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1.
Small ; : e1904271, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196957

RESUMO

Recently, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have become intriguing materials in the versatile field of photonics and optoelectronics because of their strong light-matter interaction that stems from the atomic layer thickness, broadband optical response, controllable optoelectronic properties, and high nonlinearity, as well as compatibility. Nevertheless, the low optical cross-section of 2D-TMDs inhibits the light-matter interaction, resulting in lower quantum yield. Therefore, hybridizing the 2D-TMDs with plasmonic nanomaterials has become one of the promising strategies to boost the optical absorption of thin 2D-TMDs. The appeal of plasmonics is based on their capability to localize and enhance the electromagnetic field and increase the optical path length of light by scattering and injecting hot electrons to TMDs. In this regard, recent achievements with respect to hybridization of the plasmonic effect in 2D-TMDs systems and its augmented optical and optoelectronic properties are reviewed. The phenomenon of plasmon-enhanced interaction in 2D-TMDs is briefly described and state-of-the-art hybrid device applications are comprehensively discussed. Finally, an outlook on future applications of these hybrid devices is provided.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003098

RESUMO

Ligand-induced surface restructuring with heteroatomic doping is used to precisely modify the surface of a prototypical [Au25 (SR1 )18 ]- cluster (1) while maintaining its icosahedral Au13 core for the synthesis of a new bimetallic [Au19 Cd3 (SR2 )18 ]- cluster (2). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that six bidentate Au2 (SR1 )3 motifs (L2) attached to the Au13 core of 1 were replaced by three quadridentate Au2 Cd(SR2 )6 motifs (L4) to create a bimetallic cluster 2. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate a stronger electronic interaction between the surface motifs (Au2 Cd(SR2 )6 ) and the Au13 core, attributed to a more compact cluster structure and a larger energy gap of 2 compared to that of 1. These factors dramatically enhance the photoluminescence quantum efficiency and lifetime of crystal of the cluster 2. This work provides a new route for the design of a wide range of bimetallic/alloy metal nanoclusters with superior optoelectronic properties and functionality.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(3): 036402, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031832

RESUMO

Platinum ditelluride (PtTe_{2}), a type-II Dirac semimetal, remains semimetallic in ultrathin films down to just two triatomic layers (TLs) with a negative gap of -0.36 eV. Further reduction of the film thickness to a single TL induces a Lifshitz electronic transition to a semiconductor with a large positive gap of +0.79 eV. This transition is evidenced by experimental band structure mapping of films prepared by layer-resolved molecular beam epitaxy, and by comparing the data to first-principles calculations using a hybrid functional. The results demonstrate a novel electronic transition at the two-dimensional limit through film thickness control.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 217004, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809171

RESUMO

The interplay between unconventional Cooper pairing and quantum states associated with atomic scale defects is a frontier of research with many open questions. So far, only a few of the high-temperature superconductors allow this intricate physics to be studied in a widely tunable way. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to image the electronic impact of Co atoms on the ground state of the LiFe_{1-x}Co_{x}As system. We observe that impurities progressively suppress the global superconducting gap and introduce low energy states near the gap edge, with the superconductivity remaining in the strong-coupling limit. Unexpectedly, the fully opened gap evolves into a nodal state before the Cooper pair coherence is fully destroyed. Our systematic theoretical analysis shows that these new observations can be quantitatively understood by the nonmagnetic Born-limit scattering effect in an s±-wave superconductor, unveiling the driving force of the superconductor to metal quantum phase transition.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 33012-33021, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414595

RESUMO

Spinel oxides (AB2O4) with unique crystal structures have been widely explored as promising alternative catalysts for efficient oxygen evolution reactions; however, developing novel methods to fabricate robust, cost-effective, and high-performance spinel oxide based electrocatalysts is still a great challenge. Here, utilizing a complementary experimental and theoretical approach, pentavalent vanadium doping in the spinel oxides (i.e., Co3O4 and NiFe2O4) has been thoroughly investigated to engineer their surface structures for the enhanced electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. Specifically, when the optimal concentration of vanadium (ca. 7.7 at. %) is incorporated into Co3O4, the required overpotential to reach a certain jGEOM and jECSA decreases dramatically for oxygen evolution reactions in alkaline media. Even after 30 h of chronopotentiometry, the required potential for V-doped Co3O4 just increases by 16.3 mV, being much lower than that of the undoped one. It is observed that the pentavalent vanadium doping introduces lattice distortions and defects on the surface, which in turn exposes more active sites for reactions. DFT calculations further reveal the rate-determining step changing from the step of *-O to *-OOH to the step of *-OH to *-O, while the corresponding energy barriers decrease from 1.73 to 1.57 eV accordingly after high-valent V doping. Moreover, the oxygen intermediate probing method using methanol as a probing reagent also demonstrates a stronger OH* adsorption on the surface after V doping. When vanadium doping is performed in the inverse spinel matrix of NiFe2O4, impressive performance enhancement in the oxygen evolution reaction is as well witnessed. All these results clearly illustrate that the V doping process can not only efficiently improve the electrochemical properties of spinel transition metal oxides but also provide new insights into the design of high-performance water oxidation electrocatalysts.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaav7717, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360763

