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1.
Science ; 368(6488)2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299922

RESUMO

Tsai et al (Reports, 6 April 2018, p. 67) report a uniform light-induced lattice expansion of metal halide perovskite films under 1-sun illumination and claim to exclude heat-induced lattice expansion. We show that by controlling the temperature of the perovskite film under both dark and illuminated conditions, the mechanism for lattice expansion is in fact fully consistent with heat-induced thermal expansion during illumination.

2.
Chem Sci ; 10(7): 1904-1935, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881622

RESUMO

Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have dramatically changed the landscape of the solar research community over the past decade, but >25 year stability is likely required if they are to make the same impact in commercial photovoltaics and power generation more broadly. While every layer of a PSC has been shown to impact its durability in power output, the hole-transport layer (HTL) is critical for several reasons: (1) it is in direct contact with the perovskite layer, (2) it often contains mobile ions, like Li+ - which in this case are hygroscopic, and (3) it usually has the lowest thermal stability of all layers in the stack. Therefore, HTL engineering is one method with a high return on investment for PSC stability and lifetime. Research has progressed in understanding design rules for small organic molecule hole-transport materials, yet, when implemented into devices, the same dopants, bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI) and tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tri[bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide] (FK209), are nearly always required for improved charge-transport properties (e.g., increased hole mobility and conductivity). The dopants are notable because they too have been shown to negatively impact PSC stability and lifetime. In response, new research has targeted alternative dopants to bypass these negative effects and provide greater functionality. In this review, we focus on dopant fundamentals, alternative doping strategies for organic small molecule HTL in PSC, and imminent research needs with regard to dopant development for the realization of reliable, long-lasting electricity generation via PSCs.

3.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10327-10337, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251834

RESUMO

We present a cation-exchange approach for tunable A-site alloys of cesium (Cs+) and formamidinium (FA+) lead triiodide perovskite nanocrystals that enables the formation of compositions spanning the complete range of Cs1- xFA xPbI3, unlike thin-film alloys or the direct synthesis of alloyed perovskite nanocrystals. These materials show bright and finely tunable emission in the red and near-infrared range between 650 and 800 nm. The activation energy for the miscibility between Cs+ and FA+ is measured (∼0.65 eV) and is shown to be higher than reported for X-site exchange in lead halide perovskites. We use these alloyed colloidal perovskite quantum dots to fabricate photovoltaic devices. In addition to the expanded compositional range for Cs1- xFA xPbI3 materials, the quantum dot solar cells exhibit high open-circuit voltage ( VOC) with a lower loss than the thin-film perovskite devices of similar compositions.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(34): 28541-28552, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024148

RESUMO

Understanding the origins and evolution of inhomogeneity in halide perovskite solar cells appears to be a key to advancing the technology. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is one of the few techniques that can obtain chemical information from all components of halide organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaics in one-dimension (standard depth profiling), two-dimensions (high-resolution 100 nm imaging), as well as three-dimensions (tomography combining high-resolution imaging with depth profiling). TOF-SIMS has been used to analyze perovskite photovoltaics made by a variety of methods, and the breadth of insight that can be gained from this technique is illustrated here including: cation uniformity (depth and lateral), changes in chemistry upon alternate processing, changes in chemistry upon degradation (including at interfaces), and lateral distribution of passivating additives. Using TOF-SIMS on multiple perovskite compositions, we show that the information regarding halide perovskite formation as well as inhomogeneity critical to device performance can be extracted providing one of the best proxies for understanding compositional changes resulting from degradation. We also describe in detail the measurement artifacts and recommend the best practices that enable unique insight regarding halide perovskite solar cell materials and devices.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(33): 10504-10513, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044630

RESUMO

The ability to manipulate quantum dot (QD) surfaces is foundational to their technological deployment. Surface manipulation of metal halide perovskite (MHP) QDs has proven particularly challenging in comparison to that of more established inorganic materials due to dynamic surface species and low material formation energy; most conventional methods of chemical manipulation targeted at the MHP QD surface will result in transformation or dissolution of the MHP crystal. In previous work, we have demonstrated record-efficiency QD solar cells (QDSCs) based on ligand-exchange procedures that electronically couple MHP QDs yet maintain their nanocrystalline size, which stabilizes the corner-sharing structure of the constituent PbI64- octahedra with optoelectronic properties optimal for solar energy conversion. In this work, we employ a variety of spectroscopic techniques to develop a molecular-level understanding of the MHP QD surface chemistry in this system. We individually target both the anionic (oleate) and cationic (oleylammonium) ligands. We find that atmospheric moisture aids the process by hydrolysis of methyl acetate to generate acetic acid and methanol. Acetic acid then replaces native oleate ligands to yield QD surface-bound acetate and free oleic acid. The native oleylammonium ligands remain throughout this film deposition process and are exchanged during a final treatment step employing smaller cations-namely, formamidinium. This final treatment has a narrow processing window; initial treatment at this stage leads to a more strongly coupled QD regime followed by transformation into a bulk MHP film after longer treatment. These insights provide chemical understanding to the deposition of high-quality, electronically coupled MHP QD films that maintain both quantum confinement and their crystalline phase and attain high photovoltaic performance.

