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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652678

RESUMO

Obesity represents one of the most challenging public health problems of our century. It accounts for approximately 5% of deaths worldwide, mostly owing to cardiovascular disease and its associated complications. Cardiovascular noninvasive imaging may provide early accurate information about hypertrophy and ischemia/fibrosis in obese subjects. Echocardiography and nuclear cardiology have serious limitations in obese subjects owing to poor acoustic window and attenuation artifacts, respectively. Coronary computed tomography angiography can provide information about obstructive coronary disease; however, the use of radiation is a serious disadvantage. Finally, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) holds the promise of an "all in one" examination by combining evaluation of function, wall motion/thickness, stress rest/perfusion, replacement and diffuse fibrosis without radiation. Future studies are required to document the cost/benefit ratio of the CMR in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children and adolescents.

2.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016340, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583200

RESUMO

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) became binding law in the European Union Member States in 2018, as a step toward harmonizing personal data protection legislation in the European Union. The Regulation governs almost all types of personal data processing, hence, also, those pertaining to biomedical research. The purpose of this article is to highlight the main practical issues related to data and biological sample sharing that biomedical researchers face regularly, and to specify how these are addressed in the context of GDPR, after consulting with ethics/legal experts. We identify areas in which clarifications of the GDPR are needed, particularly those related to consent requirements by study participants. Amendments should target the following: (1) restricting exceptions based on national laws and increasing harmonization, (2) confirming the concept of broad consent, and (3) defining a roadmap for secondary use of data. These changes will be achieved by acknowledged learned societies in the field taking the lead in preparing a document giving guidance for the optimal interpretation of the GDPR, which will be finalized following a period of commenting by a broad multistakeholder audience. In parallel, promoting engagement and education of the public in the relevant issues (such as different consent types or residual risk for re-identification), on both local/national and international levels, is considered critical for advancement. We hope that this article will open this broad discussion involving all major stakeholders, toward optimizing the GDPR and allowing a harmonized transnational research approach.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 130, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602896

RESUMO

The pervasive and frequently devastating nature of aggressive behavior calls for a collective effort to understand its psychosocial and neurobiological underpinnings. Regarding the latter, diverse brain areas, neural networks, neurotransmitters, hormones, and candidate genes have been associated with antisocial and aggressive behavior in humans and animals. This review focuses on the role of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and the genes coding for them, in the modulation of aggression. During the past 20 years, a substantial number of studies using both pharmacological and genetic approaches have linked the MAO system with aggressive and impulsive behaviors in healthy and clinical populations, including the recent discovery of MAALIN, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) regulating the MAO-A gene in the human brain. Here, we first provide an overview of the MAOs and their physiological functions, we then summarize recent key findings linking MAO-related enzymatic and gene activity and aggressive behavior, and, finally, we offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying this association. Using the existing experimental evidence as a foundation, we discuss the translational implications of these findings in clinical practice and highlight what we believe are outstanding conceptual and methodological questions in the field. Ultimately, we propose that unraveling the specific role of MAO in aggression requires an integrated approach, where this question is pursued by combining psychological, radiological, and genetic/genomic assessments. The translational benefits of such an approach include the discovery of novel biomarkers of aggression and targeting the MAO system to modulate pathological aggression in clinical populations.

4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 6, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiologies of chronic neurological diseases, which heavily contribute to global disease burden, remain far from elucidated. Despite available umbrella reviews on single contributing factors or diseases, no study has systematically captured non-purely genetic risk and/or protective factors for chronic neurological diseases. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis of umbrella reviews (meta-umbrella) published until September 20th, 2018, using broad search terms in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, DARE, and PROSPERO. The PRISMA guidelines were followed for this study. Reference lists of the identified umbrella reviews were also screened, and the methodological details were assessed using the AMSTAR tool. For each non-purely genetic factor association, random effects summary effect size, 95% confidence and prediction intervals, and significance and heterogeneity levels facilitated the assessment of the credibility of the epidemiological evidence identified. RESULTS: We identified 2797 potentially relevant reviews, and 14 umbrella reviews (203 unique meta-analyses) were eligible. The median number of primary studies per meta-analysis was 7 (interquartile range (IQR) 7) and that of participants was 8873 (IQR 36,394). The search yielded 115 distinctly named non-genetic risk and protective factors with a significant association, with various strengths of evidence. Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), cognitive impairment, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases in general. In Parkinson disease (PD) and AD/dementia, coffee consumption, and physical activity were protective factors. Low serum uric acid levels were associated with increased risk of PD. Smoking was associated with elevated risk of multiple sclerosis and dementia but lower risk of PD, while hypertension was associated with lower risk of PD but higher risk of dementia. Chronic occupational exposure to lead was associated with higher risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Late-life depression was associated with higher risk of AD and any form of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several non-genetic risk and protective factors for various neurological diseases relevant to preventive clinical neurology, health policy, and lifestyle counseling. Our findings could offer new perspectives in secondary research (meta-research).

