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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800889

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA (virus-positive MCC, VP-MCC) and carry a low somatic mutation burden whereas virus-negative MCC (VN-MCC) possess numerous ultraviolet-signature mutations. In contrast to viral oncogenes and sequence mutations, little is known about genomic structural variants in MCC. To identify copy number variants in commonly altered genes, we analyzed genomic DNA from 31 tumor samples using the Nanostring nCounter copy number cancer panel. Unsupervised clustering revealed three tumor groups with distinct genomic structural variant signatures. The first cluster was characterized by multiple recurrent deletions in genes such as RB1 and WT1. The second cluster contained eight VP-MCC and displayed very few structural variations. The final cluster contained one VP-MCC and four VN-MCC with predominantly genomic amplifications in genes like MDM4, SKP2, and KIT and deletions in TP53. Overall, VN-MCC contained more structure variation than VP-MCC but did not cluster separately from VP-MCC. The observation that most MCC tumors demonstrate a deletion-dominated structural group signature, independent of virus status, suggests a shared pathophysiology among most VP-MCC and VN-MCC tumors.

2.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion is associated with earlier diagnosis and improved care among lower socioeconomic status populations with cancer, but its impact on melanoma is undefined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of Medicaid expansion with stage of diagnosis and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in nonelderly adult patients with newly diagnosed clinically localized melanoma. METHODS: Quasi-experimental, difference-in-differences retrospective cohort analysis using data from the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2017. Patients from expansion versus nonexpansion states and diagnosed before (2010-2013) versus after (2014-2017) expansion were identified. RESULTS: Of 83,322 patients, 46.6% were female, and the median age was 55 years (interquartile range, 49-60). After risk adjustment, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in the diagnosis of T1b stage or higher melanoma (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98; P = .011) and decrease in uninsured status (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52-0.72; P < .001) but was not associated with a difference in sentinel lymph node biopsy performance when indicated (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.20; P = .29). LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study using a national database. CONCLUSION: In this study of patients with clinically localized melanoma, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in the diagnosis of later T-stage tumors.

3.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(3): e27-e32, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618805
8.
J Struct Biol ; 212(3): 107627, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950603

RESUMO

Biglycan (Bgn) and Fibromodulin (Fmod) are small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) which are abundant in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of mineralized tissues. We have previously generated a Bgn/Fmod double knock-out (DKO) mouse model and found it has a 3-fold increase in osteoclastogenesis compared with Wild type (WT) controls, resulting in a markedly low bone mass (LBM) phenotype. To try and rescue/repair the LBM phenotype of Bgn/Fmod DKO mice by suppressing osteoclast formation and activity, 3- and 26-week-old Bgn/Fmod DKO mice and age/gender matched WT controls were treated with OPG-Fc for 6 weeks after which bone parameters were evaluated using DEXA, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and serum biomarkers analyses. In the appendicular skeleton, OPG-Fc treatment improved some morphometric and geometric parameters in both the trabecular and cortical compartments in Bgn/Fmod DKO female and male mice, especially in the repair module. For many of the skeletal parameters analyzed, the Bgn/Fmod DKO mice were more responsive to the treatment than their WT controls. In addition, we found that OPG-Fc treatment was not able to prevent or ameliorate the formation of ectopic ossification, which are common lesions seen in aged joints and are one of the phenotypical hallmarks of our Bgn/Fmod DKO model. Analysis of skull bones, specifically the occipital bone, showed the treatment recovered some parameters of LBM phenotype in the craniofacial skeleton, more so in the younger rescue module. Using OPG-Fc as treatment alleviated, yet did not completely restore, the severe osteopenia and mineralized tissue structural abnormalities that Bgn/Fmod DKO mice suffer from.

10.
Immunotherapy ; 12(13): 951-956, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772616

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint blockade therapies including cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors have become indispensable tools for treating melanoma and other cancers. An increasing number of diverse cutaneous adverse reactions to immunotherapy have been documented in the literature and have been reported to affect up to 40% of patients treated with targeted therapies. Method & results: Herein, we report a case of a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with checkpoint inhibitor therapy who developed vitiligo, gastritis and hepatitis, all identified as adverse immune events and attributable to his immunotherapy regimen. He subsequently developed acquired idiopathic generalized hypohidrosis with biopsy of lesional skin demonstrating a peri-eccrine lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusion: These findings suggest this acquired generalized hypohidrosis represents a lymphocyte-mediated adverse immune event related to this patient's checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

11.
J Struct Biol ; 212(1): 107597, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758526

RESUMO

Teeth are comprised of three unique mineralized tissues, enamel, dentin, and cementum, that are susceptible to developmental defects similar to those affecting bone. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), caused by PHEX mutations, leads to increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-driven hypophosphatemia and local extracellular matrix disturbances. Hypophosphatasia (HPP), caused by ALPL mutations, results in increased levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor. Generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI), caused by ENPP1 mutations, results in vascular calcification due to decreased PPi, later compounded by FGF23-driven hypophosphatemia. In this perspective, we compare and contrast dental defects in primary teeth associated with XLH, HPP, and GACI, briefly reviewing genetic and biochemical features of these disorders and findings of clinical and preclinical studies to date, including some of our own recent observations. The distinct dental defects associated with the three heritable mineralization disorders reflect unique processes of the respective dental hard tissues, revealing insights into their development and clues about pathological mechanisms underlying such disorders.