6.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): eaao4204, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098184

RESUMO

We developed lead halide perovskite quantum dot (QD) films with tuned surface chemistry based on A-site cation halide salt (AX) treatments. QD perovskites offer colloidal synthesis and processing using industrially friendly solvents, which decouples grain growth from film deposition, and at present produce larger open-circuit voltages (VOC's) than thin-film perovskites. CsPbI3 QDs, with a tunable bandgap between 1.75 and 2.13 eV, are an ideal top cell candidate for all-perovskite multijunction solar cells because of their demonstrated small VOC deficit. We show that charge carrier mobility within perovskite QD films is dictated by the chemical conditions at the QD-QD junctions. The AX treatments provide a method for tuning the coupling between perovskite QDs, which is exploited for improved charge transport for fabricating high-quality QD films and devices. The AX treatments presented here double the film mobility, enabling increased photocurrent, and lead to a record certified QD solar cell efficiency of 13.43%.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(19): 4960-4966, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944675

RESUMO

For halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to fulfill their vast potential for combining low-cost, high efficiency, and high throughput production they must be scaled using a truly transformative method, such as roll-to-roll processing. Bringing this reality closer to fruition, the present work demonstrates flexible perovskite solar cells with 18.1% power conversion efficiency on flexible Willow Glass substrates. We highlight the importance of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers on device performance by studying various TCOs. While tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO) based PSC devices demonstrate high photovoltaic performances, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) based devices underperformed in all device parameters. Analysis of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy data shows that the stoichiometry of the perovskite film surface changes dramatically when it is fabricated on AZO, demonstrating the importance of the substrate in perovskite film formation.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(46): 31491-31499, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933974

RESUMO

We investigate the effect of high work function contacts in halide perovskite absorber-based photovoltaic devices. Photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that band bending is induced in the absorber by the deposition of the high work function molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). We find that direct contact between MoO3 and the perovskite leads to a chemical reaction, which diminishes device functionality. Introducing an ultrathin spiro-MeOTAD buffer layer prevents the reaction, yet the altered evolution of the energy levels in the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) layer at the interface still negatively impacts device performance.

9.
Science ; 354(6308): 92-95, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846497

RESUMO

We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)-the variant with desirable band gap-is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

10.
Chem Rev ; 116(21): 12956-13008, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327168

RESUMO

A new chapter in the long and distinguished history of perovskites is being written with the breakthrough success of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) as solution-processed photovoltaic (PV) absorbers. The current surge in MHP research has largely arisen out of their rapid progress in PV devices; however, these materials are potentially suitable for a diverse array of optoelectronic applications. Like oxide perovskites, MHPs have ABX3 stoichiometry, where A and B are cations and X is a halide anion. Here, the underlying physical and photophysical properties of inorganic (A = inorganic) and hybrid organic-inorganic (A = organic) MHPs are reviewed with an eye toward their potential application in emerging optoelectronic technologies. Significant attention is given to the prototypical compound methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) due to the preponderance of experimental and theoretical studies surrounding this material. We also discuss other salient MHP systems, including 2-dimensional compounds, where relevant. More specifically, this review is a critical account of the interrelation between MHP electronic structure, absorption, emission, carrier dynamics and transport, and other relevant photophysical processes that have propelled these materials to the forefront of modern optoelectronics research.

