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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e19957, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384443

RESUMO

Studies of PDPN in cancers have focused on the interactions with palates through the binding with CECL-2 which mainly express on palates and immune cells, while little is known on its interactions with immune cells.PDPN expression in cancers was analyzed through Oncomine, GEPIA, and TIMER database. Prognostic value (HR, P value from log-rank test) was evaluated through Kaplan-Meier plotter and OncoLnc database. The correlations between PDPN and the infiltrating levels of immune cells in different cancers, and diverse immune markers in gastric cancer were investigated through TIMER database.High PDPN expression predicted poor overall survival (OS) and post-progression survival (PPS) particularly in gastric cancer (OS P = .0089; PPS P = .00085), especially among patients with Her-2 (+) and lymph node metastasis. In addition, PDPN was positively correlated with infiltrating levels of immune cells, other than B cells in gastric cancer. However, PDPN showed more correlations with immune markers of M2 type TAM (CD163, VSIG4, MS4A4A) and T cell exhaustion (TIM-3, TOX, and GZMB).These findings all suggest that high PDPN predicts poor survival outcomes, especially for Her-2 (+) gastric cancer patients. Though inducing M2 type TAM and T cell exhaustion, high PDPN can predict high levels of various immune cells infiltration in STAD. Those correlations may bring new ideas to immunology treatment for gastric cancer patients who do not benefit from the existing immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática/genética , Masculino , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade
2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289516

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, People's Republic of China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Clinical information on patients who contracted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the perioperative period is limited. Here, we report seven cases with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the perioperative period of lung resection. Retrospective analysis suggested that one patient had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 infection before the surgery and the other six patients contracted the infection after the lung resection. Fever, lymphopenia, and ground-glass opacities revealed on computed tomography are the most common clinical manifestations of the patients who contracted COVID-19 after the lung resection. Pathologic studies of the specimens of these seven patients were performed. Pathologic examination of patient 1, who was infected with the SARS-CoV-2 infection before the surgery, revealed that apart from the tumor, there was a wide range of interstitial inflammation with plasma cell and macrophage infiltration. High density of macrophages and foam cells in the alveolar cavities, but no obvious proliferation of pneumocyte, was found. Three of seven patients died from COVID-19 pneumonia, suggesting lung resection surgery might be a risk factor for death in patients with COVID-19 in the perioperative period.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4169691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149105

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed subtype of nonsmall cell lung cancer. The molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of lung adenocarcinoma remain to be further determined. This study aimed to screen genes related to the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. By weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we constructed a free-scale gene coexpression network to evaluate the correlations between multiple gene sets and patients' clinical traits, then further identify predictive biomarkers. GSE11969 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database which contained the gene expression data of 90 lung adenocarcinoma patients. Data of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were employed as the validation cohort. After the average linkage hierarchical clustering, a total of 9 modules were generated. In the clinical significant module (R = 0.44, P < 0.0001), we identified 29 network hub genes. Subsequent verification in the TCGA database showed that 11 hub genes (ANLN, CDCA5, FLJ21924, LMNB1, MAD2L1, RACGAP1, RFC4, SNRPD1, TOP2A, TTK, and ZWINT) were significantly associated with poor survival data of lung adenocarcinomas. Besides, the results of receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the mRNA levels of this group of genes exhibited high specificity and sensitivity to distinguish malignant lesions from nonmalignant tissues. Apart from mRNA levels, we found that the protein abundances of these 11 genes were remarkably upregulated in lung adenocarcinomas compared with normal tissues. In conclusion, by the WGCNA method, a panel of 11 genes were identified as predictive biomarkers for tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinomas.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(13): e19570, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221075

