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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379824

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell therapy is a rapidly emerging immunotherapeutic approach that is revolutionizing cancer treatment. The impressive clinical results obtained with CAR-T cell therapy in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma have fueled the development of CAR-T cells targeting other malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). The field of CAR-T cell therapy for MM is still in its infancy, but remains promising. To date, most studies have been performed with B cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeted CARs, for which high response rates have been obtained in early-phase clinical trials. However, responses are usually temporary, and relapses have frequently been observed. One of the major reasons for relapse is the loss or downregulation of BCMA expression following CAR-T therapy. This has fostered a search for alternative target antigens that are expressed on the MM cell surface. In this review, we provide an overview of myeloma target antigens other than BCMA that are currently being evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

2.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 266-273, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212097

RESUMO

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a key role in tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, which helps tumors avoid immune destruction. Blocking the suppressive activities of MDSCs could be a promising strategy to enhance the effect of anti-tumor immunotherapies. In this study, we found that TLR1/TLR2 expression predicted favorable prognosis of lung cancer patients. In the related mice tumor model, TLR1/TLR2 activation by synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, greatly inhibited tumor growth and selectively decreased monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Furthermore, BLP treatment redirected M-MDSC differentiation towards M1 macrophage through JNK pathway, and thus blocked the suppressive activity of M-MDSCs in a TLR2-dependent manner. Therefore, our data demonstrated that TLR2 could be a promising biomarker and a potential immunotherapeutic target for lung cancer.

3.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185253

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are indispensable for determining the fate of immune cells in both physiological and pathogenic environments, thus stimulating the interest of immunologists and clinicians. B cells are essential in maintaining immune homeostasis, and studies have indicated that ROS affect the maturation, activation and differentiation of B cells by controlling the signaling molecules in various molecular pathways. In the present review, we aimed to summarize the biological properties of ROS and the mechanisms by which ROS regulate B cell signaling pathways. We propose that ROS and their mediated signal transduction can be a new approach for manipulating B cell immune functions.

4.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 162-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063937

RESUMO

B cells have been reported to have a suppressive function in autoimmune diseases, which appears to require an increase of CD11b expression on B cells. However, little is known how CD11b is induced in B cells to play the function. In this study, we found that the high expression of CD11b in B cells occurred not only in the mucosal immune organs, but also in systemically immune organs such as the spleen during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Since the inflammatory lesions in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were revealed to be significantly hypoxic or even anoxic, the B cells from colitic mice Peyer's patches (PP) were investigated to express higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) than naïve B cells from wildtype (WT) mice. HIF-1α siRNA transfection or HIF-1α protein inhibition led to decreased CD11b expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in vitro. B cells with HIF-1α specific knockdown were then adoptively transferred to Rag-1-/- mice. The result displayed that CD11b expression was decreased in B cells and an exacerbated colitis occurred. The bio-informatics promoter analysis and ChIP assay showed that HIF-1α was the critical transcription factor for CD11b and cooperatively formed a complex with the p-STAT3 homodimers to bind onto hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) regions, which was guaranteed by MEK/ERK pathway activation and IL-10 secretion. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the key function of the hypoxia-associated transcription factor HIF-1α together with p-STAT3 in driving CD11b transcription in B cells and controlling B cell's protective activity in experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

5.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(13): 2784-2800, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101493

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a bridge between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. TLR2 agonists have been exploited as potential vaccine adjuvants and antitumor agents. However, no TLR2 agonists have been approved by FDA up to now. To discover drug-like TLR2 selective agonists, a novel series of Pam3CSK4 derivatives were designed based on the crystal structure of hTLR2-hTLR1-Pam3CSK4 complex, synthesized and evaluated for their immune-stimulatory activities. Among them, 35c was identified as a murine-specific TLR2 agonist, while 35f was a human-specific TLR2 agonist. Besides, 35d (human and murine TLR2 agonist) showed TLR2 agonistic activity comparable to Pam3CSK4, which included: elevated IL-6 expression level (EC50 = 83.08 ±â€¯5.94 nM), up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and promoted maturation of DCs through activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. TLRs antibodies test showed that 35a and 35d were TLR2/1 agonists, while 35f was a TLR2/6 agonist.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 734-748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130074

