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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pediatric obesity associates with both low-grade inflammation and cardiometabolic risk on the population level. Yet on an individual patient level, overweight/obesity does not always equal increased cardiometabolic risk. In this study, we examine whether low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in Danish children, independent of degree of adiposity. We further assess the value of integrating multiple inflammation markers to identify children with very-high cardiometabolic risk profiles. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied 2192 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from an obesity clinic cohort and a population-based cohort, in a cross-sectional study design. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pubertal stage and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and biomarkers including fasting serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cells (WBC), resistin, lipid profile and glucose metabolism were measured. Adjusted correlation analysis and odds ratios were calculated. We found that, independent of degree of adiposity, having high-normal inflammation marker concentrations associated with increased cardiometabolic risk: for girls, hsCRP >0.57-9.98 mg/L (mid/upper tertile) associated with ~2-fold higher odds of dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis (vs. lower tertile). For both sexes, WBC >7.0-12.4 109/L (upper tertile) associated with 2.5-fold higher odds of insulin resistance. Lastly, children with multiple inflammation markers in the high-normal range exhibited the most severe cardiometabolic risk profile. CONCLUSION: Low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in children independent of degree of adiposity. The associations vary with sex and inflammation marker measured. Finally, integrating multiple low-grade inflammation markers identifies a very-high-risk subgroup of children with overweight/obesity and may have clinical value.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429735

RESUMO

Background: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1,656 unrelated LQTS patients of European or Japanese ancestry and 9,890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimated the SNP heritability (h2SNP) of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 SNPs previously associated with QTc in the general population using a polygenic risk score (PRSQT). Results: Genome-wide association analysis identified three loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5x10-8) near NOS1AP, KCNQ1 and KLF12, and one missense variant in KCNE1 (p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10-6). Heritability analyses showed that ~15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP 0.148; standard error [SE] 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT interval in the general population (rg=0.40, P=3.2x10-3). PRSQT was greater in LQTS cases compared to controls (P<10-13), and notably, among LQTS patients PRSQT was greater in genotype negative compared to genotype positive patients (P<0.005). Conclusions: This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(15): eaaz3734, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300655

RESUMO

The field of bioelectronic medicines seeks to modulate electrical signaling within peripheral organs, providing temporally precise control of physiological functions. This is usually accomplished with implantable devices, which are often unsuitable for interfacing with soft and highly vascularized organs. Here, we demonstrate an alternative strategy for modulating peripheral organ function, which relies on the endogenous expression of a heat-sensitive cation channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid family member 1 (TRPV1), and heat dissipation by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in remotely applied alternating magnetic fields. We use this approach to wirelessly control adrenal hormone secretion in genetically intact rats. TRPV1-dependent calcium influx into the cells of adrenal cortex and medulla is sufficient to drive rapid release of corticosterone and (nor)epinephrine. As altered levels of these hormones have been correlated with mental conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression, our approach may facilitate the investigation of physiological and psychological impacts of stress.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(1): 138-148, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049583

RESUMO

AIMS: Syncope is a common condition associated with frequent hospitalization or visits to the emergency department. Family aggregation and twin studies have shown that syncope has a heritable component. We investigated whether common genetic variants predispose to syncope and collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used genome-wide association data on syncope on 408 961 individuals with European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. In a replication study, we used the Integrative Psychiatric Research Consortium (iPSYCH) cohort (n = 86 189), to investigate the risk of incident syncope stratified by genotype carrier status. We report on a genome-wide significant locus located on chromosome 2q32.1 [odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.17, P = 5.8 × 10-15], with lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs12465214 in proximity to the gene zinc finger protein 804a (ZNF804A). This association was also shown in the iPSYCH cohort, where homozygous carriers of the C allele conferred an increased hazard ratio (1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.46, P = 1.68 × 10-5) of incident syncope. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed ZNF804A to be expressed most abundantly in brain tissue. CONCLUSION: We identified a genome-wide significant locus (rs12465214) associated with syncope and collapse. The association was replicated in an independent cohort. This is the first genome-wide association study to associate a locus with syncope and collapse.

