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1.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(2): 244-253, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ability to identify novel risk factors for health outcomes is a key strength of electronic health record (EHR)-based research. However, the validity of such studies is limited by error in EHR-derived phenotypes. The objective of this study was to develop a novel procedure for reducing bias in estimated associations between risk factors and phenotypes in EHR data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method combines the strengths of a gold-standard phenotype obtained through manual chart review for a small validation set of patients and an automatically-derived phenotype that is available for all patients but is potentially error-prone (hereafter referred to as the algorithm-derived phenotype). An augmented estimator of associations is obtained by optimally combining these 2 phenotypes. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the augmented estimator and conducted an analysis of risk factors for second breast cancer events using data on a cohort from Kaiser Permanente Washington. RESULTS: The proposed method was shown to reduce bias relative to an estimator using only the algorithm-derived phenotype and reduce variance compared to an estimator using only the validation data. DISCUSSION: Our simulation studies and real data application demonstrate that, compared to the estimator using validation data only, the augmented estimator has lower variance (ie, higher statistical efficiency). Compared to the estimator using error-prone EHR-derived phenotypes, the augmented estimator has smaller bias. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed estimator can effectively combine an error-prone phenotype with gold-standard data from a limited chart review in order to improve analyses of risk factors using EHR data.

2.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(12): 1341-1350, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe patterns of opioid use in cancer survivors. METHODS: In a cohort study of colon cancer patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 and enrolled at two Kaiser Permanente regions, we constructed quarterly measures of opioid use from 1 year before cancer diagnosis through 5 years after diagnosis to examine changes in use. Measures included any use, incident use, regular use (use ≥ 45 days in a 91-day quarter), and average daily dose (converted to morphine milligram equivalent, MME). We also assessed temporal trends of opioid use. RESULTS: Of 2,039 colon cancer patients, 11-15% received opioids in the four pre-diagnosis quarters, 68% in the first quarter after diagnosis, and 15-17% in each subsequent 19 quarters. Regular opioid use increased from 3 to 5% pre-diagnosis to 5-7% post diagnosis. Average dose increased from 15 to 17 MME/day pre-diagnosis to 14-22 MME/day post diagnosis (excluding the quarter in which cancer was diagnosed). Among post-diagnosis opioid users, 73-95% were on a low dose (< 20 MME/day). Over years, regular use of opioids increased in survivorship with no change in dosage. CONCLUSION: Opioid use slightly increased following a colon cancer diagnosis, but high-dose use was rare. Research is needed to differentiate under- versus over-treatment of cancer pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The long-term risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC-related death following adenoma removal are uncertain. Data are needed to inform evidence-based surveillance guidelines, which vary in follow-up recommendations for some polyp types. Using data from a large, community-based integrated health care setting, we examined the risks of CRC and related death by baseline colonoscopy adenoma findings. METHODS: Participants at 21 medical centers underwent baseline colonoscopies from 2004 through 2010; findings were categorized as no-adenoma, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. Participants were followed until the earliest of CRC diagnosis, death, health plan disenrollment, or December 31, 2017. Risks of CRC and related deaths among the high- and low-risk adenoma groups were compared with the no-adenoma group using Cox regression adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Among 186,046 patients, 64,422 met eligibility criteria (54.3% female; mean age, 61.6 ± 7.1 years; median follow-up time, 8.1 years from the baseline colonoscopy). Compared with the no-adenoma group (45,881 patients), the high-risk adenoma group (7563 patients) had a higher risk of CRC (hazard ratio [HR] 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-3.63) and related death (HR 3.94; 95% CI 1.90-6.56), whereas the low-risk adenoma group (10,978 patients) did not have a significant increase in risk of CRC (HR 1.29; 95% CI 0.89-1.88) or related death (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.19-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: With up to 14 years of follow-up, high-risk adenomas were associated with an increased risk of CRC and related death, supporting early colonoscopy surveillance. Low-risk adenomas were not associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC or related deaths. These results can inform current surveillance guidelines for high- and low-risk adenomas.

