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1.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; : 1-18, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-pleasure beliefs are found in both patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and individuals with high social anhedonia (SocAnh), and are associated with anhedonia. However, little is known about the development and maintenance of these low-pleasure beliefs in the clinical and subclinical populations. We investigated whether patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh have deficits in updating their beliefs, which may contribute to the understanding of the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs. METHODS: The Modified Belief Updating Task was administered to assess belief-updating patterns in a clinical sample (36 SZ patients and 30 matched controls) and a subclinical sample (27 individuals with high SocAnh and 30 matched controls). RESULTS: We found that compared with controls, SZ patients updated their beliefs to a greater extent and more frequently when receiving bad news for positive life events, but not for negative life events. Moreover, individuals with high SocAnh also exhibited similar patterns in updating their beliefs for positive life events after controlling depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that negative belief-updating patterns for positive events may play an important role in the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs in patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh.

2.
Psych J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794205

RESUMO

This study showed a negative correlation between the glutamate level in the anterior cingulate cortex and cognitive theory of mind in individuals with high level of schizotypy but not in non-schizotypy individuals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389057

RESUMO

The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia patients is as around 30%. Evidence suggested that mild OCS could reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, supporting the presence of compensatory functions. However, severe OCS could aggravate various impairments in schizophrenia patients, supporting the "double jeopardy hypothesis". Patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity, schizophrenia patients and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have been found to have similarities in executive dysfunctions and altered resting-state functional connectivity within the executive control network (ECN). Executive functions could be associated with the ECN. However, little is known as to whether such overlap exists in the subclinical populations of individuals with schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), schizotypal individuals and individuals with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). In this study, we recruited 30 schizotypal individuals, 25 individuals with OCS, 29 individuals with SOT and 29 controls for a resting-state ECN-related functional connectivity (rsFC) and a go/shift/no-go task. We found that individuals with SOT exhibited increased rsFC within the ECN compared with controls, while schizotypal individuals exhibited the opposite. Individuals with OCS exhibited decreased rsFC within the ECN and between the ECN and the default mode network (DMN), relative to controls. No significant correlational results between altered rsFC related to the ECN with executive function performance were found after corrections for multiple comparisons in three subclinical groups. Our findings showed that individuals with SOT had increased rsFC within the ECN, while schizotypal individuals and individuals with OCS showed the opposite. Our findings provide evidence for possible neural substrates of subclinical comorbidity of OCS and schizotypy.

4.
Eval Health Prof ; : 163278720979651, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322941

RESUMO

The Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) was developed to assess dysmorphic appearance concern and has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument in Western societies. To examine the psychometric properties of a new Chinese BICI, the BICI was administered to 1,231 Chinese young adults (Study 1) and 47 female patients with eating disorders and 56 matched controls (ED; Study 2). In study 1, Cronbach's alpha of .92 and test-retest reliability of .73 over a 6-month interval was observed for the total scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model for the BICI: avoidant behaviors (AB), safety behaviors against perceived flaws (SB), and negative appearance evaluation (NE). In study 2, ED patients scored significantly higher on the BICI total and three subscale scores than controls. In addition, AB best differentiated ED patients and matched controls (Cohen's d = 1.52); SB best differentiated between the non-clinical female and male groups (Cohen's d = 0.75); NE was most closely associated with level of negative affect and subjective well-being (inverse relationship) in both clinical and non-clinical groups. In conclusion, the Chinese BICI is a reliable and valid tool for evaluating dysmorphic appearance concern among Chinese speakers.

5.
Psych J ; 9(1): 77-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328448

RESUMO

Anhedonia and amotivation, the hallmarks of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, are believed to be due to "emotion-behavior decoupling," a failure in translating pleasure experience into appropriate goal-directed behavior. A number of studies have reported that long-term institutionalized schizophrenia patients suffer from more severe negative symptoms than community-dwelling patients, but few studies have investigated pleasure experience and motivational behavior in schizophrenia patients who have experienced long-term institutionalization. In this study, we recruited 26 long-term institutionalized schizophrenia patients, 27 community-dwelling schizophrenia patients, and 27 healthy controls. Participants were administered two specific computer-based tasks to assess anhedonia and amotivation. The Anticipatory and Consummatory Pleasure (ACP) Task was used to measure emotion-behavior decoupling and the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT) was used to measure amotivation related to rewards. Findings from the ACP Task showed that compared with healthy controls, the coupling between emotion experience and motivated behavior was significantly weaker in both clinical groups, suggesting that emotion-behavior decoupling could be a stable trait in schizophrenia patients. In the EEfRT, compared with both community-dwelling patients and healthy controls, institutionalized patients with schizophrenia failed to expend more effort to gain potential rewards even when reward probability increased. These findings further reveal the underlying mechanism of anhedonia and amotivation and their potential relationships with long-term institutionalization in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Institucionalização , Motivação , Prazer , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , China , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
6.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(6): 434-453, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583951