RESUMO

To evaluate the safety and efficiency of sunitinib and sorafenib in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).Databases were searched up till February 28, 2018. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for eligibility, quality, and extracted relevant data. Results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six studies including 3112 patients were accessed. Sorafenib group exhibited higher median progression-free survival (mPFS) compared to sunitinib group (MD, -1.30; 95% CI, -2.56 to -0.03), especially in the first-line treatment (MD, -1.33; 95% CI, -2.61 to -0.04). However, sunitinib significantly reduced the risk of progression-free survival (PFS) compared to sorafenib (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.6-0.82). Sunitinib also significantly reduced risk of overall survival (OS) compared to sorafenib (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92), while median OS was similar in both groups (MD, -0.48; 95% CI, -3.40-2.43). With regards to safety, the risk of rash (RR, 0.31, 95% CI, 0.12-0.79) was greater in sunitinib than sorafenib group, while the risk of decreased appetite (RR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.33-3.30) and dehydration (RR 2.73, 95% CI: 1.14-6.56) was smaller in contrast.Based on risk of PFS and OS, sunitinib was a better treatment option for RCC treatment while patients faced with severe skin reaction. And for those Asian patients classified under MSKCC moderate risk, whether in first or second-line treatment, had difficulty in feeding, sorafenib is a better choice for prolong mPFS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos
5.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 150: 96-107, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151726

RESUMO

Radiation therapy remains one of the main treatments for cancer. However, conventional radiotherapy not only manifests a low radiation accumulation in the tumor site, but also displays numerous negative effects. The most serious clinical problem is the radiotherapy resistance leading to cancer deterioration. As an important gaseous signal molecule, nitric oxide (NO) has been widely studied for its role in regulating angiogenesis, improving hypoxia, and inhibiting tumor growth. However, due to the unstable characteristic, the application of NO in cancer therapy is still limited. Here, we designed a micellar system formed by a NO donor, D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-NO, for enabling sustained NO release to efficiently deliver NO into the tumor area. TPGS-NO could accumulate in the tumor site for extended circulation, thereby releasing NO to exert antitumor effects and enhance radiotherapy effects under low-oxygen conditions. It demonstrated the increased sensitivity of radiotherapy through enhancing tumor angiogenesis appropriately reducing tumor area hypoxia, which significantly induced tumor cell apoptosis and inhibited its repair during radiation. This work may show great potential in synergistic radiotherapy against cancer by facile NO donor administration.

6.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 118-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2015 World Health Organization classification defines pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) as a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of pure LCNEC and combined LCNEC remain unclear. Hence, we performed a multi-center retrospective study to compare the clinical outcomes of pure versus combined LCNEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 381 patients with pulmonary LCNEC admitted to 17 Chinese institutes between 2009 and 2016 were collected retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed among patients receiving adjuvant (adjuvant group; n = 56) and first-line (first-line group; n = 146) chemotherapy, as well as among patients receiving small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify clinicopathological variables that might influence patient outcomes. RESULTS: Expression levels of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56) were associated with patients' prognosis in the total study cohort. In the adjuvant group, median disease-free survival was non-significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (P = 0.112). In the first-line group, median progression-free survival was significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (11.5 vs. 7.2 months, P = 0.003). Among patients with combined LCNEC, adenocarcinoma was the most common combined component, accounting for 70.0 % of cases. Additionally, median overall survival was non-significantly shorter for combined LCNEC than for pure LCNEC (P = 0.083). CONCLUSION: The SCLC regimen is a more effective choice, as either first-line or adjuvant chemotherapy, when compared to the NSCLC regimen for LCNEC treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify the survival differences between patients with pure-, and combined LCNEC.

7.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 8: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799063

RESUMO

Cancer cells with strong immunogenicity are susceptible for elimination by cancer immunoediting, while the subpopulations with weak immunogenicity survive. As a result, a subset of cancer cells evade the immune attack and evolve into overt clinical lesions. During cancer evolution, it has been well established that multiple alterations such as the dysfunction of antigen presentation machinery and the upregulation of immunosuppressive signals (e.g. PD-L1) play important roles in immune escape. Recently, promoter hypermethylation of neoantigen genes has been proposed to be a vital mechanism of immunoediting. This epigenetically mediated immune evasion enriches the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

8.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 9527-9538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807028