5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498894

RESUMO

Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence has risen dramatically in the past decades, and family-based interventions may be an effective method to improve children's eating behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three different family-based interventions: group-based, individual-based, or by website approach. Parents and school aged overweight or obese children, 8-12 years of age, were eligible for the study. A total of 115 children were randomly allocated in one of the three interventions, and 91 completed the study (79% compliance); Group 1 (n = 36) received group-based interventions by various experts; Group 2 (n = 30) had interpersonal family meetings with a dietitian; and Group 3 (n = 25) received training through a specifically developed website. Anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and screen time outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Within-group comparisons indicated significant improvement in body weight, body mass index (BMI)-z-score, physical activity, and screen time from baseline in all three study groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, total body fat percentage (%TBF) was also decreased in Groups 2 and 3. Between-group differences varied with body weight and %TBF change, being larger in Group 3 compared to Groups 1 and 2, in contrast to BMI-z-score, screen time, and health behaviors, which were significantly larger in Group 2 than the other two groups. In conclusion, personalized family-based interventions are recommended to successfully improve children's lifestyle and body weight status.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477410

RESUMO

Adolescent suse internet via several devices to gather information or communicate. Sleep, as a key factor of adolescents' development, contributes to their physical and mental health. Over the past decades insufficient sleep among adolescents has been wide spread, and one of its attributing factors is the increased availability of technology. This review aims to investigate the body of evidence regarding the impact of problematic internet use on adolescent sleep. Extensive search of databases was performed according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published within the last decade, regarding subjects aged 10-19. The final step of the search yielded 12 original studies. The quality of extracted data was evaluated with the AXIS tool, in order to estimate the risk of bias. All studies showed a negative correlation between adolescent sleep and problematic internet use. It was found to affect sleep quality and quantity and provoke insomnia symptoms. Interestingly, adolescent's sex, parental educational level, type of family and use for leisure or academic reasons appeared as affecting factors of the problematic internet use-sleep relationship. Problematic internet use has several effects on adolescents' sleep. Results of relevant studies should be embedded in educational interventions addressed to adolescents as well as parents, to eliminate the negative outcomes of problematic internet use on sleep and adolescence's health in general.

9.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess micronutrient intake among Greek adults and to identify the main food sources that contribute to it. METHODS: Food consumption data from 2389 participants in the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), collected with 24-h recalls, was used to calculate micronutrient intakes. Usual nutrient intake was estimated according to the National Cancer Institute method. Nutrient adequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, when available, or adequate intake otherwise. The probability approach was used to determine iron intake adequacy in females of reproductive age. Food group contribution for each nutrient assessed was derived to identify their main food sources. RESULTS: Almost all individuals had vitamin D intake below EAR, whereas vitamins A, E, K and C, as well as potassium intake, were also insufficient in a considerable percentage of the population (>70% in most age groups). Calcium intake was substantially below the EAR for females aged >50 years and males >70 years; the same for magnesium in males >70 years. Furthermore, 50% of females, including those of reproductive age, had intake of folate below EAR. More than 50% of the population (to 79%) exceeded the upper tolerable limit for sodium (2300 mg day-1 ). Food contribution analysis revealed that most vitamins were derived from low-quality foods (i.e. fast-food). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of adults residing in Greece have low nutrient intake and poor food selections. These results provide guidance to public health policy makers for developing strategies to improve the dietary quality in Greece.

10.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(2): e21156, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization named the phenomenon of misinformation spread through social media as an "infodemic" and recognized the need to curb it. Misinformation infodemics undermine not only population safety but also compliance to the suggestions and prophylactic measures recommended during pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study is to review the impact of social media on general population fear in "infoveillance" studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol was followed, and 6 out of 20 studies were retrieved, meta-analyzed, and had their findings presented in the form of a forest plot. RESULTS: The summary random and significant event rate was 0.298 (95% CI 0.213-0.400), suggesting that social media-circulated misinformation related to COVID-19 triggered public fear and other psychological manifestations. These findings merit special attention by public health authorities. CONCLUSIONS: Infodemiology and infoveillance are valid tools in the hands of epidemiologists to help prevent dissemination of false information, which has potentially damaging effects.