6.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(2): 194-202, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is imperative to develop markers for risk stratification and detection of cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with obesity. The adipokines leptin and adiponectin are both involved in fat mass regulation and the development of obesity-related disorders; furthermore, their ratio (leptin/adiponectin ratio) is suggested to be associated with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between fasting serum concentrations of the adipokines (total leptin and adiponectin as well as the L/A ratio) and cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with overweight/obesity. METHODS: A total of 2258 children with overweight/obesity or normal weight aged 6 to 18 years were studied. Differences in anthropometrics and adipokine concentrations were tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between the adipokines and cardiometabolic risk were tested using Spearman's correlation and logistic regression, adjusted for age and body mass index SD score (BMI-SDS). RESULTS: Compared to normal weight children; children with overweight/obesity exhibited higher leptin concentrations, lower adiponectin concentrations, and higher L/A ratios. After adjusting for age and degree of obesity, girls with overweight/obesity in the upper quartile range for the L/A ratio, when compared with girls in the lower quartile range, were more likely to have insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR]: 7.78 [95% confidence interval [CI], 3.78-16.65]), dysglycemia (OR: 3.08 [95% CI, 1.35-7.31]), and dyslipidemia (OR: 2.53 [95% CI, 1.18-5.59]); while boys were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR: 4.45 [95% CI, 2.03-10.10]). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of the degree of obesity, leptin, adiponectin, and the L/A ratio were associated with insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with overweight/obesity, but the L/A ratio exhibited stronger associations than the respective adipokines.

7.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(12): 1351-1358, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714888

RESUMO

Background The association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and blood pressure is well described in adults, but only studied to a limited extent in children and adolescents and almost entirely in population-based cohorts. The present study investigates the association between TSH and blood pressure, and the influence of leptin and adiponectin, in a cohort of children and adolescents enrolled in obesity treatment compared with a population-based cohort. Methods We studied 4154 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from an obesity clinic cohort and a population-based cohort from The Danish Childhood Obesity Data- and Biobank. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical markers, including TSH, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, were collected. Adjusted correlation and interaction analyses were performed. Results Patients from the obesity clinic cohort exhibited higher concentrations of TSH and higher blood pressure than participants from the population-based cohort. TSH standard deviation scores (SDS) were significantly associated with all blood pressure-related variables in the population-based cohort, but only with systolic blood pressure SDS and hypertension in the obesity clinic cohort. The interaction between TSH SDS and adiponectin was found to be independently associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension in the population-based cohort only. Conclusions The significant associations between TSH, adiponectin and blood pressure, observed in children and adolescents from a population-based cohort, are attenuated or absent in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity, suggesting that childhood obesity distorts the healthy interplay between the thyroid axis, thyroid-adipokine interaction and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 252, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591381

RESUMO

Mental disorders have for the majority of cases an unknown etiology, but several studies indicate that neurodevelopmental changes happen in utero or early after birth. We performed a nested case-control study of the relation between blood levels of neuro-developmental (S100B, BDNF, and VEGF-A) and inflammatory (MCP-1, TARC, IL-8, IL-18, CRP, and IgA) biomarkers in newborns, and later development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, N = 751), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD, N = 801), schizophrenia (N = 1969), affective (N = 641) or bipolar disorders (N = 641). Samples and controls were obtained as part of the iPSYCH Danish Case-Cohort Study using dried blood spot samples collected between 1981 and 2004, and stored frozen at the Danish National Biobank. In newborns lower blood level of BDNF was significantly associated with increased odds (OR 1.15) of developing ASD (p = 0.001). This difference could not be explained by genetic variation in the BDNF coding gene region. A tendency of decreased levels of all the neurotrophic markers and increased levels of all inflammatory markers was noted. The low newborn blood levels of BDNF in children developing ASD is an important finding, suggesting that lower BDNF levels in newborns contributes to the etiology of ASD and indicates new directions for further research. It may also help identifying a long-sought marker for high-ASD risk in, e.g., younger siblings of ASD children.

