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1.
J Hepatol ; 75(1): 34-45, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Perturbations of intracellular magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis have implications for cell physiology. The cyclin M family, CNNM, perform key functions in the transport of Mg2+ across cell membranes. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the role of CNNM4 in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Serum Mg2+ levels and hepatic CNNM4 expression were characterised in clinical samples. Primary hepatocytes were cultured under methionine and choline deprivation. A 0.1% methionine and choline-deficient diet, or a choline-deficient high-fat diet were used to induce NASH in our in vivo rodent models. Cnnm4 was silenced using siRNA, in vitro with DharmaFECT and in vivo with Invivofectamine® or conjugated to N-acetylgalactosamine. RESULTS: Patients with NASH showed hepatic CNNM4 overexpression and dysregulated Mg2+ levels in the serum. Cnnm4 silencing ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent NASH models. Mechanistically, CNNM4 knockdown in hepatocytes induced cellular Mg2+ accumulation, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increased microsomal triglyceride transfer activity, which promoted hepatic lipid clearance by increasing the secretion of VLDLs. CONCLUSIONS: CNNM4 is overexpressed in patients with NASH and is responsible for dysregulated Mg2+ transport. Hepatic CNNM4 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of NASH. LAY SUMMARY: Cyclin M4 (CNNM4) is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes the export of magnesium from the liver. The liver-specific silencing of Cnnm4 ameliorates NASH by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and promoting the activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

2.
Mol Cell ; 81(4): 724-738.e9, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476576

RESUMO

Micronuclei are aberrant nuclear compartments that can form as a result of chromosome mis-segregation. Frequent loss of micronuclear envelope integrity exposes DNA to the cytoplasm, leading to chromosome fragmentation and immune activation. Here, we use micronuclei purification to show that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated nuclease TREX1 inhibits cGAS activation at micronuclei by degrading micronuclear DNA upon micronuclear envelope rupture. We demonstrate that the ER accesses ruptured micronuclei and plays a critical role in enabling TREX1 nucleolytic attack. TREX1 mutations, previously implicated in immune disease, untether TREX1 from the ER, disrupt TREX1 localization to micronuclei, diminish micronuclear DNA damage, and enhance cGAS activation. These results establish ER-directed resection of micronuclear DNA by TREX1 as a critical regulator of cytosolic DNA sensing in chromosomally unstable cells and provide a mechanistic basis for the importance of TREX1 ER tethering in preventing autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico , Mutação , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Ativação Enzimática/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética
3.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 884-890, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719516

RESUMO

Chromothripsis and kataegis are frequently observed in cancer and may arise from telomere crisis, a period of genome instability during tumorigenesis when depletion of the telomere reserve generates unstable dicentric chromosomes1-5. Here we examine the mechanism underlying chromothripsis and kataegis by using an in vitro telomere crisis model. We show that the cytoplasmic exonuclease TREX1, which promotes the resolution of dicentric chromosomes4, plays a prominent role in chromothriptic fragmentation. In the absence of TREX1, the genome alterations induced by telomere crisis primarily involve breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and simple genome rearrangements rather than chromothripsis. Furthermore, we show that the kataegis observed at chromothriptic breakpoints is the consequence of cytosine deamination by APOBEC3B. These data reveal that chromothripsis and kataegis arise from a combination of nucleolytic processing by TREX1 and cytosine editing by APOBEC3B.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Telômero/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromotripsia , Citosina Desaminase/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Células U937
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