RESUMO

Many pathogens infect hosts through various immune evasion strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which pathogen proteins modulate and evade the host immune response remain unclear. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a pathological strain that can induce mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPK) and NF-κB pathway activation and proinflammatory cytokine production, which then causes diarrheal diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a key regulator involved in distinct innate immune signalling pathways. Here we report that EHEC translocated intimin receptor (Tir) protein inhibits the expression of EHEC-induced proinflammatory cytokines by interacting with the host tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which is dependent on the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Mechanistically, the association of EHEC Tir with SHP-1 facilitated the recruitment of SHP-1 to TAK1 and inhibited TAK1 phosphorylation, which then negatively regulated K63-linked polyubiquitination of TAK1 and downstream signal transduction. Taken together, these results suggest that EHEC Tir negatively regulates proinflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of TAK1, which is essential for immune evasion and could be a potential target for the treatment of bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(1): 127-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662353

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors, with the top morbidity and mortality, in China. Calpain family regulates cellular processes including migration and invasion. However, the role of Calpain-2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. This study aims to explore the bio-function of Calpain-2 on NSCLC and chemoresistance to paclitaxel. In this study, Immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the Calpain-2 expression and related pathway protein in NSCLC. The Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator and Cox regression were conducted for survival analysis. CCK-8, Transwell, colony-formation, apoptosis and tumor xenograft assays were performed to analyze tumor-promoting role of Calpain-2, and the chemoresistance to paclitaxel. Our data showed that Calpain-2 was up-regulated in NSCLC. Notably, Calpain-2 level positively correlated with differentiation grade and negatively correlated with the 5-year overall survival, which served as an independent prognostic predictor. Knockdown of Calpain-2 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, while promoted apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, Calpain-2-knockdowned cells formed smaller subcutaneous tumors. Meanwhile, knockdown of Calpain-2 down-regulated EGFR and pAKT expression, which weakened the chemoresistance of NSCLC cells to paclitaxel by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, and even enhanced the paclitaxel-mediated downregulation of EGFR and pAKT level. To conclude, Calpain-2 might activate EGFR/pAKT pathway to promote NSCLC progression and contributes to the chemoresistance to paclitaxel, which might be a therapeutic target to prevent or postpone the progression of NSCLC.

8.
Immunology ; 156(1): 56-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171602

RESUMO

B lymphocytes, known as antibody producers, mediate tumor cell destruction in the manner of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; however, their anti-tumor function seems to be weakened during tumorigenesis, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that IgG mediated anti-tumor effects, but IgG-producing B cells decreased in various tumors. Considering the underlying mechanism, glycometabolism was noteworthy. We found that tumor-infiltrating B cells were glucose-starved and accompanied by a deceleration of glycometabolism. Both inhibition of glycometabolism and deprivation of glucose through tumor cells, or glucose-free treatment, reduced the differentiation of B cells into IgG-producing cells. In this process, special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) was significantly silenced in B cells. Down-regulating SATB1 by inhibiting glycometabolism or RNA interference reduced the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) to the promoter of germline Cγ gene, subsequently resulting in fewer B cells producing IgG. Our findings provide the first evidence that glycometabolic inhibition by tumorigenesis suppresses differentiation of B cells into IgG-producing cells, and altering glycometabolism may be promising in improving the anti-tumor effect of B cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Azoximetano , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2018: 6156757, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525058

RESUMO

There are rapidly emerging efforts to explore tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as a tumor therapy target. Tumor cells express CD47, which can interact with the macrophages' SIRPα transmitting a "don't eat me" signal to macrophages. The expression of CD47 increases in various tumors to evade immune attack. However, the expression of CD47 in endometrial cancer (EC) and the role of CD47-SIRPα in the TAMs which mediate the progression of EC remain unclear. Our study shows that there are increased TAMs in EC which dominantly consist of M2 macrophages and contribute to the progression of EC. We confirm that CD47 is highly expressed in EC tissue using the TCGA database, qPCR, and flow cytometry. Instead of directly promoting the apoptosis of EC cells, anti-CD47 blocking antibody promoted phagocytosis of EC cells by macrophages and the increased phagocytosis ability was mediated by M2 macrophages in a coculture assay. Besides, CD47 blockade inhibited the growth of the EC tumors in vivo and increased the infiltration of macrophages with antitumor ability in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings might assist in developing promising strategies that blocked the CD47-SIRPa interaction for EC therapy.

