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1.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575952

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal pain is a challenging condition for both patients and physicians. Many adults have experienced one or more episodes of musculoskeletal pain at some time of their lives, regardless of age, gender, or economic status. It affects approximately 47% of the general population. Of those, about 39-45% have long-lasting problems that require medical consultation. Inadequately managed musculoskeletal pain can adversely affect quality of life and impose significant socioeconomic problems. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It briefly explores the background, classifications, patient assessments, and different tools for management according to the recently available evidence. Multimodal analgesia and multidisciplinary approaches are fundamental elements of effective management of musculoskeletal pain. Both pharmacological, non-pharmacological, as well as interventional pain therapy are important to enhance patient's recovery, well-being, and improve quality of life. Accordingly, recent guidelines recommend the implementation of preventative strategies and physical tools first to minimize the use of medications. In patients who have had an inadequate response to pharmacotherapy, the proper use of interventional pain therapy and the other alternative techniques are vital for safe and effective management of chronic pain patients.

2.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(2): 12, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598816

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic use, misuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substances in managing chronic non-cancer pain remain a major concern for physicians, the government, payers, and patients. The challenge remains finding effective diagnostic tools that can be clinically validated to eliminate or substantially reduce the abuse of controlled prescription drugs, while still assuring the proper treatment of those patients in pain. Urine drug testing still remains an important means of adherence monitoring, but questions arise as to its relevance and effectiveness. This review examines the role of UDT, determines its utility in current clinical practice, and investigates its relevance in current chronic pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: A review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Literature was searched from year 2000 to present examining the relevance and role of UDT in monitoring chronic opioid therapy along with reliability and accuracy, appropriate use, overuse, misuse, and abuse. There are only a limited number of reviews and investigations on UDT, despite the fact that clinicians who prescribe controlled medications for chronic states commonly are expected to utilize UDT. Therefore, despite highly prevalent use, there is a limited publication base from which to draw in this present study. Regardless of experience or training background, physicians and healthcare providers can much more adequately assess opioid therapy with the aid of UDT, which often requires confirmatory testing by a laboratory for clinical and therapeutic prescribing decisions. It has become a strongly recommended aspect of pain care with controlled substances locally, regionally, and nationally. Incorporating UDT for all patients in whom chronic opioid therapy is undertaken is consistent with state and national guidelines and best practice strategies. Practice standards vary as to the frequency of UDT locally, regionally, and nationally, however.

3.
Pain Physician ; 24(S1): S27-S208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is the most prevalent chronic disease with employment of multiple modes of interventional techniques including epidural interventions. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, systematic reviews, and guidelines have been published. The recent review of the utilization patterns and expenditures show that there has been a decline in utilization of epidural injections with decrease in inflation adjusted costs from 2009 to 2018. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) published guidelines for interventional techniques in 2013, and guidelines for facet joint interventions in 2020. Consequently, these guidelines have been prepared to update previously existing guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing therapeutic epidural procedures, including caudal, interlaminar in lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spinal regions, transforaminal in lumbar spine, and percutaneous adhesiolysis in the lumbar spine. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objective and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of epidural interventions was viewed with best evidence synthesis of available literature and  recommendations were provided. RESULTS: In preparation of the guidelines, extensive literature review was performed. In addition to review of multiple manuscripts in reference to utilization, expenditures, anatomical and pathophysiological considerations, pharmacological and harmful effects of drugs and procedures, for evidence synthesis we have included 47 systematic reviews and 43 RCTs covering all epidural interventions to meet the objectives.The evidence recommendations are as follows: Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections, with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement. The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids. Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement. For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a continued paucity of high-quality studies for some techniques and various conditions including spinal stenosis, post-surgery syndrome, and discogenic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These epidural intervention guidelines including percutaneous adhesiolysis were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment and determination of level of evidence with strength of recommendations.

