists of propylene glycol. Previous research has shown that propylene glycol can generate diacetyl and formaldehyde when heated. New research shows that propylene glycol can also generate methylglyoxal, an alpha di-carbonyl compound recently shown to cause epithelial necrosis at even lower concentrations than diacetyl, the flavoring chemical associated with bronchiolitis obliterans ("Popcorn Lung"). We analyzed chemical emissions from 13 JUUL pod flavors. Diacetyl and methylglyoxal was detected in 100% of samples with median concentration (range) of 20 µg/m3 (less than limit of quantification: 54 µg/m3) and 4219 µg/m3 (677-15,342 µg/m3), respectively. We also detected acetaldehyde (median concentration: 341 µg/m3) and propionaldehyde (median concentration: 87 µg/m3) in all samples. The recent evidence that methylglyoxal is more cytotoxic to airway epithelial cells than diacetyl makes this an urgent public health concern. Current smokers considering e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool, and never users, who may be under the impression that e-cigarettes are harmless, need information on emissions and potential risks to make informed decisions.


Assuntos
Vapor do Cigarro Eletrônico , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Propilenoglicol , Aldeído Pirúvico
18.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

19.
J Neurodev Disord ; 12(1): 39, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children in Bangladesh experience poor nutritional status and environmental lead exposure, both of which are associated with lower scores on neurodevelopmental assessments. Recent studies have suggested that part of lead's adverse effects on neurodevelopment are caused in part by lead's effect on growth. New statistical methods are now available to evaluate potential causal pathways in observational studies. This study used a novel statistical method to test the hypothesis that stunting, a measure of linear growth related to poor nutrition, is a mediator and/or an effect modifier of the lead exposure's adverse effect on cognitive development. METHODS: Participants were 734 children from a longitudinal birth cohort established in rural Bangladesh to study the health effects of prenatal and early childhood environmental metal exposures. Lead exposure was estimated using umbilical cord blood samples obtained at birth and blood obtained via venipuncture at age 20-40 months. Stunting was determined using the World Health Organization's standards. Neurodevelopment was assessed at age 20-40 months years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). We evaluated the effect of lead on stunting and whether the effect of lead on cognitive scores is modified by stunting status in multivariable regression analyses. We then conducted a novel 4-way mediation analysis that allows for exposure-mediator interaction to assess how much of the effect of lead on cognitive scores is explained by the pathway through stunting (mediation) and how much is explained by the interaction between lead and stunt (effect modification). RESULTS: Stunting was not a mediator of the effect of lead in our analyses. Results suggested effect modification by stunting. In an area of Bangladesh with lower lead exposures (median umbilical cord blood lead concentration, 1.7 µg/dL), stunting modified the relationship between prenatal blood lead concentrations and cognitive score at age 2-3 years. A 1-unit increase in natural log cord blood lead concentration in the presence of stunting was associated with a 2.1-unit decrease in cognitive scores (ß = - 2.10, SE = 0.71, P = 0.003). This interaction was not found in a second study site where lead exposures were higher (median umbilical cord blood lead concentration, 6.1 µg/dL, ß = - 0.45, SE = 0.49, P = 0.360). CONCLUSIONS: We used a novel method of mediation analysis to test whether stunting mediated the adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive outcomes in Bangladesh. While we did not find that stunting acted as mediator of lead's effect on cognitive development, we found significant effect modification by stunting. Our results suggest that children with stunting are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of low-level lead exposure.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6083, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247113

RESUMO

The evolutionary trajectories of early lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that genomic analysis between pre-invasive and invasive components will facilitate the description of LUAD evolutionary patterns. We micro-dissect malignant pulmonary nodules (MPNs) into paired pre-invasive and invasive components for panel-genomic sequencing and recognize three evolutionary trajectories. Evolutionary mode 1 (EM1) demonstrates none of the common driver events between paired components, but another two modes, EM2A and EM2B, exhibit critical private alterations restricted to pre-invasive and invasive components, respectively. When ancestral clones harbor EGFR mutations, truncal mutation abundance significantly decrease after the acquisition of invasiveness, which may be associated with the intratumoral accumulation of infiltrated B cells. Harboring EGFR mutations is critical to the selective pressure and further impacts the prognosis. Our findings extend the understanding of evolutionary trajectories during invasiveness acquisition in early LUAD.

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