10.
Cancer Lett ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503554

RESUMO

Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are regarded as sources of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance, which limits current cancer therapies. Elucidating the molecular modes governing CSC properties is necessary to optimize therapeutic approaches. In this study, we discovered that ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C)-mediated ubiquitination is a key posttranslational mechanism involved in maintaining CSC properties of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). UBE3C was overexpressed in stem-like NSCLC cells and acted as a stemness enhancer. Knockdown of UBE3C reduced NSCLC stemness and tumorigenesis both in vivo and in vitro. We further identified AHNAK as a novel UBE3C substrate, finding that UBE3C maintained stemness by ubiquitinating and promoting AHNAK degradation. AHNAK functioned as a cofactor assisting p53 binding to stemness-related gene promoters to inhibit transcription. Subsequent downregulation of AHNAK by UBE3C overexpression removed p53-mediated inhibition of gene expression, resulting in enhanced stemness. Clinical significance was investigated in 208 NSCLC patients and confirmed that attenuated UBE3C activity and elevated AHNAK protein levels correlated with extended survival time. Collectively, findings reveal the first global characterization of UBE3C-mediated ubiquitination as a key regulator of CSCs, with results suggesting involvement of the AHNAK-p53 complex.

11.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393759

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and immunity gene signatures have been reported to be significantly prognostic in breast cancer but have not yet been applied for calculation of risk of recurrence in clinical assays. A compact set of 17 immunity genes was derived herein from an Affymetrix-derived gene expression dataset including 1951 patients (AFFY1951). The 17 immunity genes demonstrated significant prognostic stratification of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer patients with high proliferation gene expression. Further analysis of blood and breast cancer single-cell RNA-seq datasets revealed that the 17 immunity genes were derived from TIL that were inactive in the blood and became active in tumor tissue. Expression of the 17 immunity genes was significantly (p < 2.2E-16, n = 91) correlated with TILs percentage on H&E in triple negative breast cancer. To demonstrate the impact of tumor immunity genes on prognosis, we built a Cox model to incorporate breast cancer subtypes, proliferation score and immunity score (72 gene panel) with significant prediction of outcomes (p < 0.0001, n = 1951). The 72 gene panel and its risk evaluation model were validated in two other published gene expression datasets including Illumina beads array data METABRIC (p < 0.0001, n = 1997) and whole transcriptomic mRNA-seq data TCGA (p = 0.00019, n = 996) and in our own targeted RNA-seq data TARGETSEQ (p < 0.0001, n = 303). Further examination of the 72 gene panel in single cell RNA-seq of tumors demonstrated tumor heterogeneity with more than two subtypes observed in each tumor. In conclusion, immunity gene expression was an important parameter for prognosis and should be incorporated into current multi-gene assays to improve assessment of risk of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 290, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD-L1 is an immune inhibitory receptor ligand that leads to T cell dysfunction and apoptosis by binding to its receptor PD-1, which works in braking inflammatory response and conspiring tumor immune evasion. However, in gliomas, the cause of PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment is not yet clear. Besides, auxiliary biomarkers are urgently needed for screening possible responsive glioma patients for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. METHODS: The distribution of tumor-infiltrating T cells and PD-L1 expression was analyzed via immunofluorescence in orthotopic murine glioma model. The expression of PD-L1 in immune cell populations was detected by flow cytometry. Data excavated from TCGA LGG/GBM datasets and the Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project was used for in silico analysis of the correlation among genes and survival. RESULTS: The distribution of tumor-infiltrating T cells and PD-L1 expression, which parallels in murine orthotopic glioma model and human glioma microdissections, was interrelated. The IFN-γ level was positively correlated with PD-L1 expression in murine glioma. Further, IFN-γ induces PD-L1 expression on primary cultured microglia, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and GL261 glioma cells in vitro. Seven IFN-γ-induced genes, namely GBP5, ICAM1, CAMK2D, IRF1, SOCS3, CD44, and CCL2, were selected to calculate as substitute indicator for IFN-γ level. By combining the relative expression of the listed IFN-γ-induced genes, IFN-γ score was positively correlated with PD-L1 expression in different anatomic structures of human glioma and in glioma of different malignancies. CONCLUSION: Our study identified the distribution of tumor-infiltrating T cells and PD-L1 expression in murine glioma model and human glioma samples. And we found that IFN-γ is an important cause of PD-L1 expression in the glioma microenvironment. Further, we proposed IFN-γ score aggregated from the expressions of the listed IFN-γ-induced genes as a complementary prognostic indicator for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 104(6): 1187-1198, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295956