9.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(10): 967-973, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427746

RESUMO

Connecting neural circuit output to behaviour can be facilitated by the precise chemical manipulation of specific cell populations1,2. Engineered receptors exclusively activated by designer small molecules enable manipulation of specific neural pathways3,4. However, their application to studies of behaviour has thus far been hampered by a trade-off between the low temporal resolution of systemic injection versus the invasiveness of implanted cannulae or infusion pumps2. Here, we developed a remotely controlled chemomagnetic modulation-a nanomaterials-based technique that permits the pharmacological interrogation of targeted neural populations in freely moving subjects. The heat dissipated by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the presence of alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) triggers small-molecule release from thermally sensitive lipid vesicles with a 20 s latency. Coupled with the chemogenetic activation of engineered receptors, this technique permits the control of specific neurons with temporal and spatial precision. The delivery of chemomagnetic particles to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) allows the remote modulation of motivated behaviour in mice. Furthermore, this chemomagnetic approach activates endogenous circuits by enabling the regulated release of receptor ligands. Applied to an endogenous dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) agonist in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area involved in mediating social interactions, chemomagnetic modulation increases sociability in mice. By offering a temporally precise control of specified ligand-receptor interactions in neurons, this approach may facilitate molecular neuroscience studies in behaving organisms.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Lipossomos/química , Campos Magnéticos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Ratos , Temperatura , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408838

RESUMO

Age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 genotype are two of the strongest known risk factors for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroimaging has shown hemodynamic response changes with age, in asymptomatic carriers of the APOE e4 allele, and in AD. In this study, we aimed to characterize and differentiate age- and APOE gene-specific hemodynamic changes to breath-hold and visual stimulation. A further aim was to study whether these responses were modulated by 3-day intake of nitrate, a nitric oxide (NO) source. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, and the study cohort comprised 41 APOE e4 carriers (e3/e4 or e4/e4 genotype) and 40 non-carriers (e3/e3 genotype) aged 30-70 years at enrollment. The participants underwent two scanning sessions, each preceded by ingestion of sodium nitrate or sodium chloride (control). During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, participants performed two concurrent tasks; a breath-hold task to probe cerebrovascular reactivity and a visual stimulation task to evoke functional hyperemia, respectively. We found that the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic response to breath-hold was altered in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers. Mid-aged (50-60 years of age) e4 carriers exhibited a significantly increased peak time relative to mid-aged e3 carriers, and peak time for younger (30-40 years of age) e4 carriers was significantly shorter than that of mid-aged e4 carriers. The response width was significantly increased for e4 carriers. The response peak magnitude significantly decreased with age. For the visual stimulation task, we found age-related changes, with reduced response magnitude with age but no significant effect of APOE allele type. We found no effect of nitrate ingestion on BOLD responses evoked by the breath-hold and visual stimulation tasks. The APOE gene-dependent response to breath-hold may reflect NO-independent differences in vascular function.

11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 174, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the mutation yield and clinical applicability of "molecular autopsy" following sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) by validating and utilizing low-cost high-throughput technologies: Fluidigm Access Array PCR-enrichment with Illumina HiSeq 2000 next generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS: We validated and optimized the NGS platform with a subset of 46 patients by comparison with Sanger sequencing of coding exons of major arrhythmia risk-genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, RYR2). A combined large multi-ethnic international SADS cohort was sequenced utilizing the NGS platform to determine overall molecular yield; rare variants identified by NGS were subsequently reconfirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The NGS platform demonstrated 100% sensitivity for pathogenic variants as well as 87.20% sensitivity and 99.99% specificity for all substitutions (optimization subset, n = 46). The positive predictive value (PPV) for NGS for rare substitutions was 16.0% (27 confirmed rare variants of 169 positive NGS calls in 151 additional cases). The overall molecular yield in 197 multi-ethnic SADS cases (mean age 22.6 ± 14.4 years, 68% male) was 5.1% (95% confidence interval 2.0-8.1%), representing 10 cases carrying pathogenic or likely pathogenic risk-mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular autopsy with Fluidigm Access Array and Illumina HiSeq NGS utilizing a selected panel of LQTS/BrS and CPVT risk-genes offers moderate diagnostic yield, albeit requiring confirmatory Sanger-sequencing of mutational variants.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Autopsia/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Mutação , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adolescente , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Austrália , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Linhagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurologist ; 24(4): 136-138, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246723