4.
Postgrad Med ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089707

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations are increasingly reported in a subset of COVID-19 patients. Previous infections related to coronaviruses, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) also appeared to have neurological effects on some patients. The viruses associated with COVID-19 like that of SARS enters the body via the ACE-2 receptors in the central nervous system, which causes the body to balance an immune response against potential damage to non-renewable cells. A few rare cases of neurological sequalae of SARS and MERS have been reported. A growing body of evidence is accumulating that COVID-19, particularly in severe cases, may have neurological consequences although respiratory symptoms nearly always develop prior to neurological ones. Patients with pre-existing neurological conditions may be at elevated risk for COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms. Neurological reports in COVID-19 patients have described encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myopathy, neuromuscular disorders, encephalitis, cephalgia, delirium, critical illness polyneuropathy, and others. Treating neurological symptoms can pose clinical challenges as drugs that suppress immune response may be contraindicated in COVID-19 patients. It is possible that in some COVID-19 patients, neurological symptoms are being overlooked or misinterpreted. To date, neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have been described largely within the disease trajectory and the long-term effects of such manifestations remains unknown.

5.
J Law Med Ethics ; 48(2): 241-248, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631179

RESUMO

Patients living with chronic pain require appropriate access to opioid therapy along with improved access to pain care and additional therapeutic options. It's both medically reasonable and ethical to consider opioid therapy as a treatment option in the management of chronic, non-cancer pain for a subset of patients with severe pain that is unresponsive to other therapies (e.g., injections, other medications, integrative strategies), negatively impacts function or quality of life, and will likely outweigh the potential harms. This paper will examine opioid therapy in the setting of the opioid epidemic, why critics feel that the CDC guideline has resulted in harsh consequences for patients and their physicians, and the rationale for opioid therapy as a means of providing ethical and compassionate pain care.

6.
Pain Physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.Summary of Evidence and Recommendations:Non-interventional diagnosis: • The level of evidence is II in selecting patients for facet joint nerve blocks at least 3 months after onset and failure of conservative management, with strong strength of recommendation for physical examination and clinical assessment. • The level of evidence is IV for accurate diagnosis of facet joint pain with physical examination based on symptoms and signs, with weak strength of recommendation. Imaging: • The level of evidence is I with strong strength of recommendation, for mandatory fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance for all facet joint interventions. • The level of evidence is III with weak strength of recommendation for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) . • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for scintography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) .Interventional Diagnosis:Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is I to II with moderate to strong strength of recommendation for lumbar diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies with 4 of 10 studies utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetics with concordant pain relief criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence rates ranged from 27% to 40% with false-positive rates of 27% to 47%, with ≥80% pain relief.Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, 9 of the 10 studies with either controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks or placebo controls with concordant pain relief with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence and false-positive rates ranged from 29% to 60% and of 27% to 63%, with high variability. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Three relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, with controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks, with concordant pain relief, with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence varied from 34% to 48%, whereas false-positive rates varied from 42% to 58%.Therapeutic Facet Joint Interventions: Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for lumbar radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of 11 relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 2 negative studies and 4 studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is IV with weak strength of recommendation for lumbar facet joint intraarticular injections with inclusion of 9 relevant randomized controlled trials, with majority of them showing lack of effectiveness without the use of local anesthetic. Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for cervical radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with positive results and 2 observational studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic cervical facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for cervical intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with 2 observational studies, the majority showing lack of effectiveness, whereas one study with 6-month follow-up, showed lack of long-term improvement. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation with emerging evidence for thoracic radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 2 randomized controlled trials and one observational study with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with 6 month follow-up, with emerging evidence. Antithrombotic Therapy: • Facet joint interventions are considered as moderate to low risk procedures; consequently, antithrombotic therapy may be continued based on overall general status. Sedation: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation to avoid opioid analgesics during the diagnosis with interventional techniques. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation that moderate sedation may be utilized for patient comfort and to control anxiety for therapeutic facet joint interventions. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a paucity of high-quality studies in the majority of aspects of diagnosis and therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These facet joint intervention guidelines were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment with determination of level of evidence and strength of recommendations. KEY WORDS: Chronic spinal pain, interventional techniques, diagnostic blocks, therapeutic interventions, facet joint nerve blocks, intraarticular injections, radiofrequency neurolysis.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Pain Manag ; 10(3): 141-145, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394815

RESUMO

Aim: Déjerine-Roussy syndrome or central thalamic pain can be devastating, and treatment with drugs and even deep brain stimulation can be unsatisfactory. Scrambler therapy is a form of neuromodulation that uses external skin electrodes to send a 'non-pain' signal to the brain, with some success in difficult-to-treat syndromes such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We used scrambler therapy to treat a patient with 6 years of disabling Déjerine-Roussy syndrome pain. Methods: A 56-year-old man received multiple daily then monthly treatments with electrode pairs placed just above the area of distal pain. Each treatment was for 40 min. Results: His allodynia and hyperalgesia resolved within 10 min, and his pain score fell to almost zero after 30 min. Months later, he resumed normal activity and is off all his pain medications. No side effects were noted. Conclusion: Scrambler therapy appeared to reverse 6 years of disabling pain safely and economically, and continues to be effective. Further multi-institutional trials are warranted for this rare syndrome.

8.
Pain physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, May 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1129928

RESUMO

Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Denervação/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Injeções Intra-Articulares
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 1009-1025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210534

RESUMO

Peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs) constitute a class of drugs which reverse opioid-induced constipation (OIC) with similar opioid analgesic effects. OIC differs from other forms of constipation in that it is an iatrogenic condition that occurs when an opioid acts on the dense network of µ-opioid receptors in the enteric system, which affect a variety of functions including gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and other factors that can cause bowel dysfunction. Unfortunately, laxative products, bowel regimens, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications have limited effectiveness in preventing OIC, Opioid-associated adverse effect which occurs in 40% to 80% of opioid patients and may led to cessation of the treatment. PAMORAs are µ-receptor opioid antagonists specifically developed so that they have very limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus they are able to antagonize peripheral but not central µ-opioid receptors. PAMORAs are designed to have no effect on the analgesic benefits of opioid pain relievers but to relieve but antagonizing the effects of the opioid in the gastrointestinal system. The three main PAMORAS are methyltrexone (oral or parenteral), naldemedine (oral only), and naloxegol (oral only). Clinical studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of these agents for alleviating constipation without diminishing the analgesic effect of opioid therapy. The aim of this narrative review to update the current status of PAMORAs for treating OIC in terms of safety and efficacy.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 99, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is a major health problem and the most common pain condition among those aged 60 years or older in the US. Despite the development of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, cLBP outcomes have not improved and disability rates continue to rise. This study aims to test auricular point acupressure (APA) as a non-invasive, nonpharmacological self-management strategy to manage cLBP and to address current shortcomings of cLBP treatment. METHODS/DESIGN: For this prospective randomized controlled study, participants will be randomly assigned to three groups: (1) APA group (active points related to cLBP), (2) Comparison group-1 (non-active points, unrelated to cLBP), and (3) Comparison group-2 (enhanced educational control, an educational booklet on cLBP will be given and the treatment used by participants for their cLBP will be recorded). The ecological momentary assessment smartphone app will be used to collect real-time cLBP outcomes and adherence to APA practice. Treatment and nonspecific psychological placebo effects will be measured via questionnaires for all participants. This proposed trial will evaluate the APA sustained effects for cLBP at 12-month follow-up. Monthly telephone follow-up will be used to