11.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1): 1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179094

RESUMO

Studies on extracellular vesicles have increased in recent years. The multi­dimensional nature of their roles in cellular homeostasis, cell­to­cell and tissue­to­tissue communication at the level of the organism, as well as their actions on the holobiome (intra­/interspecies interaction), have garnered the interest of a large number of researchers. Exosomes are one of the most researched classes of extracellular vesicles because they are carriers of targeted protein and DNA/RNA loads. Their multi­functional cargo have been indicated to regulate a vast number of biological pathways in target cells. However, the mechanisms governing these interactions have not yet been fully determined. Endocrinology, by definition, focuses on homeostatic, and cell­to­cell and tissue­to­tissue communication mechanisms. Therefore exosomes should be included in this research topic. Exosomes have previously been associated with a number of endocrine disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, disorders of the reproductive system and cancer. Furthermore, their biogenesis, composition and function have been associated with viruses, an entirely different domain of life. The profound roles of exosomes in homeostasis, stress and several pathological conditions, in conjunction with their selective and cell­specific composition/function, allude to their use as promising circulating clinical biomarkers of systemic stress and specific pathologic states, and as biocompatible vehicles of therapeutic cargo. The current review provides information on exosomes and discusses their endocrine implications.

12.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 124: 105098, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310696

RESUMO

Literature supports a causal role of stress in major depressive disorder (MDD). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been widely used as a measure of long-term stress. Although elevated HCC has been observed in healthy people experiencing chronic stress, findings regarding individuals with mental disorders have been complicated. This review attempts to systematically present all the published research on major depression and HCC. An extensive search of databases was performed to identify articles that investigated this question. The initial search retrieved 142 studies, of which, 16 original articles were included in this review. Results were contradictory; most of the studies showed no significant HCC differences between MDD patients and controls, while others indicated either higher or lower HCC in MDD patients than controls. Higher HCC was reported in first depressive episode compared to recurrent MDD and controls; patients with comorbid MDD and anxiety disorder had higher HCC than controls. No significant HCC difference was found between patients with melancholic or atypical depression and controls. Findings concerning HCC in postpartum depression were inconsistent. A meta-analysis of the data extracted from seven studies of the sample was performed to quantify the degree of cortisol change in MDD patients vs. controls. A random effects model revealed no significant hair cortisol concentrations difference between depressed patients and healthy controls (SMD: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.32). Significant heterogeneity was identified across included studies (P = 0.002, I2 = 71%). The disagreement among studies' results indicates that there is room for improvement in this research field. Confounding factors independent of depression should be taken into consideration.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 192-198, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess depressive symptomatology prevalence among Greek adults amidst the financial crisis and to explore the association between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. METHODS: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey including a nationally representative adult sample (3,675 adults; 48.7% males) was used. Trained personnel gathered information on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle status. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and clinically relevant depressive symptomatology was defined as PHQ-9 score≥10, or on anti-depressant medication. Associations between depressive symptoms and the assessed factors were estimated using stratified multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically relevant depression was 9.4%. In the regression, female sex, marital status (widowed vs. married), financial difficulties (yes vs. no), professional status (employed vs. unemployed), body mass index status (overweight/obese vs. normal weight), and smoking status (current and ex-smokers vs. never smokers) were significant, with an increased likelihood for depressive symptomatology in all variables, other than employment. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow detection of changes over time. Furthermore, it does not allow determining the presence of a temporal relationship between depression and the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that we tested. CONCLUSION: This study estimates a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among adults during the Greek financial crisis and points out important associations of depressive symptoms with different sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle factors, and provides policy health makers valuable information in their efforts to deal with this epidemic.