RESUMO

The zigzag-edged triangular graphene molecules (ZTGMs) have been predicted to host ferromagnetically coupled edge states with the net spin scaling with the molecular size, which affords large spin tunability crucial for next-generation molecular spintronics. However, the scalable synthesis of large ZTGMs and the direct observation of their edge states have been long-standing challenges because of the molecules' high chemical instability. Here, we report the bottom-up synthesis of π-extended [5]triangulene with atomic precision via surface-assisted cyclodehydrogenation of a rationally designed molecular precursor on metallic surfaces. Atomic force microscopy measurements unambiguously resolve its ZTGM-like skeleton consisting of 15 fused benzene rings, while scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal edge-localized electronic states. Bolstered by density functional theory calculations, our results show that [5]triangulenes synthesized on Au(111) retain the open-shell π-conjugated character with magnetic ground states.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 756, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679630

RESUMO

Synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations have been utilized to explore the growth processes and the atomic structure of the resulting films during the two-step molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of In and Bi on the Si(111) surface. Deposition of 1.0-ML Bi on the In/Si(111)-(4 × 1) surface at room temperature results in Bi-terminated BiIn-(4 × 3) structures, which are stable up to ~300 °C annealing. By contrast, deposition of In on the ß-Bi/Si(111)-(√3 × âˆš3) surface at room temperature results in three dimensional (3D) In islands. In both cases, annealing at 460 °C results in the same In-terminated In0.75Bi/Si(111)-(2 × 2) surface. Our DFT calculations confirm that the surface energy of In-terminated In0.75Bi/Si(111)-(2 × 2) system is lower than that of Bi-terminated Bi0.75In/Si(111)-(2 × 2). These findings provide means for the control of the polarity of the MBE In-Bi atomically thick films.

8.
Nanoscale ; 11(3): 878-881, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604812

RESUMO

We employ an on-surface assembly protocol to synthesize a single layer of a two-dimensional conjugated network (Ni3(HITP)2) on a Au(111) surface. The electronic coupling between the π orbital of the diimine ligand and the d orbital of the metal ion renders efficient π-conjugation. Density-functional theory calculations provide evidence of a non-trivial topological gap in the surface-adsorbed single layer. This work demonstrates that single-layer 2D metal-organic frameworks adsorbed on surfaces are a new class of 2D materials that host quantum phases.

9.
Small ; 14(19): e1800032, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635730

RESUMO

The formation of PtSe2 -layered films is reported in a large area by the direct plasma-assisted selenization of Pt films at a low temperature, where temperatures, as low as 100 °C at the applied plasma power of 400 W can be achieved. As the thickness of the Pt film exceeds 5 nm, the PtSe2 -layered film (five monolayers) exhibits a metallic behavior. A clear p-type semiconducting behavior of the PtSe2 -layered film (≈trilayers) is observed with the average field effective mobility of 0.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 from back-gated transistor measurements as the thickness of the Pt film reaches below 2.5 nm. A full PtSe2 field effect transistor is demonstrated where the thinner PtSe2 , exhibiting a semiconducting behavior, is used as the channel material, and the thicker PtSe2 , exhibiting a metallic behavior, is used as an electrode, yielding an ohmic contact. Furthermore, photodetectors using a few PtSe2 -layered films as an adsorption layer synthesized at the low temperature on a flexible substrate exhibit a wide range of absorption and photoresponse with the highest photocurrent of 9 µA under the laser wavelength of 408 nm. In addition, the device can maintain a high photoresponse under a large bending stress and 1000 bending cycles.

10.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 43, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417237

RESUMO

The abounding possibilities of discovering novel materials has driven enhanced research effort in the field of materials physics. Only recently, the quantum anomalous hall effect (QAHE) was realized in magnetic topological insulators (TIs) albeit existing at extremely low temperatures. Here, we predict that MPn (M =Ti, Zr, and Hf; Pn =Sb and Bi) honeycombs are capable of possessing QAH insulating phases based on first-principles electronic structure calculations. We found that HfBi, HfSb, TiBi, and TiSb honeycomb systems possess QAHE with the largest band gap of 15 meV under the effect of tensile strain. In low-buckled HfBi honeycomb, we demonstrated the change of Chern number with increasing lattice constant. The band crossings occurred at low symmetry points. We also found that by varying the buckling distance we can induce a phase transition such that the band crossing between two Hf d-orbitals occurs along high-symmetry point K2. Moreover, edge states are demonstrated in buckled HfBi zigzag nanoribbons. This study contributes additional novel materials to the current pool of predicted QAH insulators which have promising applications in spintronics.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(11): 9645-9652, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309121