11.
Acc Chem Res ; 49(2): 330-8, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26789596

RESUMO

A new front-runner has emerged in the field of next-generation photovoltaics. A unique class of materials, known as organic metal halide perovskites, bridges the gap between low-cost fabrication and exceptional device performance. These compounds can be processed at low temperature (typically in the range 80-150 °C) and readily self-assemble from the solution phase into high-quality semiconductor thin films. The low energetic barrier for crystal formation has mixed consequences. On one hand, it enables inexpensive processing and both optical and electronic tunability. The caveat, however, is that many as-formed lead halide perovskite thin films lack chemical and structural stability, undergoing rapid degradation in the presence of moisture or heat. To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice of solvent treatment. Proper characterization and tuning of processing parameters can aid in rational optimization of perovskite devices. Likewise, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the degradation mechanism and identifying components of the perovskite structure that may be particularly susceptible to attack by moisture are vital to mitigate device degradation under operating conditions. This Account provides insight into the lifecycle of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, including (i) the nature of the precursor solution, (ii) formation of solid-state perovskite thin films and single crystals, and (iii) transformation of perovskites into hydrated phases upon exposure to moisture. In particular, spectroscopic and structural characterization techniques shed light on the thermally driven evolution of the perovskite structure. By tuning precursor stoichiometry and chemistry, and thus the lead halide charge-transfer complexes present in solution, crystallization kinetics can be tailored to yield improved thin film homogeneity. Because degradation of the as-formed perovskite film is in many ways analogous to its initial formation, the same suite of monitoring techniques reveals the moisture-induced transformation of low band gap methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to wide band gap hydrate compounds. The rate of degradation is increased upon exposure to light. Interestingly, the hydration process is reversible under certain conditions. This facile formation and subsequent chemical lability raises the question of whether CH3NH3PbI3 and its analogues are thermodynamically stable phases, thus posing a significant challenge to the development of transformative perovskite photovoltaics. Adequately addressing issues of structural and chemical stability under real-world operating conditions is paramount if perovskite solar cells are to make an impact beyond the benchtop. Expanding our fundamental knowledge of lead halide perovskite formation and degradation pathways can facilitate fabrication of stable, high-quality perovskite thin films for the next generation of photovoltaic and light emitting devices.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(10): 1917-8, 2015 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263269
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(11): 2086-95, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26266507

RESUMO

A need to understand the excited-state behavior of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbI3, has arisen due to the rapid development of perovskite solar cells. The photoinduced processes leading to the efficient charge separation observed in these materials remain somewhat elusive. This Perspective presents an overview of the initial attempts to characterize the excited-state and charge recombination dynamics in the prototypical material CH3NH3PbI3. While much has been accomplished in designing high-efficiency solar cells, the multifaceted nature of the CH3NH3PbI3 excited state offers ample challenges for the photovoltaic community to better comprehend. Building on this foundation may enable us to tackle the stability concerns that have shadowed the rise of perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, a better understanding of the excited-state properties can provide insight into the specific properties that have thrust this material to the forefront of photovoltaic research.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(4): 1530-8, 2015 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590693

RESUMO

Humidity has been an important factor, in both negative and positive ways, in the development of perovskite solar cells and will prove critical in the push to commercialize this exciting new photovoltaic technology. The interaction between CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) and H(2)O vapor is investigated by characterizing the ground-state and excited-state optical absorption properties and probing morphology and crystal structure. These undertakings reveal that H(2)O exposure does not simply cause CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) to revert to PbI(2). It is shown that, in the dark, H(2)O is able to complex with the perovskite, forming a hydrate product similar to (CH(3)NH(3))(4)PbI(6)·2H(2)O. This causes a decrease in absorption across the visible region of the spectrum and a distinct change in the crystal structure of the material. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic measurements show the effect that humidity has on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3). More importantly, the deleterious effects of humidity on complete solar cells, specifically on photovoltaic efficiency and stability, are explored in the light of these spectroscopic understandings.

16.
Langmuir ; 30(20): 5716-25, 2014 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24669885

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanostructures are attractive for designing low-cost solar cells with tunable photoresponse. The recent advances in size- and shape-selective synthesis have enabled the design of quantum dot solar cells with photoconversion efficiencies greater than 5%. To make them competitive with other existing thin film or polycrystalline photovoltaic technologies, it is important to overcome kinetic barriers for charge transfer at semiconductor interfaces. This feature article focuses on the limitations imposed by slow hole transfer in improving solar cell performance and its role in the stability of metal chalcogenide solar cells. Strategies to improve the rate of hole transfer through surface-modified redox relays offer new opportunities to overcome the hole-transfer limitation. The mechanistic and kinetic aspects of hole transfer in quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs), nanowire solar cells (NWSCs), and extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells are discussed.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(2): 758-64, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24350620

