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1.
Allergy ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical management of shrimp allergy is hampered by the lack of accurate tests. Molecular diagnosis has been shown to more accurately reflect clinical reactivity but the full spectrum of shrimp allergens and their clinical relevance are yet to be established. We therefore sought to comprehend the allergen repertoire of shrimp, investigate and compare the sensitization pattern and diagnostic value of the allergens in allergic subjects of two distinct populations. METHODS: Sera were collected from 85 subjects with challenge-proven or doctor-diagnosed shrimp allergy in Hong Kong and Thailand. The IgE-binding proteins of Penaeus monodon were probed by western blotting and identified by mass spectrometry. Recombinant shrimp allergens were synthesized and analyzed for IgE sensitization by ELISA. RESULTS: Ten IgE-binding proteins were identified and a comprehensive panel of 11 recombinant shrimp allergens was generated. The major shrimp allergens among Hong Kong subjects were troponin C (Pen m 6) and glycogen phosphorylase (Pen m 14, 47.1%), tropomyosin (Pen m 1, 41.2%) and sarcoplasmic-calcium binding protein (Pen m 4, 35.3%), while those among Thai subjects were Pen m 1 (68.8%), Pen m 6 (50.0%) and fatty acid-binding protein (Pen m 13, 37.5%). Component-based tests yielded significantly higher area under curve values (0.77-0.96) than shrimp extract-IgE test (0.70-0.75). Yet the best component test differed between populations; Pen m 1-IgE test added diagnostic value only in the Thai cohort, whereas sensitizations to other components were better predictors of shrimp allergy in Hong Kong patients. CONCLUSION: Pen m 14 was identified as a novel shrimp allergen predictive of challenge outcome. Molecular diagnosis better predicts shrimp allergy than conventional tests, but the relevant component is population dependent.

2.
Nutr Rev ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442446

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Effect size estimates for the association between vitamin D concentrations in maternal blood during pregnancy and in cord blood vary widely across studies, but no meta-analysis has been conducted to ascertain this association. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the pooled effect size for the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations, a marker of vitamin D status, in maternal blood during pregnancy and in cord blood. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception to February 2021. DATA EXTRACTION: Following the application of prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 94 articles were eligible for full-text review, which was conducted by 2 authors independently. A third author was consulted when necessary and consensus reached. In total, 26 articles, which comprised 30 studies and 6212 mother-infant dyads, were included. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified version of the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Correlation coefficient (r) values for the association between maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations during pregnancy and in cord blood were extracted. DATA ANALYSIS: The r values were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate sources of heterogeneity. The pooled r for all studies was 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.79), indicating high heterogeneity (I2 = 95%, P < 0.01). After influential and outlier studies were removed, the pooled r for 9 studies was 0.70 (95%CI, 0.66-0.74), which resulted in a substantial reduction in heterogeneity (I2 = 41%, P=0.10). CONCLUSION: The findings support a positive and large correlation between maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and vitamin D concentrations in cord blood. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021273348.

3.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(2): dlac036, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449720

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly important issue in public health as antibiotics are overused. Resistance to antimicrobial agents can pose significant challenges to infection treatment. Objectives: To evaluate risk factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in children in the Asia-Pacific region to consolidate evidence for future implementation of antibiotic prescribing practice. Methods: Three electronic databases-PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library-were searched. Observational studies that investigated the risk factors for carriage of MRSA, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among the paediatric population in community settings in the Asia-Pacific region were considered eligible. Summary statistics from the identified studies were pooled using meta-analyses. Results: From the 4145 search results, 25 papers were included in this review. Sixteen papers were included in the meta-analysis based on reported risk factors. Young age of 2-6 months compared with children aged 7-60 months (OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.75-4.29), antibiotic use within the past 3 months (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.70-4.12), daycare attendance (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17-1.91) and hospital admission within the past 3 months (OR 3.43, 95% CI: 2.13-5.51) were found to be significant risk factors for AMR bacterial carriage, whilst breastfeeding (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-0.81) and concurrent colonization of S. pneumoniae (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.91) are protective factors. Conclusions: The findings support that there are a number of significant risk factors associated with carriage of AMR bacteria in the Asia-Pacific paediatric population. To combat antimicrobial resistance in the future, these risk factors should be considered, and measures taken to mitigate associated carriage.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475949

RESUMO

Ethnic minorities account for 8% of the Hong Kong population, most are Filipino and Indonesian domestic helpers taking care of children and the elderly. To understand the COVID-19 vaccination rates and factors associated with vaccine acceptance of ethnic minorities, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study recruiting Hong Kong ethnic minorities aged ≥18 years between 1 July and 18 July 2021 in public areas. Demographics, knowledge about COVID-19, vaccination status, intention and reasons to receive the vaccine, and planning to be re-vaccinated were analyzed. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using unpaired t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Potential confounders were adjusted using multiple logistic regression. 2,012 ethnic minorities participated, with a mean age of 39 years, of which 97.6% were female, 79.5% were Filipino, and 17.5% were Indonesian. 80.6% of participants were categorized as vaccine acceptance, and 69.2% were willing to be re-vaccinated. There were significantly more Filipinos than Indonesians in the vaccine acceptance group (p < .001). Subjects in the vaccine acceptance group were more likely to have higher education (p < .001), a higher COVID-19 knowledge score (p < .001), received information from the Government website (p = .003) and not from their friends or family members (p = .02), and were more confident in judging the accuracy of the information (p < .001). Logistic regression showed the mean knowledge score (ß = 3.07, p < .001) and receiving information from official Government websites (adjusted OR = 1.37, p = .03) were significant factors that positively influenced vaccine acceptance. The Hong Kong Government should improve COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among ethnic minorities through public education using official channels.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.2 sublineage has increased rapidly in Europe and Asia since January 2022. Here, we report the epidemiological and genomic analysis of a large single source BA.2 outbreak in a housing estate. METHODS: We analyzed the epidemiological information of a community outbreak of BA.2 (STY outbreak). We performed whole viral genome sequencing using the Oxford Nanopore MinION device. We calculated the doubling time of the outbreak within a housing estate. RESULTS: The STY outbreak involved a total of 768 individuals as of 5 th February 2022, including 432 residents, visitors or staff (56.3%) from a single housing estate (KC Estate). The outbreak at the KC Estate has a short doubling time of 1.28 days (95% confidence interval: 0.560-1.935). The outbreak was promptly controlled with the lockdown of 3 buildings within the housing estate. Whole genome sequencing was performed for 133 patients in the STY outbreak, including 106 residents of the KC Estate. All 133 sequences from the STY outbreak belonged to the BA.2 sublineage, and phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences cluster together. All individuals in the STY cluster had the unique mutation C12525T. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the exceptionally high transmissibility of the Omicron variant BA.2 sublineage in Hong Kong where stringent measures are implemented as part of the elimination strategy. Continual genomic surveillance is crucial in monitoring the emergence of epidemiologically important Omicron sub-variants.

6.
Data Brief ; 42: 108069, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341029

RESUMO

To our best knowledge, this article presents a novel data set on Hong Kong's adolescents' attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination, excluding their parental opinions. This research used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, which collects data from the population at a single point in time. Our questionnaire was designed in both English and Chinese for the adolescents' convenience, using a self-designed, online questionnaire website, which was sent to 30 secondary schools across Hong Kong at the beginning of June 2021, to be completed by 31st June 2021. This gathered a total of 2609 surveys, excluding those which did not fit into the criteria. As the data has identified factors that affect vaccine hesitancy, government authorities can use the data to choose effective ways to promote the COVID-19 vaccination and to educate the general population about the benefits of receiving it.

7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 885-893, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254219

RESUMO

Accruing evidence suggests an increased risk of myocarditis in adolescents from messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccines. However, other potential adverse events remain under-researched. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adolescents aged 12-18 with a territory-wide electronic healthcare database of the Hong Kong population linked with population-based vaccination records and supplemented with age- and sex-specific population numbers. Two age- and sex-matched retrospective cohorts were formed to observe 28 days following the first and second doses of BNT162b2 and estimate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios between the vaccinated and unvaccinated. Thirty AESIs adapted from the World Health Organization's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety were examined. Eventually, the first-dose cohort comprised 274,881 adolescents (50.25% received the first dose) and the second-dose cohort 237,964 (50.29% received the second dose). Ninety-four (34.2 per 100,000 persons) adolescents in the first-dose cohort and 130 (54.6 per 100,000 persons) in the second-dose cohort experienced ≥1 AESIs. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk of any AESI associated with BNT162b2 except myocarditis [first-dose cohort: incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 9.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-73.16; second-dose cohort: IRR = 29.61, 95% CI 4.04-217.07] and sleeping disturbances/disorders after the second dose (IRR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.24). Sensitivity analysis showed that, with myocarditis excluded as AESIs, no significantly elevated risk of AESIs as a composite outcome associated with vaccination was observed (P = 0.195). To conclude, the overall absolute risk of AESIs was low with no evidence of an increased risk of AESIs except myocarditis and sleeping disturbances/disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 543-547, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084295

RESUMO

The novel SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant may increase the risk of re-infection and vaccine breakthrough infections as it possesses key mutations in the spike protein that affect neutralizing antibody response. Most studies on neutralization susceptibility were conducted using specimens from adult COVID-19 patients or vaccine recipients. However, since the paediatric population has an antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection that is distinct from the adult population, it is critical to assess the neutralization susceptibility of pediatric serum specimens. This study compared the neutralization susceptibility of serum specimens collected from 49 individuals of <18 years old, including 34 adolescent BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine recipients, and 15 recovered COVID-19 patients aged between 2 and 17. We demonstrated that only 38.2% of BNT162b2 vaccine recipients and 26.7% of recovered COVID-19 patients had their serum neutralization titre at or above the detection threshold in our live virus microneutralization assay. Furthermore, the neutralizing antibody titer against the Omicron variant was substantially lower than those against the ancestral virus or the Beta variant. Our results suggest that vaccine recipients and COVID-19 patients in the pediatric age group will likely be more susceptible to vaccine breakthrough infections or reinfections due to the Omicron variant than previous variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
10.
Child Abuse Negl ; : 105457, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic with risk of poor mental wellbeing and child maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children with SEN and their maltreatment risk. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 417 children with SEN studying at special schools and 25,427 children with typical development (TD) studying at mainstream schools completed an online survey in April 2020 in Hong Kong during school closures due to COVID-19. METHOD: Emotional/behavioural difficulties, quality of life and parental stress of children with SEN were compared with typically developed children using mixed effect model. Linear regression analyses were performed to explore factors associated with child emotional/behavioural difficulties and parental stress during the pandemic. Chi-square test was performed to detect the differences in maltreatment risk before and during COVID-19. RESULTS: Children with SEN had significantly poorer overall quality of life (68.05 vs 80.65, p < 0.01). 23.5% of children had at least one episode of severe physical assault and 1.9% experienced very severe physical assault during COVID-19. Rates of physical assault increased significantly (59.8% vs. 71.2% p < 0.001) while children with mental disorders had increased risk of severe physical assault comparing to those without mental disorders (RR = 1.58, ꭓ2 = 5.19 p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Children with SEN had poorer mental health than typically developed children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Maltreatment risk for children with SEN is higher in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. Surveillance of child maltreatment, continuity of medical and rehabilitation care to support children with SEN are essential during a disease pandemic.

11.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018079

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests an association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic disorders, but little work has been done to explore the role of external factors such as parental smoking at home in the development of comorbid ADHD and allergic disorders. This study aimed to examine the association between allergic diseases and ADHD adjusted for exposure to parental smoking at home in early adolescents. We recruited 250 male (41.7%) and 350 female (58.3%) adolescents (mean [SD] age, 13.29 [0.52] years) via chain-referral sampling. Their ADHD symptoms were assessed by the parent proxy-report version of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviours (SWAN) rating scale. Data on the participants' history of clinician-diagnosed allergic diseases, family socio-demographics, and parental smoking habit were collected using a parent-completed questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of interest. The levels of ADHD symptoms were comparable between allergic and non-allergic participants after controlling for child and family demographics and parental smoking at home. Notably, the risk of probable ADHD was particularly high in participants with food allergies (odd ratio = 4.51, p = 0.011) but not in those with allergic rhinitis after adjusting for parental smoking at home. Our findings suggest that second-hand smoke exposure at home is a potential risk factor underlying the link between ADHD and allergic diseases. Current management guidelines should emphasize the importance of early identification and cessation of tobacco smoke exposure for prevention of comorbidity of ADHD and allergic disorders. Clinical Trial Registration (if any): NA.

12.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(1): 161-176, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound impact on the health and development of children worldwide. There is limited evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and its related school closures and disease-containment measures on the psychosocial wellbeing of children; little research has been done on the characteristics of vulnerable groups and factors that promote resilience. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional population study of Hong Kong families with children aged 2-12 years. Parents completed an online survey on family demographics, child psychosocial wellbeing, functioning and lifestyle habits, parent-child interactions, and parental stress during school closures due to COVID-19. We used simple and multiple linear regression analyses to explore factors associated with child psychosocial problems and parental stress during the pandemic. RESULTS: The study included 29,202 individual families; of which 12,163 had children aged 2-5 years and 17,029 had children aged 6-12 years. The risk of child psychosocial problems was higher in children with special educational needs, and/or acute or chronic disease, mothers with mental illness, single-parent families, and low-income families. Delayed bedtime and/or inadequate sleep or exercise duration, extended use of electronic devices were associated with significantly higher parental stress and more psychosocial problems among pre-schoolers. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies vulnerable groups of children and highlights the importance of strengthening family coherence, adequate sleep and exercise, and responsible use of electronic devices in promoting psychosocial wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pais , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(1): e13685, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is a significant health burden in most Western countries, but there are little published data on the incidence and pattern of anaphylaxis in Asia. We aim to determine the incidence rate and pattern of anaphylaxis over the past decade among the pediatric population in Hong Kong. METHODS: Medical records of patients presenting with allergy-related symptoms during the period 2010 to 2019 were examined. Pediatric patients aged below 18 years who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for anaphylaxis laid out by the NIAID/FAAN were analyzed. Incidence rates were calculated using population statistics as the denominator. All information pertaining to the anaphylaxis events and patients' characteristics was retrieved using standardized data collection forms. RESULTS: The overall 10-year estimated incidence of anaphylaxis was 9.76 per 100,000 person-years, with a rising trend of anaphylaxis incidence across time. Food-induced anaphylaxis accounted for the majority of hospital presentations, of which peanut and shellfish were the top food triggers in our population. Majority of anaphylaxis episodes were of Grade 4 severity, and young age was a significant predictor of severe allergic reactions. Half of the anaphylaxis episodes were misdiagnosed and adrenaline was only utilized in 42.2% of cases, of which 9.4% were administered adrenaline prior to hospital arrival. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing trend of anaphylaxis incidence over the past decade is evident in Hong Kong children, with a discrepantly low accuracy in diagnosis and suboptimal management of anaphylaxis. There is a pressing need to heighten public and physicians' awareness of the distinctive features of anaphylaxis in the pediatric age-group.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Idoso , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Criança , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Alimentos Marinhos
14.
Int J Dermatol ; 61(2): 184-190, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HLA-B*15:11 is associated with carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) in Japanese and some Asian populations, but such data remains relatively limited in Chinese. Routine HLA-B*15:02 screening is mandatory before CBZ commencement, however, SCARs related to CBZ were still observed in non-HLA*B-15:02 carriers. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to find out the prevalence of HLA-B*15:11 in Chinese patients and its associations with CBZ-induced SCARs. METHOD: We screened 8,328 blood samples collected for HLA allele typing before CBZ commencement during the period of January 2014 to December 2019. In HLA-B*15:02 negative Chinese patients, HLA-B*15:11 status were further screened, and the incidence of SCARs in the CBZ group was compared with the control group without CBZ use. RESULT: In this cohort, 1416 out of 8328 patients (17%) tested HLA-B*15:02 positive and were advised to avoid CBZ, while 80 (0.96%) were found to be HLA-B*15:11 positive. In 6911 (83%) patients who tested HLA-B*15:02 negative, 70 (1.01%) were HLA-B*15:11 positive. Five out of 70 (7.14%) patients had SCARs. The incidence of SCARs in HLA-B*15:11 carriers who received CBZ was significantly higher than those without CBZ (17.4% [4/23] vs. 2.13% [1/47], P = 0.037*). The odds ratio was 9.68 (95% CI 1.02-92.4, P = 0.048*). These included: one Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), two DRESS, and one MPE after CBZ use, while one developed MPE after phenytoin use in control. CONCLUSION: HLA-B*15:11 is a potential risk factor of CBZ-induced SCARs in HLA-B*15:02 negative Chinese patients. Further screening of HLA-B*15:11 status in those HLA-B*15:02 negative patients is recommended to avoid undesirable SCARs.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Carbamazepina , China , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígeno HLA-B15/genética , Humanos
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 406-415, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe, delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR). We observed DRESS to inhibitors of interleukin 1 (IL-1) or IL-6 in a small group of patients with Still's disease with atypical lung disease. We sought to characterise features of patients with Still's disease with DRESS compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls. We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for association to inhibitor-related DHR, including in a small Kawasaki disease (KD) cohort. METHODS: In a case/control study, we collected a multicentre series of patients with Still's disease with features of inhibitor-related DRESS (n=66) and drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=65). We retrospectively analysed clinical data from all Still's subjects and typed 94/131 for HLA. European Still's-DRESS cases were ancestry matched to International Childhood Arthritis Genetics Consortium paediatric Still's cases (n=550) and compared for HLA allele frequencies. HLA association also was analysed using Still's-DRESS cases (n=64) compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=30). KD subjects (n=19) were similarly studied. RESULTS: Still's-DRESS features included eosinophilia (89%), AST-ALT elevation (75%) and non-evanescent rash (95%; 88% involving face). Macrophage activation syndrome during treatment was frequent in Still's-DRESS (64%) versus drug-tolerant Still's (3%; p=1.2×10-14). We found striking enrichment for HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes in Still's-DRESS cases versus INCHARGE Still's controls (p=7.5×10-13) and versus self-identified, ancestry-matched Still's controls (p=6.3×10-10). In the KD cohort, DRB1*15:01 was present only in those with suspected anakinra reactions. CONCLUSIONS: DRESS-type reactions occur among patients treated with IL-1/IL-6 inhibitors and strongly associate with common HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes. Consideration of preprescription HLA typing and vigilance for serious reactions to these drugs are warranted.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/genética , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/genética , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/imunologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/imunologia
16.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 794110, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498795

RESUMO

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is an inborn error of immunity (IEI) with severe immune dysregulation caused by a mutation in the SH2D1A gene resulting in the absence or dysfunction of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-coronavirus (CoV), a highly pathogenic CoV, has been shown to only cause mild diseases in Asian children. We report on a 5-year-old Nepalese boy with agammaglobulinemia and probable SARS who died of diffuse alveolar damage 22 days after admission amid the SARS outbreak. The index patient and his younger brother were genetically confirmed to have XLP1. In the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, most children also had mild disease only. Children with severe COVID-19 would warrant investigations for underlying IEI, particularly along the pathways leading to immune dysregulation.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-specific incidence of acute myocarditis/pericarditis in adolescents following Comirnaty vaccination in Asia is lacking. This study aimed to study the clinical characteristics and incidence of acute myocarditis/pericarditis among Hong Kong adolescents following Comirnaty vaccination. METHODS: This is a population cohort study in Hong Kong that monitored adverse events following immunization through a pharmacovigilance system for COVID-19 vaccines. All adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years following Comirnaty vaccination were monitored under the COVID-19 vaccine Adverse Event Response and Evaluation Programme. The clinical characteristics and overall incidence of acute myocarditis/pericarditis in adolescents following Comirnaty vaccination were analysed. RESULTS: Between 14 June 2021 and 4 September 2021, 33 Chinese adolescents who developed acute myocarditis/pericarditis following Comirnaty vaccination were identified. 29 (87.88%) were males and 4 (12.12%) were females, with a median age of 15.25 years. 27 (81.82%) and 6 (18.18%) cases developed acute myocarditis/pericarditis after receiving the second and first dose, respectively. All cases are mild and required only conservative management.The overall incidence of acute myocarditis/pericarditis was 18.52 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 11.67-29.01) per 100,000 persons vaccinated. The incidence after the first and second doses were 3.37 (95%CI 1.12-9.51) and 21.22 (95%CI 13.78-32.28 per 100,000 persons vaccinated, respectively. Among male adolescents, the incidence after the first and second doses were 5.57 (95% CI 2.38-12.53) and 37.32 (95% CI 26.98-51.25) per 100,000 persons vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant increase in the risk of acute myocarditis/pericarditis following Comirnaty vaccination among Chinese male adolescents, especially after the second dose.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139543, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913975

RESUMO

Importance: Stunting was used as a proxy for underdevelopment in early childhood in previous studies, but the associations between child development and other growth and body composition parameters were rarely studied. Objective: To estimate the association between malnutrition and early child development (ECD) at an individual level. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, cross-sectional study used data from the East Asia Pacific Early Child Development Scales, a population-representative survey of children aged 3 to 5 years old, conducted in 2012 to 2014 in communities in Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, and Vanuatu. Data analysis was performed from November 2019 to April 2021. Exposures: Stunting (height-for-age [HFA] z score less than -2), wasting (weight-for-height z score less than -2), overweight (weight-for-height z score greater than 2), body mass index (BMI)-for-age z score, and body fat proportion based on existing growth standard and formula. Main Outcomes and Measures: ECD directly assessed using the validated East Asia-Pacific ECD Scales. Results: A total of 7108 children (3547 girls; mean [SD], age 4.48 [0.84] years) were included in this study. The prevalence of stunting was 27.1% (range across countries, 1.2%-55.0%), that of wasting was 13.7% (range, 5.4%-35.9%), and that of overweight was 15.9% (range, 2.2%-53.7%). Adjusted for country variations, age, sex, urbanicity, family socioeconomic status, and body fat proportion, ECD was linearly associated with HFA (ß, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.80) and BMI-for-age (ß, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.82). After adjustment for BMI and height, better ECD was associated with low body fat proportion (ß, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.45-1.42). The association of HFA was more pronounced in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region than in East Asia, and the association of fat proportion was specific to children living in urban environments. Conclusions and Relevance: HFA, BMI-for-age, and body fat proportion were independently associated with ECD, and these findings suggest that future studies should consider using these parameters to estimate the prevalence of child underdevelopment; nutritional trials should examine to what extent the associations are causal.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camboja/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/epidemiologia , Vanuatu/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 599408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744564

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to identify key factors affecting Healthcare workers (HCWs) perceived stress and risk of contracting COVID-19 among themselves and their family members during the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted between 19 March and April 5, 2020 in Hong Kong. HCWs from public hospitals and private dentists, and their family members participated. Results: A total of 747 HCWs and 245 family members participated. Higher perceived stress in HCWs was associated with more negative changes in family relationship (p = 0.025). The HCWs' perceived stress, however, was positively associated with family cohesion (p = 0.033) and stress levels of family members (p < 0.001). The level of HCWs' satisfaction toward the hospital policies in response to the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with lower levels of perceived stress and risk of themselves or their family members contracting COVID-19. HCWs' previous frontline experience of SARS was significantly associated with less perceived risk of themselves or their family members contracting COVID-19. Conclusion: Hospital policies addressing HCWs' needs, frontline experience of SARS, and family relationship influenced psychological wellbeing of HCWs during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Medição de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764957

RESUMO

Human complement C4 is one of the most diverse but heritable effectors for humoral immunity. To help understand the roles of C4 in the defense and pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, we determined the bases of polymorphisms including the frequent genetic deficiency of C4A and/or C4B isotypes. We demonstrated the diversities of C4A and C4B proteins and their gene copy number variations (CNVs) in healthy subjects and patients with autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and encephalitis. We identified subjects with (a) the fastest migrating C4B allotype, B7, or (b) a deficiency of C4B protein caused by genetic mutation in addition to gene copy-number variation. Those variants and mutants were characterized, sequenced and specific techniques for detection developed. Novel findings were made in four case series. First, the amino acid sequence determinant for C4B7 was likely the R729Q variation at the anaphylatoxin-like region. Second, in healthy White subject MS630, a C-nucleotide deletion at codon-755 led to frameshift mutations in his single C4B gene, which was a private mutation. Third, in European family E94 with multiplex lupus-related mortality and low serum C4 levels, the culprit was a recurrent haplotype with HLA-A30, B18 and DR7 that segregated with two defective C4B genes and identical mutations at the donor splice site of intron-28. Fourth, in East-Asian subject E133P with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, the C4B gene had a mutation that changed tryptophan-660 to a stop-codon (W660x), which was present in a haplotype with HLA-DRB1*04:06 and B*15:27. The W660x mutation is recurrent among East-Asians with a frequency of 1.5% but not detectable among patients with SLE. A meticulous annotation of C4 sequences revealed clusters of variations proximal to sites for protein processing, activation and inactivation, and binding of interacting molecules.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Complemento C4b/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Dosagem de Genes , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Mutação , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/etnologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C4a/deficiência , Complemento C4a/genética , Complemento C4a/imunologia , Complemento C4b/deficiência , Complemento C4b/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
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