RESUMO

During malignant transformation, a growing body of mutations accumulate in cancer cells which not only drive cancer progression but also endow cancer cells with high immunogenicity. However, because one or multiple steps in cancer-immunity cycle are impaired, anti-cancer immune response is too weak to effectively clear cancer cells. Therefore, how to restore robust immune response to malignant cells is a hot research topic in cancer therapeutics field. In the last decade, based on the deeper understanding of cancer immunity, great signs of progress have been made in cancer immunotherapies especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). ICIs could block negative immune co-stimulatory pathways and reactivate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from exhausted status. ICIs exhibit potent anti-cancer effect and have been approved for the treatment of numerous cancer types. Parallel with durable and effective tumor control, the actual response rate of ICIs is unsatisfactory. Although a subset of patients benefit from ICIs treatment, a large proportion of patients show primary or acquired resistance. Previously intensive studies indicated that the efficacy of ICIs was determined by a series of factors including tumor mutation burden, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression, and TILs status. Recently, it was reported that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathway participated in cancer immune escape and ICI resistance. Concurrent TGF-ß blockade might be a feasible strategy to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy and relieve ICI resistance. In this mini-review, we summarized the latest understanding of TGF-ß signaling pathway and cancer immunity. Besides, we highlighted the synergistic effect of TGF-ß blockade and ICIs.

9.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819274

RESUMO

Functional protein-coding small open reading frames (smORFs) are emerging as an important class of genes. However, the number of translated smORFs in the human genome is unclear because proteogenomic methods are not sensitive enough, and, as we show, Ribo-seq strategies require additional measures to ensure comprehensive and accurate smORF annotation. Here, we integrate de novo transcriptome assembly and Ribo-seq into an improved workflow that overcomes obstacles with previous methods, to more confidently annotate thousands of smORFs. Evolutionary conservation analyses suggest that hundreds of smORF-encoded microproteins are likely functional. Additionally, many smORFs are regulated during fundamental biological processes, such as cell stress. Peptides derived from smORFs are also detectable on human leukocyte antigen complexes, revealing smORFs as a source of antigens. Thus, by including additional validation into our smORF annotation workflow, we accurately identify thousands of unannotated translated smORFs that will provide a rich pool of unexplored, functional human genes.

10.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 8: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673481

RESUMO

Background: Recently, a series of clinical trials showed that combination of anti-programmed cell death-1 (α-PD-1) and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (α-CTLA-4) could effectively eliminate tumor. However, in comparison with widely adopted mono-immune checkpoint inhibitors, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, the advantage of combination therapy of α-PD-1 and α-CTLA-4 in response rate and prognosis is controversial especially considering probably increased treatment related adverse event. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of combination treatment of α-PD-1 and α-CTLA-4. Methods: This meta-analysis involved 8 clinical trials. In most trials, the primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Thus we calculated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare ORR of patients undergoing different treatment strategies. Moreover, the co-primary endpoints in few trials included progression-free survival and overall survival. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI were employed to weigh the influence of different treatments on prognosis of patients. Subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with high and low expression of PD-L1. Lastly, the safety of combination therapy was evaluated by comparing treatment related adverse events among various treatment groups. Results: Our results showed that ORR was significantly higher in patients receiving α-PD-1 plus α-CTLA-4 compared with α-PD-1 (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48) or α-CTLA-4 monotherapy (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.84-2.43), chemotherapy and targeted therapy (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.58). α-PD-1 plus α-CTLA-4 treated patients had a great advantage on monotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy treated patients in PFS. Notably, no significant alteration in total adverse event rate was observed in α-PD-1 plus α-CTLA-4 treated patients. Results of subgroup analysis showed that combination therapy could enhance anti-tumor response in comparison with other treatments, especially for low PD-L1 expression patients undergoing nivolumab treatment (ORR: RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.11-1.65). Conclusion: Combination treatment of α-PD-1 and α-CTLA-4 is a feasible strategy with enhanced efficacy and acceptable adverse event. Moreover, for some low PD-L1 expression patients, α-CTLA-4 might decrease the risk of resistance to α-PD-1 and demonstrate the synergistic anti-tumor effect.