RESUMO

Introduction: Negative symptoms, particularly amotivation and anhedonia, are important predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. There has been interest in the efficacy and mechanism of non-pharmacological interventions to alleviate these symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the remediation effect of working memory (WM) training in patients with schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms.Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms were recruited and assigned to either a WM training group or a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The WM training group underwent 20 sessions of training using the dual n-back task over one month. A functional neuroimaging paradigm of the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) task was administered before and after the training intervention to evaluate the remediation effect of the intervention.Results: Our results showed that the WM training group demonstrated significant improvement in the WM training task and inattention symptoms. Compared with the TAU group, increased brain activations were observed at the right insula and the right frontal sub-gyral after WM training in the training group.Conclusions: These findings support the efficacy of WM training in ameliorating hedonic dysfunction in schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 284: 37-44, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658243

RESUMO

The neural correlate of working memory (WM) impairment in schizophrenia is key to the understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in this disorder. We sought to determine the clinical validity of the dual version n-back paradigm in patients with schizophrenia, and whether schizophrenia patients exhibit altered brain activation patterns compared with healthy controls in this dual version WM measure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 24) performed the dual n-back task that consists of both visuospatial and auditory-verbal n-back streams, in which participants were required to monitor and update the contents from these two different inputs simultaneously. Significant positive correlations were found between performance in the dual 2-back condition and another measure of WM capacity and IQ estimates. Moreover, hypoactivation was observed at the right middle frontal gyrus and the posterior parietal regions in schizophrenia participants compared with healthy controls. The right hippocampus was less deactivated in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls. Our results support the clinical utility of the dual n-back task in schizophrenia and may have implications for the development of specific cognitive training targeting these impaired neural substrates in relation to WM in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 264: 39-45, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626830

RESUMO

Few studies have examined whether there is a relationship between social anhedonia and prediction of future events and the role of beliefs about pleasure and emotional experience. In this study, 513 college students were recruited to complete a set of self-reported questionnaires, including the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (CSAS), the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), the Belief about Pleasure Scale (BAPS) and the Beck Depression Inventory. Moreover, a checklist of 100 daily life events was also administrated to all participants. Mediation analysis found that social anhedonia had a direct impact on prediction of pleasant events. Emotional experience partly mediated the relationship between social anhedonia and subjective prediction of pleasant events. However, beliefs about pleasure had no significant mediation effect between social anhedonia and prediction of pleasant events, but were shown to influence the subjective prediction of pleasant events completely through emotional experience. These findings suggest that beliefs about pleasure and emotional experience may be considered promising factors for interventions in individuals with anhedonia.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Cultura , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Negociação/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 268(1): 49-56, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761988

RESUMO

Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls. Patients with the first-episode schizophrenia had a higher prevalence of NSS in motor coordination than healthy controls as well as individuals with UHR and schizotypy. Individuals with UHR exhibited a higher prevalence of sensory integration items than individuals with schizotypy and healthy controls. Discriminant analysis classified the membership of the individuals correctly across the spectrum with an accuracy of up to 60.9%. In particular, NSS could discriminate individuals with UHR from healthy controls at up to 85.9% accuracy. These findings suggest that NSS are robust biomarkers to detect and discriminate individuals in different stages of the schizophrenia spectrum from healthy controls.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
10.
Shanghai Arch Psychiatry ; 29(5): 268-276, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276350

RESUMO

Background: Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. Aims: The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms. Methods: One hundred and fifty patients completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and Emotional Expressivity Scale. Results: Schizophrenia patients exhibited deficits in experiencing pleasure, but showed intact reported emotion expression. Patients with prominent negative symptoms showed reduced anticipatory pleasure, especially in abstract anticipatory pleasure. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in pleasure experience, while their abilities to express emotion appear intact. Such deficits are more severe in patients with prominent negative symptoms.

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