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are electrophilic chemical species produced from incomplete oxidation. They have long been known as aggressive molecules that lead to direct tissue and cellular damage. Recent studies have reconsidered ROS as second messengers in the initiation and amplification of cell signaling, but how ROS regulate lung tissue and immune cell remain unknown. In this study, we used a LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model to observe disease, progression and determine ROS-related immune responses. We found that ROS play an essential pathogenic role in ALI, however, the major role of ROS in exacerbating ALI was increasing bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) B cells rather than eliciting tissue damage. Moreover, these pathogenic B cells are FasL+ killer B cells, which reported to damage Fas-sensitive target cells including pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, via in vitro transwell assays and in vivo treatment with neutralizing antibodies. ROS promoted pulmonary epithelial cells to produce CXCL9 and CXCL10, which recruited B cells into BALF. These results demonstrated that during lung injury, instead of causing oxidative damage, ROS mainly serve as second messengers, interacting with tissue and immune cells to enhance immune responses that lead to more severe disease.

14.
Analyst ; 143(19): 4526-4536, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128447

RESUMO

There are thousands of lipid species existing in cells, which belong to eight different categories. Lipids are the essential building blocks of cells. Recent studies have started to unveil the important functions of lipids in regulating cell metabolism. However, we are still at a very early stage in fully understanding the physiological and pathological functions of lipids. The application of lipidomics for studying lipid metabolism can provide a direct readout of the cellular status and broadens our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin metabolic disease states. This review provides an introduction to lipid metabolism and its role in modulating homeostasis and immunity. We also describe representative applications of lipidomics for studying lipid metabolism in inflammation-related diseases.

15.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 6(10): 1220-1233, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131377

RESUMO

Gliomas, the most common primary neoplasms in the brain, are notorious for their ability to evade the immune response. Despite microglial infiltration in gliomas, expression of MHC class II molecules in those microglia is compromised. Here, we report that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation downregulated expression of MHC class II molecules in microglia in an orthotopic murine glioma model. TLR2-induced microglial impairment hindered the proliferation and activation of CD4+ T cells, which facilitated glioma immune evasion. TLR2-induced downregulation of MHC class II molecules was caused by suppression of the master regulator of MHC class II molecule transcription, Ciita TLR2 activation triggered downstream MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling and loss of histone H3 acetylation at Ciita promoters, which in turn inhibited Ciita expression. In glioblastoma tissues, various endogenous TLR2 ligands, including the heat shock proteins that are endogenous TLR2 ligands, were upregulated, a response that correlated with CIITA inhibition. Thus, TLR2 promotes glioma immune-system evasion. These results advance our understanding of microglia as antigen-presenting cells in the context of glioma. In the glioma tumor microenvironment, TLR2 activation of microglia induces downregulation of microglial MHC class II expression. Impaired MHC class II expression limits T-cell-dependent antitumor immunity. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(10); 1220-33. ©2018 AACR.

16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(11): 1777-1788, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159779

RESUMO

Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is a promising approach for active-specific immunotherapy, but is currently of limited efficacy. The safety and effectiveness of a DC vaccine (DCV) loaded with glioblastoma stem cell-like (GSC) antigens was assessed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial, 43 GBM patients were randomized after surgery at a 1:1 ratio to receive either DCV (n = 22) or normal saline placebo (n = 21). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analysed. Participants were stratified into different molecular subgroups based on the mutation (MT) status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Plasma cytokine levels, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte numbers and immune co-inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and B7-H4 were also assessed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.02) after adjusting for IDH1 and TERT promoter MT and B7-H4 expression, primary vs recurrent GBM. Among IDH1wild type (WT) TERTMT patients, DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p < 0.01) and PFS (p = 0.03) and increased plasma levels of cytokines CCL22 and IFN-γ compared with placebo. Patients with low B7-H4 expression showed significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.02) after DCV treatment. Therefore, IDH1WTTERTMT and low B7-H4 expression identified subgroups of GBM patients more responsive to GSC DCV-based specific active-immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Inibidor 1 da Ativação de Células T com Domínio V-Set/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Telomerase/genética , Inibidor 1 da Ativação de Células T com Domínio V-Set/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Med ; 215(9): 2397-2412, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021797