RESUMO

Organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells. To date, these perovskite thin film solar cells have exclusively employed organic hole conducting polymers which are often expensive and have low hole mobility. In a quest to explore new inorganic hole conducting materials for these perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics, we have identified copper iodide as a possible alternative. Using copper iodide, we have succeeded in achieving a promising power conversion efficiency of 6.0% with excellent photocurrent stability. The open-circuit voltage, compared to the best spiro-OMeTAD devices, remains low and is attributed to higher recombination in CuI devices as determined by impedance spectroscopy. However, impedance spectroscopy revealed that CuI exhibits 2 orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than spiro-OMeTAD which allows for significantly higher fill factors. Reducing the recombination in these devices could render CuI as a cost-effective competitor to spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(7): 1103-9, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274456

RESUMO

CdS, CdSe, and ternary CdSexS(1-x) are some of the most widely studied II-VI semiconductors due to their broad range of applications and promising performance in numerous systems. One-dimensional semiconductor nanowires offer the ability to conduct charges efficiently along the length of the wire, which has potential charge transport benefits compared to nanoparticles. Herein, we report a simple, inexpensive synthetic procedure for high quality CdSeS nanowires where the composition can be easily modulated from pure CdSe to pure CdS by simply adjusting the Se:S precursor ratio. This allows for tuning of the absorption and emission properties of the nanowires across the visible spectrum. The CdSeS nanowires have a wurtzite crystal structure and grow along the [001] direction. As measured by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, the short component of the excited state lifetime remains relatively constant at ∼10 ps with increasing Se; however, the contribution of this short lifetime component increased dramatically from 8.4% to 57.7% with increasing Se content. These CdSeS nanowires offer facile synthesis and widely adjustable optical properties, characteristics that give them broad potential applications in the fields of optoelectronics, and photovoltaics.

19.
ACS Nano ; 7(9): 7967-74, 2013 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23977822

RESUMO

In solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells, commonly known as extremely thin absorber (ETA) or solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), transfer of photogenerated holes from the absorber species to the p-type hole conductor plays a critical role in the charge separation process. Using Sb2S3 (absorber) and CuSCN (hole conductor), we have constructed ETA solar cells exhibiting a power conversion efficiency of 3.3%. The hole transfer from excited Sb2S3 into CuSCN, which limits the overall power conversion efficiency of these solar cells, is now independently studied using transient absorption spectroscopy. In the Sb2S3 absorber layer, photogenerated holes are rapidly localized on the sulfur atoms of the crystal lattice, forming a sulfide radical (S(-•)) species. This trapped hole is transferred from the Sb2S3 absorber to the CuSCN hole conductor with an exponential time constant of 1680 ps. This process was monitored through the spectroscopic signal seen for the S(-•) species in Sb2S3, providing direct evidence for the hole transfer dynamics in ETA solar cells. Elucidation of the hole transfer mechanism from Sb2S3 to CuSCN represents a significant step toward understanding charge separation in Sb2S3 solar cells and provides insight into the design of new architectures for higher efficiency devices.

20.
ACS Nano ; 6(9): 8078-86, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22924857

RESUMO

Single-particle analysis of biosensors that use charge transfer as the means for analyte-dependent signaling with semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, was examined. Single-particle analysis of biosensors that use energy transfer show analyte-dependent switching of nanoparticle emission from off to on. The charge-transfer-based biosensors reported here show constant emission, where the analyte (maltose) increases the emission intensity. By monitoring the same nanoparticles under various conditions, a single charge-transfer-based biosensor construct (one maltose binding protein, one protein attachment position for the reductant, one type of nanoparticle) showed a dynamic range for analyte (maltose) detection spanning from 100 pM to 10 µM while the emission intensities increase from 25 to 175% at the single-particle level. Since these biosensors were immobilized, the correlation between the detected maltose concentration and the maltose-dependent emission intensity increase could be examined. Minimal correlation between maltose detection limits and emission increases was observed, suggesting a variety of reductant-nanoparticle surface interactions that control maltose-dependent emission intensity responses. Despite the heterogeneous responses, monitoring biosensor emission intensity over 5 min provided a quantifiable method to monitor maltose concentration. Immobilizing and tracking these biosensors with heterogeneous responses, however, expanded the analyte-dependent emission intensity and the analyte dynamic range obtained from a single construct. Given the wide dynamic range and constant emission of charge-transfer-based biosensors, applying these single molecule techniques could provide ultrasensitive, real-time detection of small molecules in living cells.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Maltose/análise , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Pontos Quânticos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
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