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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.

2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 149(1): 113-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012258

RESUMO

Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services is Target 3.7 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Refugee and migrant women and children are at particular risk of being forgotten in the global momentum to achieve this target. In this article we discuss the violations of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of particular relevance to the refugee and migrant reality. We give context-specific examples of denial of health services to vulnerable groups; lack of dignity as a barrier to care; the vulnerability of adolescents; child marriage; weaponized rape; gender-based violence; and sexual trafficking. We discuss rights frameworks and models that are being used in response to these situations, as well as what remains to be done. Specifically, we call for obstetricians and gynecologists to act as individual providers and through their FIGO member societies to protect women's health and rights in these exposed settings.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/normas , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Ginecologia/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Obstetrícia/normas , Saúde Sexual/normas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde da Mulher
3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(8): 1207-1218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172278

RESUMO

Genetic disorders are one of the leading causes of infant mortality and are frequent in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Rapid genome-wide sequencing (GWS; whole genome or exome sequencing (ES)), due to its diagnostic capabilities and immediate impacts on medical management, is becoming an appealing testing option in the NICU setting. RAPIDOMICS was a trio-based rapid ES pilot study of 25 babies with suspected genetic disorders in the BC Women's Hospital NICU. ES and bioinformatic analysis were performed after careful patient ascertainment. Trio analysis was performed using an in-house pipeline reporting variants in known disease-causing genes. Variants interpreted by the research team as definitely or possibly causal of the infant's phenotype were Sanger validated in a clinical laboratory. The average time to preliminary diagnosis was 7.2 days. Sanger validation was pursued in 15 patients for 13 autosomal dominant and 2 autosomal recessive disorders, with an overall diagnostic rate (partial or complete) of 60%.Conclusion: In total, 72% of patients enrolled had a genomic diagnosis achieved through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis. Among these, there was an 83% rate of significant and immediate impact on medical decision-making directly related to new knowledge of the diagnosis. Health service implementation challenges and successes are discussed. What is Known: • Rapid genome-wide sequencing in the neonatal intensive care setting has a greater diagnostic hit rate and impact on medical management than conventional genetic testing. However, the impact of consultation with genetics and patient ascertainment requires further investigation. What is New: • This study demonstrates the importance of genetic consultation and careful patient selection prior to pursuing exome sequencing (ES). • In total, 15/25 (60%) patients achieved a diagnosis through ES and 18/25 (72%) through ES, multi-gene panel testing or chromosomal microarray analysis with 83% of those having immediate effects on medical management.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos Piloto
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 17(1): 4, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WHIV) are disproportionately impacted by cervical dysplasia and cancer. The burden is greatest in low-income countries where limited or no access to screening exists. The goal of this study was to describe knowledge and intentions of WHIV towards HPV self-collection for cervical cancer screening, and to report on factors related to HPV positivity among women who participated in testing. METHODS: A validated survey was administered to 87 HIV positive women attending the Kisenyi Health Unit aged 30-69 years old, and data was abstracted from chart review. At a later date, self-collection based HPV testing was offered to all women. Specimens were tested for high risk HPV genotypes, and women were contacted with results and referred for care. Descriptive statistics, Chi Square and Fischer-exact statistical tests were performed. RESULTS: The vast majority of WHIV (98.9%) women did not think it necessary to be screened for cervical cancer and the majority of women had never heard of HPV (96.4%). However, almost all WHIV found self-collection for cervical cancer screening to be acceptable. Of the 87 WHIV offered self-collection, 40 women agreed to provide a sample at the HIV clinic. Among women tested, 45% were oncogenic HPV positive, where HPV 16 or 18 positivity was 15% overall. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of WHIV engaged in HIV care, there was a high prevalence of oncogenic HPV, a large proportion of which were HPV genotypes 16 or 18, in addition to low knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer screening. Improved education and cervical cancer screening for WHIV are sorely needed; self-collection based screening has the potential to be integrated with routine HIV care in this setting.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 210(1): 81.e1-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23999419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine demographic and behavioral factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity in a community-based HPV self-collection cervical cancer screening pilot project. STUDY DESIGN: HPV self-collected samples were obtained from 199 women aged 30-69 years in the impoverished urban Ugandan community of Kisenyi, during September through November 2011. Demographic and behavioral information was collected. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model were used to analyze factors associated with HPV positivity. RESULTS: There was overwhelming acceptance of HPV self-collection in this community. High-risk HPV prevalence was found to be 17.6%. Lower levels of formal education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-2.03) were associated with higher prevalence of HPV as was use of oral contraception (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.83-4.90) and human immunodeficiency virus status (AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14-1.37). CONCLUSION: Screening should be targeted and prioritized for women with lower levels of education, oral contraceptive use, and human immunodeficiency virus positivity as they have the highest HPV prevalence in this low-resource population.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal
7.
Can J Public Health ; 101(3): 259-61, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20737822