12.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(9): 1004-1011, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725204

RESUMO

Importance: Use of prognostic gene expression profile (GEP) testing in cutaneous melanoma (CM) is rising despite a lack of endorsement as standard of care. Objective: To develop guidelines within the national Melanoma Prevention Working Group (MPWG) on integration of GEP testing into the management of patients with CM, including (1) review of published data using GEP tests, (2) definition of acceptable performance criteria, (3) current recommendations for use of GEP testing in clinical practice, and (4) considerations for future studies. Evidence Review: The MPWG members and other international melanoma specialists participated in 2 online surveys and then convened a summit meeting. Published data and meeting abstracts from 2015 to 2019 were reviewed. Findings: The MPWG members are optimistic about the future use of prognostic GEP testing to improve risk stratification and enhance clinical decision-making but acknowledge that current utility is limited by test performance in patients with stage I disease. Published studies of GEP testing have not evaluated results in the context of all relevant clinicopathologic factors or as predictors of regional nodal metastasis to replace sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The performance of GEP tests has generally been reported for small groups of patients representing particular tumor stages or in aggregate form, such that stage-specific performance cannot be ascertained, and without survival outcomes compared with data from the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition melanoma staging system international database. There are significant challenges to performing clinical trials incorporating GEP testing with SLNB and adjuvant therapy. The MPWG members favor conducting retrospective studies that evaluate multiple GEP testing platforms on fully annotated archived samples before embarking on costly prospective studies and recommend avoiding routine use of GEP testing to direct patient management until prospective studies support their clinical utility. Conclusions and Relevance: More evidence is needed to support using GEP testing to inform recommendations regarding SLNB, intensity of follow-up or imaging surveillance, and postoperative adjuvant therapy. The MPWG recommends further research to assess the validity and clinical applicability of existing and emerging GEP tests. Decisions on performing GEP testing and patient management based on these results should only be made in the context of discussion of testing limitations with the patient or within a multidisciplinary group.

13.
Hum Pathol ; 104: 1-8, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702401

RESUMO

Vulvar malignant melanoma (VMM), although uncommon, comprises 5-10% of all vulvar malignancies. Local control is notoriously poor in VMM with recurrence rates of 30-50% compared with approximately 3% in cutaneous melanomas. We studied clinicopathologic features of 37 women with VMM, after reviewing three decades of clinical follow-up data in our institutional databases. Most patients were Caucasian (n = 35) with an average age at diagnosis of 60.6 years (range 23-83). The most common subtype was mucosal lentiginous melanoma (n = 25). We compared Kaplan-Meier survival curves of 31 patients defined by clinical and microscopic attributes using exact log-rank tests. Younger patients at diagnosis (23-64 years), those with thin melanomas (≤1 mm), and those with Clark's level II or III tumors had better 5-year survival rates than older patients (65-83 years) and those with thick melanomas (>1 mm) and those with Clark's level IV or V (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, by exact log-rank test. Local recurrence of melanoma occurred in 15 patients. Nine patients (24%) had eventual urethral involvement by malignant melanoma, and this feature was associated with significantly shorter survival (P = 0.036). Patients with urethral involvement had shorter median time to death and worse 5-year survival rates. Given that spread to the urethra is common in VMM and urethral recurrence is also associated with mortality, pathology excision specimens should be carefully reviewed with attention to urethral involvement as a potentially important prognostic factor.