RESUMO

Direct reduction of metal oxides into a few transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) monolayers has been recently explored as an alternative method for large area and uniform deposition. However, not many studies have addressed the characteristics and requirement of the metal oxides into TMDCs by the selenization/sulfurization processes, yielding a wide range of outstanding properties to poor electrical characteristics with nonuniform films. The large difference implies that the process is yet not fully understood. In particular, the selenization/sulfurization at low temperature leads to poor crystallinity films with poor electrical performance, hindering its practical development. A common approach to improve the quality of the selenized/sulfurized films is by further increasing the process temperature, thus requiring additional transfer in order to explore the electrical properties. Here, we show that by finely tuning the quality of the predeposited oxide the selenization/sulfurization temperature can be largely decreased, avoiding major substrate damage and allowing direct device fabrication. The direct relationship between the role of selecting different metal oxides prepared by e-beam evaporation and reactive sputtering and their oxygen deficiency/vacancy leading to quality influence of TMDCs was investigated in detail. Because of its outstanding physical properties, the formation of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) from the reduction of tungsten oxide (WO x) was chosen as a model for proof of concept. By optimizing the process parameters and the selection of metal oxides, layered WSe2 films with controlled atomic thickness can be demonstrated. Interestingly, the domain size and electrical properties of the layered WSe2 films are highly affected by the quality of the metal oxides, for which the layered WSe2 film with small domains exhibits a metallic behavior and the layered WSe2 films with larger domains provides clear semiconducting behavior. Finally, an 8'' wafer scale-layered WSe2 film was demonstrated, giving a step forward in the development of 2D TMDC electronics in the industry.

12.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 8768-8776, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753274

RESUMO

Integration of strain engineering of two-dimensional (2D) materials in order to enhance device performance is still a challenge. Here, we successfully demonstrated the thermally strained band gap engineering of transition-metal dichalcogenide bilayers by different thermal expansion coefficients between 2D materials and patterned sapphire structures, where MoS2 bilayers were chosen as the demonstrated materials. In particular, a blue shift in the band gap of the MoS2 bilayers can be tunable, displaying an extraordinary capability to drive electrons toward the electrode under the smaller driven bias, and the results were confirmed by simulation. A model to explain the thermal strain in the MoS2 bilayers during the synthesis was proposed, which enables us to precisely predict the band gap-shifted behaviors on patterned sapphire structures with different angles. Furthermore, photodetectors with enhancement of 286% and 897% based on the strained MoS2 on cone- and pyramid-patterned sapphire substrates were demonstrated, respectively.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(51): 14656-14661, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930314

RESUMO

Silicene, analogous to graphene, is a one-atom-thick 2D crystal of silicon, which is expected to share many of the remarkable properties of graphene. The buckled honeycomb structure of silicene, along with enhanced spin-orbit coupling, endows silicene with considerable advantages over graphene in that the spin-split states in silicene are tunable with external fields. Although the low-energy Dirac cone states lie at the heart of all novel quantum phenomena in a pristine sheet of silicene, a hotly debated question is whether these key states can survive when silicene is grown or supported on a substrate. Here we report our direct observation of Dirac cones in monolayer silicene grown on a Ag(111) substrate. By performing angle-resolved photoemission measurements on silicene(3 × 3)/Ag(111), we reveal the presence of six pairs of Dirac cones located on the edges of the first Brillouin zone of Ag(111), which is in sharp contrast to the expected six Dirac cones centered at the K points of the primary silicene(1 × 1) Brillouin zone. Our analysis shows clearly that the unusual Dirac cone structure we have observed is not tied to pristine silicene alone but originates from the combined effects of silicene(3 × 3) and the Ag(111) substrate. Our study thus identifies the case of a unique type of Dirac cone generated through the interaction of two different constituents. The observation of Dirac cones in silicene/Ag(111) opens a unique materials platform for investigating unusual quantum phenomena and for applications based on 2D silicon systems.

14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 39083, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982055

RESUMO

The magnetic and electronic properties of hydrogenated and halogenated group-IV zigzag nanoribbons (ZNRs) are investigated by first-principles density functional calculations. Fascinatingly, we find that all the ZNRs have magnetic edges with a rich variety of electronic and magnetic properties tunable by selecting the parent and passivating elements as well as controlling the magnetization direction and external strain. In particular, the electric property of the edge band structure can be tuned from the conducting to insulating with a band gap up to 0.7 eV. The last controllability would allow us to develop magnetic on-off nano-switches. Furthermore, ZNRs such as SiI, Ge, GeI and SnH, have fully spin-polarized metallic edge states and thus are promising materials for spintronics. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy can be as large as ~9 meV/edge-site, being 2×103 time greater than that of bulk Ni and Fe (~5 µeV/atom), and thus has great potential for high density magneto-electric data-storage devices. Finally, the calculated exchange coupling strength and thus magnetic transition temperature increases as the applied strain goes from -5% to 5%. Our findings thus show that these ZNRs would have exciting applications in next-generation electronic and spintronic nano-devices.