4.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 37, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531383

RESUMO

Background: Despite the importance of characterizing colonoscopy indication for quality monitoring and cancer screening program evaluation, there is no standard approach to documenting colonoscopy indication in medical records. Methods: We applied two algorithms in three health care systems to assign colonoscopy indication to persons 50-89 years old who received a colonoscopy during 2010-2013. Both algorithms used standard procedure, diagnostic, and laboratory codes. One algorithm, the KPNC algorithm, used a hierarchical approach to classify exam indication into: diagnostic, surveillance, or screening; whereas the other, the SEARCH algorithm, used a logistic regression-based algorithm to provide the probability that colonoscopy was performed for screening. Gold standard assessment of indication was from medical records abstraction. Results: There were 1,796 colonoscopy exams included in analyses; age and racial/ethnic distributions of participants differed across health care systems. The KPNC algorithm's sensitivities and specificities for screening indication ranged from 0.78-0.82 and 0.78-0.91, respectively; sensitivities and specificities for diagnostic indication ranged from 0.78-0.89 and 0.74-0.82, respectively. The KPNC algorithm had poor sensitivities (ranging from 0.11-0.67) and high specificities for surveillance exams. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the SEARCH algorithm for screening indication ranged from 0.76-0.84 across health care systems. For screening indication, the KPNC algorithm obtained higher specificities than the SEARCH algorithm at the same sensitivity. Conclusion: Despite standardized implementation of these indication algorithms across three health care systems, the capture of colonoscopy indication data was imperfect. Thus, we recommend that standard, systematic documentation of colonoscopy indication should be added to medical records to ensure efficient and accurate data capture.

5.
Head Neck ; 41(11): 3948-3959, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer survivors experience difficulty returning to work after treatment. To better understand specific barriers to returning to work, we investigated factors associated with discontinuing employment among older and working-age survivors. METHODS: The sample included 675 oropharyngeal cancer survivors (median: 6 years posttreatment) diagnosed from 2000 to 2013 and employed at diagnosis. Relative risk models were constructed to examine the independent associations of demographic and health factors, and symptom experiences per the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN) with posttreatment employment, overall and by age (<60 years vs ≥60 years at survey). RESULTS: Symptom interference was not statistically significantly associated with posttreatment employment status among respondents ≥60 years. Among working-age respondents <60 years, symptom interference was strongly associated with posttreatment employment. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to assess and lessen symptom burden in working-age survivors should be evaluated as approaches to support regaining core functions needed for continued employment.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer screening is a complex process encompassing risk assessment, the initial screening examination, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of cancer precursors or early cancers. Metrics that enable comparisons across different screening targets are needed. We present population-based screening metrics for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers for nine sites participating in the PROSPR consortium. METHODS: We describe how selected metrics map to a trans-organ conceptual model of the screening process. For each cancer type, we calculated calendar year 2013 metrics for the screen-eligible target population (breast: ages 40-74; cervical: ages 21-64; colorectal: ages 50-75). Metrics for screening participation, timely diagnostic evaluation, and diagnosed cancers in the screened and total populations are presented for the total eligible population and stratified by age group and cancer type. RESULTS: The overall screening eligible populations in 2013 were 305,568 participants for breast, 3,160,128 for cervical, and 2,363,922 for colorectal cancer screening. Being up-to-date for testing was common for all three cancer types: breast (63.5%); cervical (84.6%); and colorectal (77.5%). Percentage of abnormal screens ranged from 10.7% for breast, 4.4% for cervical, and 4.5% for colorectal cancer screening. Abnormal breast screens were followed up diagnostically in almost all (96.8%) cases while cervical and colorectal were similar (76.2% and 76.3%, respectively). Cancer rates per 1,000 screens were 5.66, 0.17, and 1.46, respectively for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive assessment of metrics by the PROSPR consortium enabled systematic identification of screening process steps in need of improvement. We encourage widespread use of common metrics to allow interventions to be tested across cancer types and healthcare settings.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196570, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276178