RESUMO

Health promotion is a set of strategies for positively influencing health through a range of individual, community-based, and population interventions. Despite international recognition that gender is a primary determinant of health and that gender roles can negatively affect health, the health promotion field has not yet articulated how to integrate gender theoretically or practically into its vision. For example, interventions often fail to critically consider women's or men's diverse social locations, gender-based power relations, or sex-based differences in health status. Yet without such analyses, interventions can result in the accommodation or exploitation of gender relations that disadvantage women and compromise their health. In this paper, we seek to ignite an agenda for health promotion for women. We discuss the need for a conceptual framework that includes a sex-gender-diversity analysis and critically considers 'what counts' as health promotion to guide the development and implementation of evidence-based practice. We also consider how innovative knowledge translation practices, technology developments and action research can advance this agenda in ways that foster the participation of a wide range of stakeholders.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde da Mulher , Difusão de Inovações , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 31(9): 808-817, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19941705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risks and benefits of an elective Caesarean section (CS) at term in healthy nulliparous women. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of deliveries between 1994 and 2002. Using bivariate and multivariable techniques, we compared maternal and neonatal outcomes in healthy nulliparous women who had undergone elective pre-labour CS (using breech presentation as a surrogate) with those in women who had undergone spontaneous labour with anticipated vaginal delivery (SL) at full term. RESULTS: There were 1046 deliveries in the pre-labour CS group and 38 021 in the SL group. Life-threatening maternal morbidity was similar in each group. Life-threatening neonatal morbidity was decreased in the CS group (RR 0.34; 99% CI 0.12 to 0.97). Subgroup analysis of the SL group by mode of delivery demonstrated the increased neonatal risk was associated with operative vaginal delivery and intrapartum CS but not spontaneous vaginal delivery. CONCLUSION: An elective pre-labour Caesarean section in a nulliparous woman at full term decreased the risk of life-threatening neonatal morbidity compared with spontaneous labour with anticipated vaginal delivery. However, the 63% of women with spontaneous labour who achieved a spontaneous vaginal delivery would not have benefited from delivery by Caesarean section. Further research is needed to better identify women with an increased likelihood of an operative vaginal or intrapartum Caesarean section, as this may assist maternity caregivers in decision-making about childbirth. Further research is also needed to determine if these findings can be confirmed in a prospective study.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Paridade , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
10.
AIDS ; 21 Suppl 1: S83-8, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17159593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We undertook a study to examine the fertility intentions and reproductive health issues of women living with HIV in a broad-based sample in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Between November 2003 and December 2004, we invited women with HIV at all HIV clinics and AIDS service organizations in the province of British Columbia, Canada, to complete the survey instrument 'Contraceptive Decisions of HIV-positive Women'. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify factors that may be significant predictors of the intention of women living with HIV to have children. RESULTS: Of the 230 surveys completed, 182 women (79.1%) were of reproductive age (

Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Intenção , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 94(3): 262-8, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16842789

RESUMO

The question of cesarean section by choice (that is, cesarean delivery in the absence of medical indications) has been hotly debated by the obstetrical profession in recent years. The debate has focused around questions of risks and benefits, and has revolved around questions of obstetrical practice. In this paper, the question will be framed in a reproductive rights context. How does the phenomenon of CSBC (cesarean section by choice) impact women's empowerment? Which reproductive rights might be affected by this question, and what policies are related to its use? FIGO's 1998 statement "Ethical Aspects regarding Cesarean Delivery for Non-Medical Reasons" is revisited, and, in light of these considerations, its contents are endorsed once again.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Tomada de Decisões , Direitos do Paciente , Direitos da Mulher , Cesárea/ética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Obstetrícia/ética , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez , Sociedades Médicas/ética
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 24(10): 783-90, 793-802, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12399806

RESUMO

The recent Women's Health Initiative study report evaluated the long-term benefits and risks of hormone replacement therapy among healthy postmenopausal women. The report showed that the risk-benefit profile of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy was not consistent with the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. The Women's Health Initiative study of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy is a landmark study and the results provide valuable information for patients and clinicians. However, the most common indication for hormone replacement therapy is menopausal symptoms, for which it is effective, not prevention of disease, and the most common use is for less than three years. Nevertheless, even short-term use has small effects on some outcomes. This statement discusses how the findings of the Women's Health Initiative study can be applied to reach appropriate clinical decisions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/normas , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
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