RESUMO

The main clinical manifestations of Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) are migraine with aura, ischemic strokes, and progressive cognitive decline. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been described in CADASIL, but is not widely recognized. Here we report a case with CADASIL that presented with fatal ICH. A 57-year-old right-handed man of Pakistani descent with history of genetically confirmed CADASIL, hypertension, and mood disorder presented to the emergency department via Emergency Medical Services (EMSs) after he was found down. Initial neurological examination showed a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 7 (E2, V1, M4), left gaze deviation, pinpoint pupils, and left hemiplegia. His medications included antihypertensive agents and aspirin. He was intubated in the emergency department due to inability to protect his airway. Computed tomographic scan of the head revealed acute hemorrhage in the right pons (ICH score 2) with extension into the right cerebral peduncle, as well as enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles suggesting early obstructive hydrocephalus that required an external ventricular drain placement. He had no improvement of his clinical status, and eventually extubation and comfort care were pursued. He died 6 days after presentation. CADASIL vasculopathy, cerebral microbleeds, hypertension, and antithrombotic agents are factors that could be related to ICH in patients with CADASIL. This case highlights the importance of adequate blood pressure control, magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cerebral microbleed, and careful discussion of the risk and benefits of antiplatelet agents when evaluating and treating patients with CADASIL.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , CADASIL/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , CADASIL/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(5): 538-548, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in glucose metabolism that lead to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease may begin already in childhood. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to generate pediatric age and sex-specific reference values for fasting concentrations of glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Danish/North-European white children and adolescents from a population-based cohort and to compare values from children and adolescents with overweight/obesity with this reference. METHODS: The population- and obesity clinic-based cohorts consisted of 2451 and 1935 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were obtained and percentile curves were calculated. RESULTS: In the population-based cohort, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR values increased before the expected onset of puberty (P < .05). Thereafter, all variables decreased in girls (P < .05) and HbA1c decreased in boys (P < .05). Concentrations of all measured markers of glucose metabolism were higher in the obesity clinic-based cohort than the population-based cohort (both sexes P < .001). Specifically, insulin and HOMA-IR continued to increase to 18 years in the clinic-based cohort, particularly among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR change during childhood, making pediatric reference values essential for timely identification of derangements in glucose metabolism. Children and adolescents with obesity exhibit increased concentrations of these biomarkers.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Peptídeo C/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/terapia , Valores de Referência
15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(37): 3110-3117, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079148

RESUMO

AIMS: It is Class I recommendation that congenital long QT syndrome (cLQTS) patients should avoid drugs that can cause torsades de pointes (TdP). We determined use of TdP risk drugs after cLQTS diagnosis and associated risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Congenital long QT syndrome patients (1995-2015) were identified from four inherited cardiac disease clinics in Denmark. Individual-level linkage of nation-wide registries was performed to determine TdP risk drugs usage (www.crediblemeds.org) and associated risk of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality. Risk analyses were performed using Cox-hazards analyses. During follow-up, 167/279 (60%) cLQTS patients were treated with a TdP risk drug after diagnosis. Most common TdP risk drugs were antibiotics (34.1%), proton-pump inhibitors (15.0%), antidepressants (12.0%), and antifungals (10.2%). Treatment with a TdP risk drug decreased 1 year after diagnosis compared with 1 year before (28.4% and 23.2%, respectively, P < 0.001). Five years after diagnosis, 33.5% were in treatment (P < 0.001). Risk factors for TdP risk drug treatment were age at diagnosis (5-year increment) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.11] and previous TdP risk drug treatment (HR = 2.57, CI 1.83-3.61). During follow-up, nine patients were admitted with ventricular arrhythmia (three were in treatment with a TdP risk drug). Eight patients died (four were in treatment with a TdP risk drug). No significant association between TdP risk drug use and ventricular arrhythmias or all-cause mortality was found (P = 0.53 and P = 0.93, respectively), but events were few. CONCLUSION: Torsades de pointes risk drug usage was common among cLQTS patients after time of diagnosis and increased over time. A critical need for more awareness in prescribing patterns for this high-risk patient group is needed.

16.
Annu Rev Neurosci ; 42: 271-293, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939100

RESUMO

Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. The emergence of magnetic properties in materials is reviewed to clarify the distinction between biomolecules containing transition metals and ferrite nanoparticles that exhibit significant net moments. We describe recent developments in the use of magnetic nanomaterials as transducers converting magnetic stimuli to forms readily perceived by neurons and discuss opportunities for multiplexed and bidirectional control as well as the challenges posed by delivery to the brain. The variety of magnetic field conditions and mechanisms by which they can be coupled to neuronal signaling cascades highlights the desirability of continued interchange between magnetism physics and neurobiology.