11.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 8: 29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737426

RESUMO

DNA damage repair deficiency leads to the increased risk of genome instability and oncogenic transformation. In the meanwhile, this deficiency could be exploited for cancer treatment by inducing excessive genome instability and catastrophic DNA damage. Continuous DNA replication in cancer cells leads to higher demand of DNA repair components. Due to the oncogenic loss of some DNA repair effectors (e.g. BRCA) and incomplete DNA repair repertoire, some cancer cells are addicted to certain DNA repair pathways such as Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-related single-strand break repair pathway. The interaction between BRCA and PARP is a form of synthetic lethal effect which means the simultaneously functional loss of two genes lead to cell death, while defect in any single gene has a slight effect on cell viability. Based on synthetic lethal theory, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) was developed aiming to selectively target cancer cells harboring BRCA1/2 mutations. Recently, a growing body of evidence indicated that a broader population of patients could benefit from PARPi therapy far beyond those with germline BRCA1/2 mutated tumors. Numerous biomarkers including homologous recombination deficiency and high level of replication pressure also herald high sensitivity to PARPi treatment. Besides, a series of studies indicated that PARPi-involved combination therapy such as PARPi with additional chemotherapy therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitor, as well as targeted agent had a great advantage in overcoming PARPi resistance and enhancing PARPi efficacy. In this review, we summarized the advances of PARPi in clinical application. Besides, we highlighted multiple promising PARPi-based combination strategies in preclinical and clinical studies.

12.
Cancer Biol Med ; 16(3): 556-564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565484

RESUMO

Objective: Germline alterations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes type 1 and 2, BRCA1 and BRCA2, predispose individuals to hereditary cancers, including breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. The present study aimed to survey the prevalence of pathogenic germline BRCA mutations (gBRCAm) and explore the potential association between gBRCAm and disease onset in Chinese advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: A total of 6,220 NSCLC patients were screened using capture-based ultra-deep targeted sequencing to identify patients harboring germline BRCA1/2 mutations. Results: Out of the 6,220 patients screened, 1.03% (64/6,220) of the patients harbored the pathogenic g BRCA m , with BRCA2 mutations being the most pr edominant mutations (49/64, 76.5%). Patients who developed NSCLC before 50 years of age were more likely to carry g BRCA m (P = 0.036). Among the patients harboring classic lung cancer driver mutations, those with concurrent g BRCA m were significantly younger than those harboring the wild-type g BRCA (P = 0.029). By contrast, the age of patients with or without concurrent g BRCA m was comparable to those of patients without the driver mutations (P = 0.972). In addition, we identified EGFR-mutant patients with concurrent gBRCAm who showed comparable progression-free survival but significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.002) compared to EGFR-mutant patients with wild-type germline BRCA. Conclusions: Overall, our study is the largest survey of the prevalence of pathogenic g BRCA m in advanced Chinese NSCLC patients. Results suggested a lack of association between germline BRCA status and treatment outcome of EGFR-TKI. In addition, results showed a positive correlation between pathogenic g BRCA m and an early onset of NSCLC.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4883, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653868

RESUMO

Cellular homeostasis relies on having dedicated and coordinated responses to a variety of stresses. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a common stress that triggers a conserved pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) that mitigates damage, and dysregulation of UPR underlies several debilitating diseases. Here, we discover that a previously uncharacterized 54-amino acid microprotein PIGBOS regulates UPR. PIGBOS localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane where it interacts with the ER protein CLCC1 at ER-mitochondria contact sites. Functional studies reveal that the loss of PIGBOS leads to heightened UPR and increased cell death. The characterization of PIGBOS reveals an undiscovered role for a mitochondrial protein, in this case a microprotein, in the regulation of UPR originating in the ER. This study demonstrates microproteins to be an unappreciated class of genes that are critical for inter-organelle communication, homeostasis, and cell survival.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Células COS , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Coelhos , Ratos
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 777, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611604