RESUMO

Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily mediated by Th2 immune mechanisms. Numerous studies have suggested that early life exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is negatively associated with allergic asthma. One proposed mechanism invokes desensitization of lung epithelial cells by LPS. We report here that acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), a host lipase that degrades and inactivates LPS, renders mice more susceptible to house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. Lung epithelial cells from Aoah-/- mice are refractory to HDM stimulation, decreasing dendritic cell activation and Th2 responses. Antibiotic treatment that diminished commensal LPS-producing bacteria normalized Aoah-/- responses to HDM, while giving LPS intrarectally ameliorated asthma. Aoah-/- mouse feces, plasma, and lungs contained more bioactive LPS than did those of Aoah+/+ mice. By inactivating commensal LPS, AOAH thus prevents desensitization of lung epithelial cells. An enzyme that prevents severe lung inflammation/injury in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia has the seemingly paradoxical effect of predisposing to a Th2-mediated airway disease.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(8): 781, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013101

RESUMO

Bax is a key molecule in mitochondria-apoptosis pathway, however it is not always an efficient apoptosis inducer in chemotherapeutic agents-treated cancer cells. Here, we found that specific inhibition of AURKA by MLN8237-induced calpain-mediated Bax cleavage at N-terminal 33th asparagine (c-Bax) to promote apoptosis. The c-Bax, as Bax, could also efficiently located to mitochondria but c-Bax is a stronger apoptosis inducer than Bax. Morever, c-Bax-induced apoptosis could not be blocked by the canonical Bax inhibitor, Bcl-2. Further study found p27 was degraded and subsequently Bax was transformed to c-Bax through calpain. Also, p27 efficiently inhibited Bax cleavage and p27 knockdown sensitized apoptosis through Bax cleavage when cancer cells were treated with MLN8237. It is also demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic role of p27 lies its cytoplasmic localization. Finally, we found that the positive correlation between AURKA and p27 in advanced gastric cancer patients. In conclusion, we found that MNL8237 suppressed cell growth by regulating calpain-dependent Bax cleavage and p27 dysregulation in gastric cancer cells.

19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(9): 1355-1364, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968153

RESUMO

Immune cell activation occurs concurrently with metabolic reprogramming. As important components of the tumor microenvironment, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) are featured by their potent immunosuppressive abilities on anti-tumor effector cells. However, little is known about the contribution of metabolic adaptations to their suppressive roles. In this study, we found that tumor-infiltrating M-MDSCs had the same phenotype with splenic M-MDSCs. Compared with splenic M-MDSCs, tumor-infiltrating M-MDSCs exhibited stronger suppressive activities which was accompanied by higher glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis impaired the suppressive function of tumor M-MDSCs. Meanwhile, the results demonstrated that mTOR was responsible for this function regulation. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin decreased the glycolysis and reduced the suppressive activities of these cells. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment inhibited the tumor growth and reduced the percentage of M-MDSCs in 3LL tumor bearing mice. These results demonstrated that modulation of metabolism in immune cells can be an effective way to enhance anti-tumor effects.


Assuntos
Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Supressoras Mieloides/patologia , Fosforilação , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Immunology ; 155(3): 356-366, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969845

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. In Peyer's patches (PPs), which comprise the most important IgA induction site in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, Treg cells promote IgA isotype switching. However, the mechanisms underlying their entry into PPs and isotype switching facilitation in activated B cells remain unknown. This study, based on the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, revealed that Treg cells are significantly increased in PPs, along with CD11b+ B-cell induction. Immunofluorescence staining showed that infiltrated Treg cells were located around CD11b+ B cells and produced transforming growth factor-ß, thereby inducing IgA+ B cells. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that CD11b+ B cells in PPs had the capacity to recruit Treg cells into PPs rather than promoting their proliferation. Finally, we found that Treg cell recruitment was mediated by the chemokine CXCL9 derived from CD11b+ B cells in PPs. These findings demonstrate that CD11b+ B cells induced in PPs during colitis actively recruit Treg cells to accomplish IgA isotype switch in a CXCL9-dependent manner.

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