17.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 5(1): 13-27, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019915

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). This review examines recent publications and novel associations between mitochondrial genes and SZ and BD. Associations of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial variants with SZ were found using gene- and pathway-based approaches. Two control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNPs, T16519C and T195C, both showed an association with SZ and BD. A review of 4 studies of A15218G located in the cytochrome B oxidase gene (CYTB, SZ = 11,311, control = 35,735) shows a moderate association with SZ (p = 2.15E-03). Another mtDNA allele A12308G was nominally associated with psychosis in BD type I subjects and SZ. The first published study testing the epistatic interaction between nuclear-encoded and mitochondria-encoded genes demonstrated evidence for potential interactions between mtDNA and the nuclear genome for BD. A similar analysis for the risk of SZ revealed significant joint effects (34 nuclear-mitochondria SNP pairs with joint effect p ≤ 5E-07) and significant enrichment of projection neurons. The mitochondria-encoded gene CYTB was found in both the epistatic interactions for SZ and BD and the single SNP association of SZ. Future efforts considering population stratification and polygenic risk scores will test the role of mitochondrial variants in psychiatric disorders.

18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 493: 123-128, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptin and adiponectin are two key adipocyte secreted hormones and both are involved in several essential physiological mechanisms. Due to their central role in energy homeostasis their ratio, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, is believed to be a marker of metabolic derangement. Pediatric reference values are needed for the risk stratification of individual-measured ratios. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from healthy, Danish schoolchildren following an overnight fast. A ratio was calculated from serum leptin and adiponectin quantifications done using commercially available ELISA Kits. RESULTS: Nine hundred eighty-three participants (583 girls) aged 6-18 years were included. Smoothed percentile curves and age-group specific percentiles were calculated. A correlation with age was demonstrated, with a gradual increase with age in girls and a negative parabolic relation, with a peak in age group 10-14, in boys. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was positively correlated to the body mass index standard deviation score for both girls and boys (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The leptin/adiponectin ratio is correlated to age and differs between the sexes in healthy children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/normas , Leptina/normas , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Valores de Referência
19.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 79(1-2): 129-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861348

RESUMO

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones influence the functions of many organ systems, as well as child development and growth. Several studies have reported an association between ethnicity and thyroid hormones. This study aims to explore pediatric serum concentrations of TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) and their relation to age and sex and subsequently to present pediatric reference intervals from healthy Danish/North-European white children. A population-based cohort in Denmark of 2411 (1435 girls) healthy school children and adolescents aged 6.0-18.9 years were included. Fasting concentrations of serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 were determined from venous blood samples using immunologic chemiluminescent assays. Age- and sex-dependent percentiles were generated using the GAMLSS function. Median values of fT3 and fT4, but not TSH, were lower in the older age group compared with the youngest age group for both sexes (all p < .05). A significant difference for fT3 was found between the sexes for all age groups (all p < .001). fT4 was negatively correlated with body mass index standard deviation scores in boys. In conclusion, serum concentrations of thyroid hormones vary during childhood and adolescence and differ with age and sex.


Assuntos
Jejum/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 15: 78-83, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy, the pathogenesis of which is largely unknown. We hypothesize that adipocytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of PE, particularly in obese women, and evaluate leptin and adiponectin as potential first trimester markers for predicting PE. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 2503 pregnancies, containing 93 PE pregnancies, was divided into women with normal weight, moderate, or severe obesity. All pregnancies had serum adiponectin and leptin measured in first trimester. Logistic regression was used to model PE with maternal characteristics and concentrations of the biomarkers. RESULTS: In obese women a lower concentration of adiponectin was found in PE pregnancies; the concentration was lowest in the severely obese (p = 0.005). No association was found in normal weight women (p = 0.72). Leptin concentration had no association with PE in normal weight and moderately obese (p = 0.175-0.072), however in women with severe obesity a lower level of leptin was found (p = 0.049). The AUC was 0.73 for the ROC curve of combined maternal characteristics and adiponectin. Using adiponectin in women with moderate to severe obesity the sensitivity was 72.9% and the specificity was 49%. CONCLUSIONS: In severely obese women, PE is associated with low serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in first trimester. This indicates that the inability of adipokine regulation to adapt to severe obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of PE. Adipocytokines may contribute in identification of risk pregnancies among severe obese.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Obesidade/complicações , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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