14.
15.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(6): 676-680, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267475

RESUMO

Importance: Appropriate use criteria for Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) screening suggest that mismatch repair protein (MMRP) immunohistochemical (IHC) testing is usually appropriate in patients with 2 or more sebaceous neoplasms (SNs). While MTS is known to be caused by a germline mutation in mismatch repair genes, data are limited as to whether individual sebaceous tumors in these patients with multiple lesions show identical MMRP IHC staining patterns. Objective: To determine concordance of MMRP IHC staining patterns in lesions of patients with MTS who have multiple SNs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective single-center case series evaluated 38 SNs in 11 patients with MTS confirmed by genetic testing for MMRP IHC staining patterns. Tumor sites were classified as either facial or extrafacial. Data were collected between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: In each patient, MMRP IHC staining patterns for SNs were compared with one another to evaluate intrapatient concordance between lesions, and to the patient's known germline mutation. Results: A total of 11 patients (7 women and 4 men) with MTS, with a mean (SD) age of 59.3 (10.6) years at time of SN biopsy, were identified. There was high concordance between MMRP IHC staining results (2-4 lesions per patient) and the patient's mutation status, with 36 of 38 total lesions (95%) matching (sensitivity, 94.7%; 95% CI, 82.3%-99.4%). Extrafacial site tumors represented 16 of 38 total lesions (42%) and demonstrated 100% concordance of IHC results to germline mutation. Only 1 of 11 patients (9%) demonstrated discordant results, with both lesions in this patient occurring on a facial site. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with known MTS, SNs present with highly concordant MMRP IHC staining profiles across multiple lesions. There is also a strong association with underlying germline mutations. A diagnosis of MTS might be supported by MMRP IHC when the pretest probability is high.

17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(3): 860-869, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1 are well-established melanoma-susceptibility genes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated melanoma histopathology for individuals with germline mutations of CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1. METHODS: We assessed histopathology for melanomas diagnosed in melanoma-prone families (≥2 individuals with melanoma) from the United States, Italy, and Spain. Comparisons between mutation carriers and noncarriers (no mutation) were adjusted for age, sex, Breslow depth, and correlations among individuals within the same family. RESULTS: Histologic slides were evaluated for 290 melanomas (139 from 132 noncarriers, 122 from 68 CDKN2A carriers, 10 from 6 CDK4 carriers, and 19 from 16 POT1 carriers). Superficial spreading was the predominant subtype for all groups. Spitzoid morphology (>25% of tumor) was observed in 10 of 15 invasive melanomas (67%) from POT1 carriers (P < .0001 vs noncarriers). This finding was independently confirmed by 3 expert melanoma dermatopathologists in 9 of 15 invasive melanomas (60%). In situ and invasive melanomas from CDKN2A and CDK4 carriers were histologically similar to melanomas from noncarriers. LIMITATIONS: Limited sample sizes for rare melanoma-susceptibility syndromes (CDK4, POT1). CONCLUSION: Spitzoid morphology was associated with POT1 mutations suggesting that telomere dysfunction (POT1 mutations) may contribute to spitzoid differentiation in melanocytic tumors.

18.
Dev Dyn ; 249(7): 884-897, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactivating mutations in the gene for cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) cause osteogenesis imperfecta type VII in humans, with a phenotype that can include craniofacial defects. Dental and craniofacial manifestations have not been a focus of case reports to date. We analyzed the craniofacial and dental phenotype of Crtap-/- mice by skull measurements, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histology, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Crtap-/- mice exhibited a brachycephalic skull shape with fusion of the nasofrontal suture and facial bones, resulting in mid-face retrusion and a class III dental malocclusion. Loss of CRTAP also resulted in decreased dentin volume and decreased cellular cementum volume, though acellular cementum thickness was increased. Periodontal dysfunction was revealed by decreased alveolar bone volume and mineral density, increased periodontal ligament (PDL) space, ectopic calcification within the PDL, bone-tooth ankylosis, altered immunostaining of extracellular matrix proteins in bone and PDL, increased pSMAD5, and more numerous osteoclasts on alveolar bone surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: Crtap-/- mice serve as a useful model of the dental and craniofacial abnormalities seen in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII.

19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(1): 172-178, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most common autoimmune blistering disease, may be diagnostically challenging. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and recently, C3d immunohistochemistry (IHC), are used as adjuncts to diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare C3d IHC to DIF, IIF, and ELISA testing in BP diagnosis. METHODS: C3d IHC was performed on skin biopsy specimens from 51 patients (27 with BP and 24 with other blistering diseases) and compared to DIF and IIF, with anti-BP180 or anti-BP230 ELISA results used as the gold standard. RESULTS: We found C3d IHC, DIF, and IIF had similar sensitivity (74.1%, 63.1%, and 70.4%), specificity (95.8%, 100%, and 100%), positive predictive value (95.2%, 100%, and 100%), and negative predictive value (76.7%, 70.6%, and 75%) for BP. Cases with positive C3d IHC, DIF, and IIF had significantly higher anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 by ELISA than cases with negative testing (P < .0001). False-negative IIF results were associated with lower BP230 compared with true-positive results (P = .03). LIMITATIONS: This was a single-center, retrospective study. CONCLUSION: Our study compared C3d IHC to DIF and IIF in BP diagnosis, demonstrating C3d IHC on fixed tissue provides similar diagnostic utility to immunofluorescence and ELISA.

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