RESUMO

MET overactivation is one of the crucial reasons for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance, but the mechanisms are not wholly clear. Here, COX2, TOPK, and MET expression were examined in EGFR-activating mutated NSCLC by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. The relationship between COX2, TOPK, and MET was explored in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, the inhibition of HCC827GR cell growth by combining COX2 inhibitor (celecoxib), TOPK inhibitor (pantoprazole), and gefitinib was verified ex vivo and in vivo. We found that COX2 and TOPK were highly expressed in EGFR-activating mutated NSCLC and the progression-free survival (PFS) of triple-positive (COX2, MET, and TOPK) patients was shorter than that of triple-negative patients. Then, we observed that the COX2-TXA2 signaling pathway modulated MET through AP-1, resulting in an inhibition of apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MET could phosphorylate TOPK at Tyr74 and then prevent apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant cells. In line with these findings, the combination of celecoxib, pantoprazole, and gefitinib could induce apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant cells and inhibit tumor growth ex vivo and in vivo. Our work reveals a novel COX2/MET/TOPK signaling axis that can prevent apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant cells and suggests that a triple combination of FDA-approved drugs would provide a low-cost and practical strategy to overcome gefitinib resistance.

15.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 18: 1534735419876351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517538

RESUMO

In the past decade, a growing set of immunotherapies including immune checkpoint blockade, chimeric antigen receptor T cells, and bispecific antibodies propelled the advancement of oncology therapeutics. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that immunotherapy could eliminate tumors better than traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy with lower risk of adverse events in numerous cancer types. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of patients eventually acquire resistance to immunotherapy. By analyzing the differences between immunotherapy-sensitive and immunotherapy-resistant populations, it was noticed that the composition of gut microbiota is closely related to treatment effect. Moreover, in xenograft models, interventional regulation of gut microbiota could effectively enhance efficacy and relieve resistance during immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that gut microbiota composition might be helpful to explain the heterogeneity of treatment effect, and manipulating gut microbiota could be a promising adjuvant treatment for cancer immunotherapy. In this mini review, we focus on the latest understanding of the cross-talk between gut microbiota and host immunity. Moreover, we highlight the role of gut microbiota in cancer immunotherapy including immune checkpoint inhibitor and adoptive cell transfer.

16.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 98, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521196

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of a cancer cell is derived from accumulated somatic mutations. However, on the contrary to increased immunogenicity, anti-cancer immune response tends to be feeble. This impaired anti-cancer immunity could be attributed to multiple factors including loss of immunodominant epitopes, downregulation of major histocompatibility complex, and immunosuppressive microenvironment, as well as aberrant negative co-stimulatory signals. Immune checkpoint inhibitors block negative co-stimulatory signals such as programmed cell death-1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, ultimately reactivating anti-cancer immunity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors elicit potent anti-cancer effect and have been approved for multiple cancers. Nevertheless, there still are significant potential improvements for the applications of checkpoint inhibitor, especially considering frequent resistance. Recent studies demonstrated that additional PARP inhibition could alleviate resistance and enhance efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy via promoting cross-presentation and modifying immune microenvironment. We proposed that PARP inhibitors could enhance the priming and tumor-killing activities of T cell, boost the whole cancer-immunity cycle, and thereby improve the response to immune checkpoint blockade. In this review, we focused the latest understanding of the effect of PARP inhibitors on anti-cancer immunity and PARP inhibitors combining immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Moreover, we summarized the preclinical and clinical evidence and discussed the feasibility of this combination therapy in future clinical practice.