15.
F1000Res ; 9: 1088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224479

RESUMO

Mapping time-structures is a burgeoning scientific field enriching the (P4) medicine models. Local evidence in Mediterranean populations is underinvestigated. The Censed stroke-related death events (D) in the largest East-Mediterranean port (Piraeus), during (1985-1989), when local population had diet and genetic homogeneity-been interrupted by the immigration into Greece in 1990s, and Sunspot numbers indexed by Wolf numbers (Rz) (1944-2004), were evaluated using Fast Fourier Analysis and Singular Spectrum Analysis in MATLAB. D were turned with fluctuations >35% in Rz. A non-anthropogenic 6.8 days cycle was recognized. This study may be taken into consideration in future public health planning and chronotherapy evaluations.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 624-629, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are only a few published empirical data on COVID-19's effects on the mental health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During lockdown, an online questionnaire registered demographic, health data, previous psychiatric history, current anxiety, depression and suicidality, believing in conspiracy theories and other domains. Data from 3399 persons were used (81.08% females; aged 34.02 ± 9.72 and 18.27% males; aged 36.38±10.33). Distress and clinical depression were identified with the use of cut-off and a previously developed algorithm respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A post-stratification method was used; descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests, multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses and Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tested relations among variables. RESULTS: Clinical depression was present in 9.31% of the stratified sample, while 8.5% had severe distress; increased anxiety was present in more than 45%. Suicidal thoughts increased in 10.40% and decreased in 4.42%. Beliefs in conspiracy theories were widely prevalent; at least half of cases were following various misconceptions. A model for the development of depression was created with general health status, previous history of depression, self-harm and suicidal attempts, family responsibility, economic change, and age acting as risk factors, while keeping a daily routine, pursuing religiousness/spirituality, and believing in conspiracy theories acting as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The model developed here revealed multiple vulnerabilities and an interplay leading from simple anxiety to clinical depression and suicidality through distress. This could be of practical utility since most of these factors are modifiable. Future research, as well as interventions, should focus specifically on them.

17.
Physiol Behav ; : 113244, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on HPA axis dysregulation has been associated with vulnerability to, or perseverence of, several mental disorders. Hoever, measurements of cortisol levels in blood, saliva and/or urine have yielded variable results. Nevertheless, cortisol analysis in scalp hair appears to be a consistent tool for measurement of long-term exposure to stress. This article provides a systematic review of studies exploring hair cortisol concentrations in patients with mental disorders in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: This review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. The electronic databases of PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for relevant articles, using a specific syntax. RESULTS: A total of 582 articles were identified, of which 22 were finally included. Patients with depression show a general trend for higher hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) than controls, whereas patients with PTSD tend to demonstrate lower HCC. Very little is known about other mental disorders, including suicidality and drug abuse. The divergence of samples included and the timing of cortisol sampling, seem to play a key role in the discrepancies of the results. Correlations of HCC with self-reported measures of stress were found, at best, inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Further research should attempt to describe specific cortisol profiles for each psychiatric disorder and HCC could contribute in evaluating therapy outcomes and predicting relapses. Obtaining information on HCC in different stages of psychiatric disorders in association with pertinent clinical variables, might help in forging a neuroendocrine model for clinical staging of mental disorders.

18.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2284-2296, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150472

RESUMO

Current literature addressing the pharmacological principles guiding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in ARDS is scant. This paucity of information may have led to the heterogeneity of treatment protocols and misinterpretation of available findings. GCs are agonist compounds that bind to the GC receptor (GR) producing a pharmacological response. Clinical efficacy depends on the magnitude and duration of exposure to GR. We updated the meta-analysis of randomized trials investigating GC treatment in ARDS, focusing on treatment protocols and response. We synthesized the current literature on the role of the GR in GC therapy including genomic and non-genomic effects, and integrated current clinical pharmacology knowledge of various GCs, including hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone. This review addresses the role dosage, timing of initiation, mode of administration, duration, and tapering play in achieving optimal response to GC therapy in ARDS. Based on RCTs' findings, GC plasma concentration-time profiles, and pharmacodynamic studies, optimal results are most likely achievable with early intervention, an initial bolus dose to achieve close to maximal GRα saturation, followed by a continuous infusion to maintain high levels of response throughout the treatment period. In addition, patients receiving similar GC doses may experience substantial between-patient variability in plasma concentrations affecting clinical response. GC should be dose-adjusted and administered for a duration targeting clinical and laboratory improvement, followed by dose-tapering to achieve gradual recovery of the suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings have practical clinical relevance. Future RCTs should consider these pharmacological principles in the study design and interpretation of findings.

19.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988720973759, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205677

RESUMO

Stress has deleterious effects on brain health and yet, the prognostic value of psychosocial stress regarding the most common types of dementias, including Alzheimer disease, is still unclear. The primary aim of this systematic review was to explore the association between psychosocial stress and late onset dementia. We classified 24articles from Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science, as pertaining toxic categories of psychosocial and trauma-related stress (low socio-economic status [SES] related inequalities, marital status, posttraumatic stress disorder, work stress, "vital exhaustion" [VE], and, combined stressors). Using the Quality of Prognosis Studies in Systematic Reviews tool, we judged the quality of evidence to be low. This systematic review provided some non-robust, yet suggestive evidence that the above psychosocial types of stress are associated with increased risk of dementia in later life. Future robust, longitudinal studies with repeated validated measures of psychosocial stress and dementiaare required to strengthen or refute these findings.

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