collect study outcomes. Blood will be collected during study visits at baseline, post APA treatment, and follow-up study visits at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post completion of treatment for a total of seven assessments. Appointments will start between 9 and 11 am to control for circadian variation in cytokine levels. DISCUSSION: This study is expected to provide vital information on the efficacy, sustainability, and underlying mechanism of APA on cLBP necessary for APA to gain acceptance from both healthcare providers and patients, which would provide a strong impetus for including APA as part of cLBP management in clinical and home settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03589703. Registered on 22 May 2018.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Auriculoterapia/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Neuromodulation ; 22(1): 1-35, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) is dedicated to improving the safety and efficacy of neuromodulation and thus improving the lives of patients undergoing neuromodulation therapies. With continued innovations in neuromodulation comes the need for evolving reviews of best practices. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has significantly improved the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), among other conditions. Through funding and organizational leadership by the International Neuromodulation Society (INS), the NACC reconvened to develop the best practices consensus document for the selection, implantation and use of DRG stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. METHODS: The NACC performed a comprehensive literature search of articles about DRG published from 1995 through June, 2017. A total of 2538 article abstracts were then reviewed, and selected articles graded for strength of evidence based on scoring criteria established by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Graded evidence was considered along with clinical experience to create the best practices consensus and recommendations. RESULTS: The NACC achieved consensus based on peer-reviewed literature and experience to create consensus points to improve patient selection, guide surgical methods, improve post-operative care, and make recommendations for management of patients treated with DRG stimulation. CONCLUSION: The NACC recommendations are intended to improve patient care in the use of this evolving therapy for chronic pain. Clinicians who choose to follow these recommendations may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Gânglios Espinais , Humanos
14.
Neuromodulation ; 21(1): 10-18, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) requires that paresthesia overlaps chronic painful areas. However, the new paradigm high-frequency SCS (HF-SCS) does not rely on paresthesia. STUDY DESIGN: A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding the use of paresthesia-free HF-SCS for various chronic pain states. METHODS: We reviewed available literatures on HF-SCS, including Nevro's paresthesia-free ultra high-frequency 10 kHz therapy (HF10-SCS). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE/OVID, and SCOPUS, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary goal is to describe the present developing conceptions of preclinical mechanisms of HF-SCS and to review clinical efficacy on paresthesia-free HF10-SCS for various chronic pain states. RESULTS: HF10-SCS offers a novel pain reduction tool without paresthesia for failed back surgery syndrome and chronic axial back pain. Preclinical findings indicate that potential mechanisms of action for paresthesia-free HF-SCS differ from those of traditional SCS. CONCLUSIONS: To fully understand and utilize paresthesia-free HF-SCS, mechanistic study and translational research will be very important, with increasing collaboration between basic science and clinical communities to design better trials and optimize the therapy based on mechanistic findings from effective preclinical models and approaches. Future research in these vital areas may include preclinical and clinical components conducted in parallel to optimize the potential of this technology.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Parestesia/terapia , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Medição da Dor
15.
Pain Med ; 19(2): 232-243, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036629