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer screening rates are suboptimal, particularly among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups. Objective: To examine whether guaranteed money or probabilistic lottery financial incentives conditional on completion of colorectal cancer screening increase screening uptake, particularly among groups with lower screening rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This parallel, 3-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 13, 2017, through April 12, 2018, at 21 medical centers in an integrated health care system in western Washington. A total of 838 age-eligible patients overdue for colorectal cancer screening who completed a questionnaire that confirmed eligibility and included sociodemographic and psychosocial questions were enrolled. Interventions: Interventions were (1) mail only (n = 284; up to 3 mailings that included information on the importance of colorectal cancer screening and screening test choices, a fecal immunochemical test [FIT], and a reminder letter if necessary), (2) mail and monetary (n = 270; mailings plus guaranteed $10 on screening completion), or (3) mail and lottery (n = 284; mailings plus a 1 in 10 chance of receiving $50 on screening completion). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was completion of any colorectal cancer screening within 6 months of randomization. Secondary outcomes were FIT or colonoscopy completion within 6 months of randomization. Intervention effects were compared across sociodemographic subgroups and self-reported psychosocial measures. Results: A total of 838 participants (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [7.2] years; 546 [65.2%] female; 433 [52.2%] white race and 101 [12.1%] Hispanic ethnicity) were included in the study. Completion of any colorectal screening was not significantly higher for the mail and monetary group (207 of 270 [76.7%]) or the mail and lottery group (212 of 284 [74.6%]) than for the mail only group (203 of 284 [71.5%]) (P = .11). For FIT completion, interventions had a statistically significant effect (P = .04), with a net increase of 7.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-15.1%) in the mail and monetary group and 7.1% (95% CI, -0.2% to 14.3%) in the mail and lottery group compared with the mail only group. For patients with Medicaid insurance, the net increase compared with mail only in FIT completion for the mail and monetary or the mail and lottery group was 37.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-64.3%) (34.2% for the mail and monetary group and 40.4% for the mail and lottery group) compared with a net increase of only 5.6% (95% CI, -0.9% to 12.2%) among those not Medicaid insured (test for interaction P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Financial incentives increased FIT uptake but not overall colorectal cancer screening. Financial incentives may decrease screening disparities among some sociodemographically disadvantaged groups. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00697047.

8.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 25, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328132

RESUMO

Introduction: The symptom burden faced by long-term head and neck cancer survivors is not well understood. In addition, the accuracy of clinical data sources for symptom ascertainment is not clear. Objective: To 1) describe the prevalence of symptoms in 5-year survivors of head and neck cancer, and 2) to evaluate agreement between symptoms obtained via self-report and symptoms obtained from clinical data sources. Methods: We recruited 5-year survivors of head and neck cancer enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Washington (n = 54). Symptoms were assessed using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory head and neck cancer module. For each symptom, we assessed the agreement of the patient's survey response ("gold standard") with the 1) medical chart and 2) administrative health care claims data. We computed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value, along with their 95 percent confidence intervals, for each clinical data source. Results: Eighty percent of patients responded. Nearly all participants (95 percent) reported experiencing at least one symptom from the MDASI-HN, and 93 percent reported two or more symptoms. Among patients reporting a given symptom, there was generally no evidence of the symptom from either clinical data source (i.e., sensitivity was generally no greater than 40 percent). The specificity and PPV of the clinical data sources were generally higher than the sensitivity. Conclusion: Relying only on medical chart review and/or administrative health data would substantially underestimate symptom burden in long-term head and neck cancer survivors.

