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Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(8): 99, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259950


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an overview of the role of social media (SoMe) in cardio-oncology during the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: SoMe has been critical in fostering education, outreach, awareness, collaboration, dissemination of information, and advocacy in cardio-oncology. This has become increasingly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic, during which SoMe has helped share best practices, community, and research focused on the impact of COVID-19 in cardiology and hematology/oncology, with cardio-oncology at the interface of these two subspecialty fields. A strength of SoMe is the ability to amplify a message in real-time, globally, with minimal investment of resources. This has been particularly beneficial for the emerging field of cardio-hematology/cardio-oncology, a field focused on the interplay of cancer and cardiovascular disease. SoMe field especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. We illustrate how social media has supported innovation (including telemedicine), amplification of healthcare workers' voice, and illumination of pre-existing and continued health disparities within the field of cardio-oncology during the pandemic.

COVID-19/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Neoplasias/virologia
J Neurooncol ; 152(3): 451-466, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774801


INTRODUCTION: Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors are among the most common and lethal types of cancer in children. However, the existence of health disparities in CNS tumors by race or ethnicity remains poorly understood. This systematic review sought to determine whether racial and ethnic disparities in incidence, healthcare access, and survival exist among pediatric patients diagnosed with CNS tumors. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. Inclusion criteria selected for studies published between January 1, 2005 and July 15, 2020 that focused on pediatric populations in the US, evaluated for potential differences based on racial or ethnic backgrounds, and focused on CNS tumors. A standardized study form was used to collect study information, population of interest, research design, and quality of analysis, sample size, participant demographics, pathology evaluated, and incidence or outcomes observed. RESULTS: A total of 30 studies were inlcuded. Studies suggest White children may be more likely to be diagnosed with a CNS tumor and Hispanic children to present with advanced-stage disease and have worse outcomes. The degree of influence derived from socioeconomic factors is unclear. This review was limited by few available studies that included race and ethnicity as a variable, the overlap in databases used, and unclear categorization of race and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified notable and at times contradicting variations in racial/ethnic disparities among children with CNS tumors, suggesting that the extent of these disparities remains largely unknown and prompts further research to improve health equity.

JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2023509, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136131


Importance: Surgical programs across the US continue to promote and invest in initiatives aimed at improving racial/ethnic diversity, but whether this translates to changes in the percentage of applicants or matriculants from racial/ethnic minority groups remains unclear. Objective: To examine trends in the percentage of applicants and matriculants to US surgical specialties who identified as part of a racial/ethnic group underrepresented in medicine from the 2010-2011 to 2018-2019 academic years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined trends in self-reported racial/ethnic identity among applicants and matriculants to US residency programs to evaluate demographic changes among surgical programs from 2010 to 2018. Data were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Results: The study population consisted of a total of 737 034 applicants and 265 365 matriculants to US residency programs, including 134 158 applicants and 41 347 matriculants to surgical programs. A total of 21 369 applicants (15.9%) and 5704 matriculants (13.8%) to surgical specialties identified as underrepresented in medicine. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of applicants underrepresented in medicine based on race/ethnicity for all surgical specialties combined in 2010 vs 2018 (15.3% [95% CI, 14.7%-15.9%] vs 17.5% [95% CI, 16.9%-18.1%]; P = .63). Thoracic surgery was the only surgical specialty in which there was a statistically significant change in the percentage of applicants (8.1% [95% CI, 4.9%-13.2%] vs 14.6% [95% CI, 10.2%-20.4%]; P = .02) or matriculants (0% [95% CI, 0%-19.4%] vs 10.0% [95% CI, 4.0%-23.1%]; P = .01) underrepresented in medicine based on race/ethnicity. Obstetrics and gynecology had the highest mean percentage of applicants (20.2%; 95% CI, 19.4%-20.8%) and matriculants (19.0%; 95% CI, 18.2%-19.8%) underrepresented in medicine among surgical specialties. Thoracic surgery had the lowest mean percentage of applicants (12.5%; 95% CI, 9.46%-15.4%) and otolaryngology the lowest mean percentage of matriculants (8.5%; 95% CI, 7.2%-9.9%) underrepresented in medicine. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, overall US surgical programs had no change in the percentage of applicants or matriculants who self-identified as underrepresented in medicine based on race/ethnicity, but the proportion remained higher than in nonsurgical specialties. Reevaluation of current strategies aimed at increasing racial/ethnic representation appear to be necessary to help close the existing gap in medicine and recruit a more racially/ethnically diverse surgical workforce.

Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Diversidade Cultural , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942286


BACKGROUND: There are sparse patient-level data available for children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, there is an urgent need for an updated systematic literature review that analyzes individual children rather than aggregated data in broad age groups. METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, medRxiv) were searched for studies indexed from January 1 to May 15, 2020, with MeSH terms: children, pediatrics, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. 1241 records were identified, of which only unique papers in English with individual patient information and documented COVID-19 testing were included. This review of 22 eligible studies followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 123 patients from five countries were identified. 46% were females. The median age was 5 years (IQR = 8). At presentation, 62% had a fever, 32% had a cough, 58% had a single symptom, and 21% were asymptomatic. Abnormal chest imaging was seen in 62% (65/105) of imaged and 76.9% (20/26) of asymptomatic children. A minority of children had elevated platelets, CRP, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. CONCLUSION: Data from this independent participant data systematic review revealed that the majority of children with COVID-19 presented with either no symptoms or a single, non-respiratory symptom. IMPACT: This systematic review revealed that the majority of children with COVID-19 presented with either no symptoms or a single, non-respiratory symptom. By using an independent participant data approach, this analysis underscores the challenge of diagnosing COVID-19 in pediatric patients due to the wide variety of symptoms and seemingly poor correlation of imaging findings with symptomatic disease. The data presented from individual patients from case series or cohort studies add more granularity to the current description of pediatric COVID-19.

Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1824-1838.e17, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687927


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a life-threatening birth defect in which the distal colon is devoid of enteric neural ganglia. HSCR is treated by surgical removal of aganglionic bowel, but many children continue to have severe problems after surgery. We studied whether administration of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induces enteric nervous system regeneration in mouse models of HSCR. METHODS: We performed studies with four mouse models of HSCR: Holstein (HolTg/Tg, a model for trisomy 21-associated HSCR), TashT (TashTTg/Tg, a model for male-biased HSCR), Piebald-lethal (Ednrbs-l//s-l, a model for EDNRB mutation-associated HSCR), and Ret9/- (with aganglionosis induced by mycophenolate). Mice were given rectal enemas containing GDNF or saline (control) from postnatal days 4 through 8. We measured survival times of mice, and colon tissues were analyzed by histology, immunofluorescence, and immunoblots. Neural ganglia regeneration and structure, bowel motility, epithelial permeability, muscle thickness, and neutrophil infiltration were studied in colon tissues and in mice. Stool samples were collected, and microbiomes were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Time-lapse imaging and genetic cell-lineage tracing were used to identify a source of GDNF-targeted neural progenitors. Human aganglionic colon explants from children with HSCR were cultured with GDNF and evaluated for neurogenesis. RESULTS: GDNF significantly prolonged mean survival times of HolTg/Tg mice, Ednrbs-l//s-l mice, and male TashTTg/Tg mice, compared with control mice, but not Ret9/- mice (which had mycophenolate toxicity). Mice given GDNF developed neurons and glia in distal bowel tissues that were aganglionic in control mice, had a significant increase in colon motility, and had significant decreases in epithelial permeability, muscle thickness, and neutrophil density. We observed dysbiosis in fecal samples from HolTg/Tg mice compared with feces from wild-type mice; fecal microbiomes of mice given GDNF were similar to those of wild-type mice except for Bacteroides. Exogenous luminal GDNF penetrated aganglionic colon epithelium of HolTg/Tg mice, inducing production of endogenous GDNF, and new enteric neurons and glia appeared to arise from Schwann cells within extrinsic nerves. GDNF application to cultured explants of human aganglionic bowel induced proliferation of Schwann cells and formation of new neurons. CONCLUSIONS: GDNF prolonged survival, induced enteric neurogenesis, and improved colon structure and function in 3 mouse models of HSCR. Application of GDNF to cultured explants of aganglionic bowel from children with HSCR induced proliferation of Schwann cells and formation of new neurons. GDNF might be developed for treatment of HSCR.

Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/inervação , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/farmacologia , Doença de Hirschsprung/tratamento farmacológico , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Hirschsprung/metabolismo , Doença de Hirschsprung/patologia , Doença de Hirschsprung/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Permeabilidade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
Acad Med ; 95(12): 1802-1806, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379145


The medical community has been complicit in legitimizing claims of racial difference throughout the history of the United States. Unfortunately, a rigorous examination of the role medicine plays in perpetuating inequity across racial lines is often missing in medical school curricula due to time constraints and other challenges inherent to medical education. The imprecise use of race-a social construct-as a proxy for pathology in medical education is a vestige of institutionalized racism. Recent examples are presented that illustrate how attributing outcomes to race may contribute to bias and unequal care. This paper proposes the following recommendations for guiding efforts to mitigate the adverse effects associated with the use of race in medical education: emphasize the need for incoming students to be familiar with how race can influence health outcomes; provide opportunities to hold open conversations about race in medicine among medical school faculty, students, and staff; craft and implement protocols that address and correct the inappropriate use of race in medical school classes and course materials; and encourage a large cultural shift within the field of medicine. Adoption of an interdisciplinary approach that taps into many fields, including ethics, history, sociology, evolutionary genetics, and public health is a necessary step for cultivating more thoughtful physicians who will be better prepared to care for patients of all racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Racismo , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos