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2.
Nat Med ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591588

RESUMO

Oncogenesis is driven by germline, environmental and stochastic factors. It is unknown how these interact to produce the molecular phenotypes of tumors. We therefore quantified the influence of germline polymorphisms on the somatic epigenome of 589 localized prostate tumors. Predisposition risk loci influence a tumor's epigenome, uncovering a mechanism for cancer susceptibility. We identified and validated 1,178 loci associated with altered methylation in tumoral but not nonmalignant tissue. These tumor methylation quantitative trait loci influence chromatin structure, as well as RNA and protein abundance. One prominent tumor methylation quantitative trait locus is associated with AKT1 expression and is predictive of relapse after definitive local therapy in both discovery and validation cohorts. These data reveal intricate crosstalk between the germ line and the epigenome of primary tumors, which may help identify germline biomarkers of aggressive disease to aid patient triage and optimize the use of more invasive or expensive diagnostic assays.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4586, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594932

RESUMO

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are the preferred choice for deep-tissue photoactivation, owing to their unique capability of converting deep tissue-penetrating near-infrared light to UV/visible light for photoactivation. Programmed photoactivation of multiple molecules is critical for controlling many biological processes. However, syntheses of such UCNPs require epitaxial growth of multiple shells on the core nanocrystals and are highly complex/time-consuming. To overcome this bottleneck, we have modularly assembled two distinct UCNPs which can individually be excited by 980/808 nm light, but not both. These orthogonal photoactivable UCNPs superballs are used for programmed photoactivation of multiple therapeutic processes for enhanced efficacy. These include sequential activation of endosomal escape through photochemical-internalization for enhanced cellular uptake, followed by photocontrolled gene knockdown of superoxide dismutase-1 to increase sensitivity to reactive oxygen species and finally, photodynamic therapy under these favorable conditions. Such programmed activation translated to significantly higher therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo in comparison to conventional, non-programmed activation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3941, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477699

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies have the utility for detecting minimal residual disease in several cancer types. Here, we investigate if liquid biopsy tracking on-treatment informs on tumour phenotypes by longitudinally quantifying circulating Epstein-barr virus (EBV) DNA copy number in 673 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients undergoing radical induction chemotherapy (IC) and chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). We observe significant inter-patient heterogeneity in viral copy number clearance that is classifiable into eight distinct patterns based on clearance kinetics and bounce occurrence, including a substantial proportion of complete responders (≈30%) to only one IC cycle. Using a supervised statistical clustering of disease relapse risks, we further bin these eight subgroups into four prognostic phenotypes (early responders, intermediate responders, late responders, and treatment resistant) that are correlated with efficacy of chemotherapy intensity. Taken together, we show that real-time monitoring of liquid biopsy response adds prognostic information, and has the potential utility for risk-adapted treatment de-intensification/intensification in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 367-374, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is characteristic in head and neck cancers and is associated with tumour regrowth following photodynamic therapy (PDT). PURPOSE: We investigated vandetanib, which selectively blocks EGFR and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), to enhance the efficacy of PDT. METHODS: We assessed the in vitro therapeutic efficacy of: 1) vandetanib; 2) PDT with the photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Fotolon®); and 3) combined PDT + vadetanib treatment in CAL-27 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line by cell viability, γH2AX foci immunostaining, cell cycle arrest and western blot. We also performed in vivo tumour regression study and immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) regressed and regrown tumour tissues. RESULTS: First, we observed significantly higher cytotoxicity and residual DNA damage in vandetanib + PDT-treated CAL-27 OSCC cells than tumour cells treated with PDT alone. This is due to impaired DNA DSB repair caused by downregulation of EGFR-mediated DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activation. Next, combined vandetanib and PDT resulted in significant tumour growth delay in vivo that is linked to reduction of PDT-induced EGFR phosphorylation and cellular proliferation, along with loss of tumour vasculature. In particular, we observed significant revascularisation of the microenvironment that is associated with upregulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in regrown tumours post-vandetanib + PDT, thereby corroborating the importance of microenvironmental modification for the observed drug-PDT synergistic interaction. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data suggests that vandetanib enhances the efficacy of PDT through both direct and indirect effects on the cellular DNA repair machinery and tumour microenvironment, respectively.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1124-1135, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Additional gemcitabine and cisplatin induction chemotherapy has shown promising efficacy in phase 2 trials. METHODS: In a parallel-group, multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial, we compared gemcitabine and cisplatin as induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine (at a dose of 1 g per square meter of body-surface area on days 1 and 8) plus cisplatin (80 mg per square meter on day 1), administered every 3 weeks for three cycles, plus chemoradiotherapy (concurrent cisplatin at a dose of 100 mg per square meter every 3 weeks for three cycles plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy) or chemoradiotherapy alone. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (i.e., freedom from disease recurrence [distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence] or death from any cause) in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary end points included overall survival, treatment adherence, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients were included in the trial (242 patients in the induction chemotherapy group and 238 in the standard-therapy group). At a median follow-up of 42.7 months, the 3-year recurrence-free survival was 85.3% in the induction chemotherapy group and 76.5% in the standard-therapy group (stratified hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Overall survival at 3 years was 94.6% and 90.3%, respectively (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.77). A total of 96.7% of the patients completed three cycles of induction chemotherapy. The incidence of acute adverse events of grade 3 or 4 was 75.7% in the induction chemotherapy group and 55.7% in the standard-therapy group, with a higher incidence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, and vomiting in the induction chemotherapy group. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxic effects was 9.2% in the induction chemotherapy group and 11.4% in the standard-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Induction chemotherapy added to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved recurrence-free survival and overall survival, as compared with chemoradiotherapy alone, among patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (Funded by the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01872962.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
9.
Radiology ; 291(3): 677-686, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912722

RESUMO

Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be cured with radiation therapy. Tumor proximity to critical structures demands accuracy in tumor delineation to avoid toxicities from radiation therapy; however, tumor target contouring for head and neck radiation therapy is labor intensive and highly variable among radiation oncologists. Purpose To construct and validate an artificial intelligence (AI) contouring tool to automate primary gross tumor volume (GTV) contouring in patients with NPC. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, MRI data sets covering the nasopharynx from 1021 patients (median age, 47 years; 751 male, 270 female) with NPC between September 2016 and September 2017 were collected and divided into training, validation, and testing cohorts of 715, 103, and 203 patients, respectively. GTV contours were delineated for 1021 patients and were defined by consensus of two experts. A three-dimensional convolutional neural network was applied to 818 training and validation MRI data sets to construct the AI tool, which was tested in 203 independent MRI data sets. Next, the AI tool was compared against eight qualified radiation oncologists in a multicenter evaluation by using a random sample of 20 test MRI examinations. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to compare the difference of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of pre- versus post-AI assistance. Results The AI-generated contours demonstrated a high level of accuracy when compared with ground truth contours at testing in 203 patients (DSC, 0.79; 2.0-mm difference in average surface distance). In multicenter evaluation, AI assistance improved contouring accuracy (five of eight oncologists had a higher median DSC after AI assistance; average median DSC, 0.74 vs 0.78; P < .001), reduced intra- and interobserver variation (by 36.4% and 54.5%, respectively), and reduced contouring time (by 39.4%). Conclusion The AI contouring tool improved primary gross tumor contouring accuracy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which could have a positive impact on tumor control and patient survival. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Chang in this issue.

10.
Cell ; 176(4): 831-843.e22, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735634

RESUMO

The cancer transcriptome is remarkably complex, including low-abundance transcripts, many not polyadenylated. To fully characterize the transcriptome of localized prostate cancer, we performed ultra-deep total RNA-seq on 144 tumors with rich clinical annotation. This revealed a linear transcriptomic subtype associated with the aggressive intraductal carcinoma sub-histology and a fusion profile that differentiates localized from metastatic disease. Analysis of back-splicing events showed widespread RNA circularization, with the average tumor expressing 7,232 circular RNAs (circRNAs). The degree of circRNA production was correlated to disease progression in multiple patient cohorts. Loss-of-function screening identified 11.3% of highly abundant circRNAs as essential for cell proliferation; for ∼90% of these, their parental linear transcripts were not essential. Individual circRNAs can have distinct functions, with circCSNK1G3 promoting cell growth by interacting with miR-181. These data advocate for adoption of ultra-deep RNA-seq without poly-A selection to interrogate both linear and circular transcriptomes.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 308-318, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643250

RESUMO

Many primary-tumor subregions have low levels of molecular oxygen, termed hypoxia. Hypoxic tumors are at elevated risk for local failure and distant metastasis, but the molecular hallmarks of tumor hypoxia remain poorly defined. To fill this gap, we quantified hypoxia in 8,006 tumors across 19 tumor types. In ten tumor types, hypoxia was associated with elevated genomic instability. In all 19 tumor types, hypoxic tumors exhibited characteristic driver-mutation signatures. We observed widespread hypoxia-associated dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) across cancers and functionally validated miR-133a-3p as a hypoxia-modulated miRNA. In localized prostate cancer, hypoxia was associated with elevated rates of chromothripsis, allelic loss of PTEN and shorter telomeres. These associations are particularly enriched in polyclonal tumors, representing a constellation of features resembling tumor nimbosus, an aggressive cellular phenotype. Overall, this work establishes that tumor hypoxia may drive aggressive molecular features across cancers and shape the clinical trajectory of individual tumors.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Hipóxia Tumoral/genética , Alelos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromotripsia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Células PC-3 , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Telômero/genética
12.
J Urol ; 201(2): 291, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634360
14.
Oral Oncol ; 86: 61-68, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409321

RESUMO

Paranasal sinus and skull base tumors are rare aggressive head and neck cancers, and typically present in the locally advanced stages. As a result, achieving wide surgical resection with clear margins is a challenge for these tumors, and radiotherapy is thus usually indicated as an adjuvant modality following surgery to optimize local control. Given the integral role of radiotherapy in the management of this subgroup of head and neck tumors, the advent of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has led to substantial improvement of clinical outcomes for these patients. This is primarily driven by the improvement in radiation dosimetry with IMRT compared to conventional two dimensional (2D)- and 3D-techniques, in terms of ensuring dose intensity to the tumor target coupled with minimizing dose exposure to critical organs. Consequently, the evident clinical benefits of IMRT have been in reduction of normal tissue toxicities, ranging from critical neurological symptoms to less debilitating but bothersome symptoms of eye infections and radiation-induced skin changes. Another domain where IMRT has potential clinical utility is in the management of a subset of non-resectable T4 paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. For these inoperable lesions, the steep dose-gradient between tumor and normal tissue is even more advantageous, given the crucial need to maintain dose intensity to the tumor. Innovative strategies in this space also include the use of induction chemotherapy for patient selection. In this review, we summarized the data for the aforementioned topics, including specific discussions on the different histologic subtypes of paranasal sinus and skull base tumors.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NCCN has recently endorsed the stratification of intermediate-risk prostate cancer (IR-PCa) into favorable and unfavourable subgourps, and recommend the addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to radiotherapy (RT) for unfavorable IR-PCa. Recently, more accurate prognostication was demonstrated by integrating a 22-feature genomic classifier (GC) to the NCCN stratification system. Here, we test the utility of the GC to better identify IR-PCa patients who are sufficiently treated by RT alone. METHODS: We identified a novel cohort comprising 121 IR-PCa patients treated with dose-escalated image-guided RT (DE-IGRT; 78 Gy in 39 fractions) without ADT. GC scores were derived from tumor sampled in diagnostic biopsies. Multivariable analyses including both NCCN subclassification and GC scores were performed for biochemical failure (PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml) and metastasis occurrence. RESULTS: By NCCN subclassification, 33 (27.2%) and 87 (71.9%) of men were classified as favorable and unfavorable IR-PCa, respectively (1 case unclassifiable). GC scores were high in 3 favorable IR-PCa, and low in 60 unfavorable IR-PCa. Higher GC scores, but not NCCN-risk subgroups, were associated with biochemical relapse (HR 1.36 [95%CI=1.09-1.71] per 10% increase, P=0.007) and metastasis (HR 2.05 [95%CI=1.24-4.24], P=0.004). GC predicted biochemical failure at 5-year (AUC 0.78 [95%CI 0.70-0.83]), and the combinatorial NCCN+GC model significantly outperformed the NCCN alone model for predicting early-onset metastasis (AUC 5-year metastasis = 0.89 vs 0.86 [GC alone] vs 0.54 [NCCN alone]). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the accuracy of the GC for predicting disease recurrence in IR-PCa treated with DE-IGRT alone. Our findings highlight the need to evaluate this GC in a prospective clinical trial investigating the role of ADT-RT in clinicogenomic-defined IR-PCa subgroups.

16.
Oncogenesis ; 7(5): 40, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795279

RESUMO

Despite the improvement in locoregional control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), distant metastasis (DM), and chemoresistance persist as major causes of mortality. This study identified a novel role for miR-449b, an overexpressed gene in a validated four-miRNA signature for NPC DM, leading to chemoresistance via the direct targeting of transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI). In vitro shRNA-mediated downregulation of TGFBI induced phosphorylation of PTEN and AKT, increasing cisplatin resistance. Conversely, the overexpression of TGFBI sensitized the NPC cells to cisplatin. In NPC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), the overall survival (OS) was significantly inversely correlated with miR-449b, and directly correlated with both TGFBI mRNA and protein expression, as assessed by RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that TGFBI competes with pro-TGFß1 for integrin receptor binding. Decreased TGFBI led to increased pro-TGFß1 activation and TGFß1 canonical/noncanonical pathway-induced cisplatin resistance. Thus, overexpression of miR-449b decreases TGFBI, thereby altering the balance between TGFBI and pro-TGFß1, revealing a novel mechanism of chemoresistance in NPC.

17.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 7(2): 15, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764160

RESUMO

Immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) have each demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when utilized independently. Several characteristics of NPC make it particularly well suited for immunotherapeutic strategies, such as the association with viral infections like EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV), upregulation of PD-L1 expression, and the high number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Immune checkpoint blockade is one such immunotherapeutic strategy that is gaining popularity rapidly. However, clinical benefit of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors has been limited to only a small subset of patients with existing T cell responses. Additionally, they are frequently associated with dose-limiting immune-related toxicities. On the other hand, RT is a conventional strategy for NPC treatment, which has demonstrated high efficacy in local tumor control and has also been reported to exhibit immune modulatory effects. However, the abscopal effect of RT alone, i.e., the regression of distant metastases outside of the irradiation field, remains a rare phenomenon. Furthermore, RT treatment efficacy is also limited by radioresistance and radiation-related toxicities. Hence, the combination of RT and immunotherapy has the potential to improve treatment efficacy over either individual therapies alone. Here, we reviewed the clinical problem in locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic NPC, and discussed how combinatorial RT and immunotherapeutic strategies can be relevant to NPC treatment in each clinical scenario by examining the underlying mechanisms involved in the different strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Carcinoma/patologia , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(8): 1073-1079, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799987

RESUMO

Importance: Modern precision radiotherapy is an innovative and effective treatment of cancer, yet it is unclear how radiotherapy trials are affected by expanding targeted and immune therapies and declining National Institutes of Health funding. Objective: To analyze and compare the characteristics of radiotherapy trials with other oncological trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional analysis of trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov between June 1, 2007, and May 8, 2017. Records of all 243 758 clinical studies registered by May 8, 2017, were downloaded, but only 25 907 interventional oncological trials registered between June 1, 2007, and May 8, 2017, and whose primary purpose was "treatment" were included in the final analysis. Trials were categorized according to cancer type and other registration information. Main Outcomes and Measures: Characteristics of radiotherapy trials were compared with characteristics of other oncological trials. Chronological shifts in radiotherapy trials were also analyzed. Results: Of the 25 907 trials selected, 1378 (5.3%) were radiotherapy trials and 24 529 (94.7%) were other oncological studies. The number of radiotherapy trials increased gradually from 94 (June 1, 2007, through May 31, 2008) to 192 (June 1, 2015, through May 31, 2016). Radiotherapy trials were less likely than other oncological studies to be registered before participant enrollment (763 of 1370 [55.7%] vs 16 105 of 24 434 [65.9%]; P < .001), to be blinded (45 of 1378 [3.3%] vs 2784 of 24 529 [11.3%]; P < .001), or to involve multiple geographic regions (2.4% vs 9.5%; P < .001), but they were more likely to be phase 2 to 3 (773 of 1124 [68.8%] vs 12 910 of 22 300 [57.9%]; P < .001) and to have a data-monitoring committee (839 of 1264 [66.4%] vs 11 728 of 21 060 [55.7%]; P < .001). Only a minority of radiotherapy trials were industry sponsored, which was significantly lower than for other oncological trials (80 of 1378 [5.8%] vs 10 651 of 24 529 [43.4%]; P < .001; adjusted odds ratio, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.06-0.10). The number of National Institutes of Health-sponsored radiotherapy trials decreased from 80 of 544 trials (14.7%) from 2007 to 2012 to 72 of 834 trials (8.6%) from 2012 to 2017 (P < .001). Radiotherapy trials with a sample size of more than 100 patients decreased from 155 of 543 trials (28.5%) from 2007 to 2012 to 157 of 833 trials (18.8%) from 2012 to 2017 (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The limited number of and the scarcity of funding for radiotherapy trials is concerning given the integral role of radiotherapy in the clinical management of patients with cancer worldwide. A multidisciplinary collaboration to promote and fund more radiotherapy research is warranted.

19.
Cell ; 173(4): 1003-1013.e15, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681457

RESUMO

The majority of newly diagnosed prostate cancers are slow growing, with a long natural life history. Yet a subset can metastasize with lethal consequences. We reconstructed the phylogenies of 293 localized prostate tumors linked to clinical outcome data. Multiple subclones were detected in 59% of patients, and specific subclonal architectures associate with adverse clinicopathological features. Early tumor development is characterized by point mutations and deletions followed by later subclonal amplifications and changes in trinucleotide mutational signatures. Specific genes are selectively mutated prior to or following subclonal diversification, including MTOR, NKX3-1, and RB1. Patients with low-risk monoclonal tumors rarely relapse after primary therapy (7%), while those with high-risk polyclonal tumors frequently do (61%). The presence of multiple subclones in an index biopsy may be necessary, but not sufficient, for relapse of localized prostate cancer, suggesting that evolution-aware biomarkers should be studied in prospective studies of low-risk tumors suitable for active surveillance.

20.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 7(1): 10, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486569

RESUMO

Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are chemotherapy- and radiotherapy (RT)-resistant. Here, we report on a novel stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) technique-"Cor Occidere" (Latin), as a potential strategy of overcoming radioresistance of HPC. A 36-year old female presented to our clinic for consideration of a 3rd-course of RT for her recurrent cavernous sinus HPC, following previous cranial RT at 13 and 5 years prior, and a failed 9 months trial of bevacizumab/temozolomide. The tumor-adjacent brain stem and carotid artery risked substantial damage given the cumulative RT doses to these organs. We therefore designed an SRS plan targeting only the tumor core with 16 Gy single-fraction. Despite underdosing the tumor margin, we achieved stable disease over 25 months, contrasting her responses to systemic therapies. Achieving tumor control despite a suboptimal treatment that utilized high dose ablation of the tumor core suggests novel biological mechanisms to overcome radioresistance of HPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Hemangiopericitoma/radioterapia , Hemangiopericitoma/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Hemangiopericitoma/patologia , Humanos
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