17.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 355, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in multiple cancers, which is associated with poor prognosis. Herceptin and other agents targeting HER2 have potent antitumor efficacy in patients with HER2-positive cancers. However, the development of drug resistance adversely impacts the efficacy of these treatments. It is therefore urgent to develop new HER2-targeted therapies. Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) could guide immune cells toward tumor cells, and produced remarkable effects in some cancers. METHODS: A BsAb named M802 that targets HER2 and CD3 was produced by introducing a salt bridge and knobs-into-holes (KIHs) packing into the structure. Flow cytometry was performed to determine its binding activity and cytotoxicity. CCK-8, Annexin V/PI staining, western blotting, and ELISA were utilized to study its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis, the signaling pathways of tumor cells, and the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Subcutaneous tumor mouse models were used to analyze the in vivo antitumor effects of M802. RESULTS: We generated a new format of BsAb, M802, consisting of a monovalent unit against HER2 and a single chain unit against CD3. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that M802 recruited CD3-positive immune cells and was more cytotoxic than Herceptin in cells with high expression of HER2, low expression of HER2, and Herceptin resistance. Although M802 showed weaker effects than Herceptin on the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, it was more cytotoxic due to its specific recognition of HER2 and its ability to recruit effector cells via its anti-CD3 moiety. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that M802 exhibited potent antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. M802 retained the function of Herceptin in antitumor signaling pathways, and also recruited CD3-positive immune cells to eliminate HER2-positive tumor cells. Therefore, M802 might be a promising HER2 targeted agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Complexo CD3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 40(10): 716-718, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383375

RESUMO

Enzymes with multiple substrates pose a unique challenge for drug development because of an increased potential for on-target side effects. Maianti and colleagues (Nat. Chem. Biol., 2019) identify novel exo-site inhibitors with abilities to alter the substrate-selectivity of insulin-degrading enzymes (IDE). Their work illuminates new therapeutic avenues for discovering small-molecule enzyme inhibitors and redefines our current understanding of drugging enzymes with multiple substrates.

19.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3382-3390, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444835

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions have been recognized as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, molecular signatures and clinical characteristics of the Chinese population with ALK-rearranged NSCLC are not well elucidated. In the present study, we carried out targeted next-generation sequencing on tissue and plasma ctDNA samples in 1688 patients with NSCLC. Overall, ALK fusions were detected in 70 patients (4.1%), and the frequencies of ALK fusions detected in tissue and plasma samples were 5.1% and 3.3%, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence of breakpoint locations for EML4-ALK fusions in ctDNA was significantly correlated with that in tumor tissues (R2  = .91, P = .045). According to age, the incidence rates of ALK fusions among young (age <45 years), middle-aged (between 45 and 70 years) and elderly (>70 years) patients were significantly different (P < .001). In 70 ALK-rearranged cases, coexistence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) alterations and ALK fusions was detected in 12 cases (17.1%) and EGFR mutations tended to coexist with non-EML4-ALK rearrangements. Notably, novel ALK fusion partners, including TRIM66, SWAP70, WNK3, ERC1, TCF12 and FBN1 were identified in the present study. Among EML4-ALK fusion variants, patients with variant V1 were younger than patients with variant V3 (P = .023), and TP53 mutations were more frequently concurrent with variant V3 compared with variant V1 (P = .009). In conclusion, these findings provide new insights into the molecular-clinical profiles of patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC that may improve the treatment strategy of this population.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Translocação Genética
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(8): 693-701, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271109

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the primary PAEs (phthalate acid esters) pollutants. DBP can be absorbed by plants and threaten human health via the food chain. Some DBP-degrading bacteria have been successfully isolated from the environment (water, soil, etc.). However, only a few DBP-degrading plant endophytes have been isolated. In this study, an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. strain JR20, which was found capable of degrading DBP, was isolated from garlic chive. We found that strain JR20 metabolized 89.74% of DBP at a 5 mg/L concentration within 4 d in liquid mineral salts medium (MSM). The optimized conditions for maximum removal of DBP were as follows: DBP concentration, 5 mg/L; pH, 7-8; temperature, 30-40 °C. The colonization of strain JR20 significantly improved the degradation rate of DBP in the roots, stems and leaves of leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Cebolinha-Francesa/microbiologia , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Verduras/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Verduras/metabolismo
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