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this article is to critically review both preclinical and clinical studies that focus on the use of nanotechnology for both acute and chronic pain management, surveying both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The article also provides information on nanotechnology for pain practitioners, so that they may better understand how this technology works and how it may be applied to their day-to-day clinical practice. Study Design: Narrative review. Methods: The Pubmed NCBI and EMBASE databases were utilized to review published reports of in vivo and clinical studies that focus on using nanotechnology for pain management applications in both the acute and chronic pain settings. Results: Articles were screened by title, abstract, and full article review. They were then analyzed by specific clinical indications, and appropriate data were presented based on a critical analysis of those articles. Conclusions: As the development of nanomedical applications in acute and chronic pain management continues, medical practitioners should consider their growing potential to enhance the care of patients who are consistently living with pain. Current barriers to implementation include manufacturing scale-up for commercial viability, long-term nanoparticle toxicity considerations, and high cost for successful passage through clinical trials. These challenges will need to be overcome with ongoing translational research efforts in collaboration with industry and government bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).


Assuntos
Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Animais , Humanos
16.
Pain Physician ; 20(4): 293-305, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review article outlines the recent advances, uses, and adverse effects of cell-based therapy for chronic pain management. Cell based therapies are gaining increasing ground as novel treatment modalities for a variety of pain pathologies that include, but are not limited to, neuropathic pain and degenerative disc disease. As these treatment modalities become more common practice, we have focused our review to provide pain practitioners and other practicing physicians an understanding of the technology and to summarize key clinical data and existing clinical trials that are being pursued by clinical investigators worldwide. OBJECTIVE: Review of stem cell technology and applications in pain management. STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. METHODS: The Pubmed NCBI and EMBASE databases was utilized to review published reports of clinical studies reported from 2000 to 2015, and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/search) search function was used to document ongoing clinical trials [keywords: "chronic pain," "disc pain," "cell therapy," "osteoarthritis," "neuropathic," "stem cell"] currently active and recruiting patients. RESULTS: Articles were screened by title, abstract, and full article review. They were then analyzed by specific clinical indications and appropriate data were presented based on critical analysis of those articles. LIMITATIONS: More studies looking at the systematic use of stem cells in pain management will be required to draw conclusions about the benefits of the technology. CONCLUSION: Though the data from existing studies look promising for the use of stem cells as a novel therapeutic strategy for discogenic pain, neuropathic pain, and osteoarthritis, additional clinical studies will be needed to validate the benefit of the technology for clinical use. However, we hope that this narrative review will help guide pain physicians in making informed decisions for their patients about the potential of cell-based therapy for treating chronic pain conditions.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Neuralgia/terapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 20(11): 60, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671799

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for the treatment of chronic pain has become an increasingly important field in the arena of neuromodulation, given the ongoing advances in electrical neuromodulation technology since 1999 permitting minimally invasive approaches using an percutaneous approach as opposed to implantable systems. Our review aims to provide clinicians with the recent advances and studies in the field, with specific emphasis on clinical data and indications that have been accumulated over the last several years. In addition, we aim to address key basic science studies to further emphasize the importance of translational research outcomes driving clinical management.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Neuralgia/terapia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos
18.
Pain Physician ; 19(1): E33-54, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26752493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain has been recognized as contributing to a significant proportion of chronic pain globally. Among these, spinal pain is of significance with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), generating considerable expense for the health care systems with increasing prevalence and health impact. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role and effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in chronic spinal pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SCS in chronic spinal pain. METHODS: The available literature on SCS was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were Cochrane review criteria to assess sources of risk of bias and Interventional Pain Management Techniques - Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM - QRB) criteria for randomized trials.The level of evidence was based on a best evidence synthesis with modified grading of qualitative evidence from Level I to Level V.Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through March 2015 that were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and all other sources. OUTCOME MEASURES: RCTs of efficacy with a minimum 12-month follow-up were considered for inclusion. For trials of adaptive stimulation, high frequency stimulation, and burst stimulation, shorter follow-up periods were considered. RESULTS: Results showed 6 RCTs with 3 efficacy trials and 3 stimulation trials. There were also 2 cost effectiveness studies available. Based on a best evidence synthesis with 3 high quality RCTs, the evidence of efficacy for SCS in lumbar FBSS is Level I to II. The evidence for high frequency stimulation based on one high quality RCT is Level II to III. Based on a lack of high quality studies demonstrating the efficacy of adaptive stimulation or burst stimulation, evidence is limited for these 2 modalities. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this systematic review continue to require future studies illustrating effectiveness and also the superiority of high frequency stimulation and potentially burst stimulation. CONCLUSION: There is significant (Level I to II) evidence of the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in lumbar FBSS; whereas, there is moderate (Level II to III) evidence for high frequency stimulation; there is limited evidence for adaptive stimulation and burst stimulation.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Neuralgia/terapia , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Laminectomia/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Laminectomia/terapia , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 19(12): 54, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493698

RESUMO

Recent human and animal studies provide growing evidence that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) can deliver strong analgesic effects in addition to providing therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of refractory epilepsy and depression. Analgesia is potentially mediated by vagal afferents that inhibit spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission and have strong anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this review is to provide pain practitioners with an overview of VNS technology and limitations. It specifically focuses on clinical indications of VNS for various chronic pain syndromes, including fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, and headaches. We also present potential mechanisms for VNS modulation of chronic pain by reviewing both animal and human studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Animais , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibromialgia/terapia , Cefaleia/terapia , Humanos , Dor Pélvica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
20.
Pain Med ; 16(7): 1349-60, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25800088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. METHODS: The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. RESULTS: Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Medição da Dor/psicologia , Percepção da Dor , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
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