15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31317, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27507248

RESUMO

Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. Our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAH effect.

16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26056, 2016 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189731

RESUMO

We analyze thermodynamic stability and decomposition pathways of LiBH4 nanoclusters using grand-canonical free-energy minimization based on total energies and vibrational frequencies obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. We consider (LiBH4)n nanoclusters with n = 2 to 12 as reactants, while the possible products include (Li)n, (B)n, (LiB)n, (LiH)n, and Li2BnHn; off-stoichiometric LinBnHm (m ≤ 4n) clusters were considered for n = 2, 3, and 6. Cluster ground-state configurations have been predicted using prototype electrostatic ground-state (PEGS) and genetic algorithm (GA) based structural optimizations. Free-energy calculations show hydrogen release pathways markedly differ from those in bulk LiBH4. While experiments have found that the bulk material decomposes into LiH and B, with Li2B12H12 as a kinetically inhibited intermediate phase, (LiBH4)n nanoclusters with n ≤ 12 are predicted to decompose into mixed LinBn clusters via a series of intermediate clusters of LinBnHm (m ≤ 4n). The calculated pressure-composition isotherms and temperature-pressure isobars exhibit sloping plateaus due to finite size effects on reaction thermodynamics. Generally, decomposition temperatures of free-standing clusters are found to increase with decreasing cluster size due to thermodynamic destabilization of reaction products.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 18993, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764118

RESUMO

We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing the Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. The Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of-the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.

18.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15463, 2015 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537227

RESUMO

We have carried out systematic first-principles electronic structure computations of growth of ultrathin films of compounds of group III (B, Al, In, Ga, and Tl) with group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements on Si(111) substrate, including effects of hydrogenation. Two bilayers (BLs) of AlBi, InBi, GaBi, TlAs, and TlSb are found to support a topological phase over a wide range of strains, in addition to BBi, TlN, and TlBi which can be driven into the nontrivial phase via strain. A large band gap of 134 meV is identified in hydrogenated 2 BL film of InBi. One and two BL films of GaBi and 2 BL films of InBi and TlAs on Si(111) surface possess nontrivial phases with a band gap as large as 121 meV in the case of 2 BL film of GaBi. Persistence of the nontrivial phase upon hydrogenations in the III-V thin films suggests that these films are suitable for growing on various substrates.

19.
Nano Lett ; 15(10): 6568-74, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390082

RESUMO

A large gap two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator (TI), also known as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator, is highly desirable for low-power-consuming electronic devices owing to its spin-polarized backscattering-free edge conducting channels. Although many freestanding films have been predicted to harbor the QSH phase, band topology of a film can be modified substantially when it is placed or grown on a substrate, making the materials realization of a 2D TI challenging. Here we report a first-principles study of possible QSH phases in 75 binary combinations of group III (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) and group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements in the 2D buckled honeycomb structure, including hydrogenation on one or both sides of the films to simulate substrate effects. A total of six compounds (GaBi, InBi, TlBi, TlAs, TlSb, and TlN) are identified to be nontrivial in unhydrogenated case; whereas for hydrogenated case, only four (GaBi, InBi, TlBi, and TlSb) remains nontrivial. The band gap is found to be as large as 855 meV for the hydrogenated TlBi film, making this class of III-V materials suitable for room temperature applications. TlBi remains topologically nontrivial with a large band gap at various hydrogen coverages, indicating the robustness of its band topology against bonding effects of substrates.

20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 14196, 2015 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26374077

RESUMO

For topological insulators to be implemented in practical applications, it is a prerequisite to select suitable substrates that are required to leave insulators' nontrivial properties and sizable opened band gaps (due to spin-orbital couplings) unaltered. Using ab initio calculations, we predict that Ge(111) surface qualified as a candidate to support stanene sheets, because the band structure of √3 × âˆš3 stanene/Ge(111) (2 × 2) surface displays a typical Dirac cone at Γ point in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Aided with the result of Z2 invariant calculations, a √3 × âˆš3 stanene/Ge(111) (2 × 2) system has been proved to sustain the nontrivial topological phase, with the prove being confirmed by the edge state calculations of stanene ribbons. This finding can serve as guidance for epitaxial growth of stanene on substrate and render stanene feasible for practical use as a topological insulator.

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