9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 979-987, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines recommend increased surveillance of individuals with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), but there is uncertainty about the risk associated with SSA/Ps. We aimed to determine the association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: This case-control study included Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA) members who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007, and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps but no conventional adenomas according to study pathologist histologic review. Subsequent pathology reports and biopsies through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We linked to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry to identify additional CRC cases. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing those with SSA/Ps to those with HPs. RESULTS: There were 161 individuals with index SSA/Ps, 548 with HPs, and 918 subsequent endoscopies included in analyses. Of those with index SSA/Ps, 19 had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia; 39 with HPs had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Compared to those with HPs, those with SSA/Ps were not statistically significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia (adjusted OR 1.79; CI 0.98-3.28). Polyp size ≥ 10 mm, right colon location, and the presence of multiple serrated polyps were also not associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is not a strong association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia during the 5 years following SSA/P removal.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(7): 747-755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our objective was to describe differences in treatment patterns and survival between early-onset (< 50 years old) and late-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in community-based health systems. METHODS: We used tumor registry and electronic health record data to identify and characterize patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum from 2010 to 2014 at six US health systems in the patient outcomes to advance learning (PORTAL) network. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the distribution of tumor characteristics and treatment patterns in early-onset versus late-onset CRC. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and CIs comparing survival between early- and late-onset CRC patients. RESULTS: There were 1,424 early-onset and 10,810 late-onset CRC cases in our analyses. Compared to late-onset CRC, early-onset CRC was significantly associated with advanced-stage disease, high-grade histology, signet ring histology, and rectal or left colon location. After adjusting for differences in tumor and patient characteristics, early-onset patients were more likely than late-onset patients to have > 12 lymph nodes examined (OR 1.60, CI 1.37-1.87), to receive systemic therapy (chemotherapy or immunotherapy) within 6 months of diagnosis (OR 2.84, CI 2.40-3.37), and to have a reduced risk of CRC-specific death (HR 0.66, CI 0.56-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset CRC is associated with aggressive tumor characteristics, distal location, and systemic therapy use. Despite some adverse risk factors, these patients tend to have better survival than older onset patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(5): 740-753, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids may increase cancer risk and progression through multiple pathways. Our objective was to estimate the association between chronic opioid use and risk of second breast cancer events (SBCEs). METHODS: Cohort study of women greater than or equal to 18 years, diagnosed with early stage breast cancer between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2008, and enrolled in a large health plan for 1+ years before and after (unless died) diagnosis. SBCEs were defined as evidence of recurrence or second primary breast cancer in the medical chart. Chronic opioid use was defined as 75+ days of use in any moving 90-day window after breast cancer diagnosis and varied to 150+ days in a 180-day window in a sensitivity analysis. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SBCE and components of SBCE by chronic opioid use. RESULTS: Almost 10% met the criteria for chronic use and almost a third of users were taking opioids for greater than 3 years. Risk of SBCEs (HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.85-1.70), including second primary breast cancer (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 0.71-2.70), was nonsignificantly higher among chronic users vs nonchronic/nonusers. The HR for recurrence was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.76-2.70). Results of the sensitivity analyses on longer opioid use does support an association with SBCE or recurrence. CONCLUSION: This first US-based study on chronic opioid use and cancer outcomes provides some reassurance on safety. However, the question warrants further exploration in other populations and settings.

12.
Am J Manag Care ; 25(4): 174-180, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) can efficiently screen for colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the timing to their completion. We investigate the time to return of a FIT following an order and describe patient characteristics associated with FIT return. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We identified 63,478 members of Kaiser Permanente Washington, aged 50 to 74 years, who received a FIT order from 2011 through 2012. Patient characteristics were ascertained through administrative and electronic health record data sources. We compared time from FIT order to return by patient characteristics using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. RESULTS: About half (53.7%) of members completed a FIT. Median time from order to return was 13 days (mean, 44.5 days; interquartile range, 6-42 days). There was higher completion of FITs among Asian patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.38-1.48), black patients (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19), and Hispanic patients (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16) compared with white patients; among patients with recent CRC testing (vs no testing in past 2 years; HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.86-1.95); and among patients with Medicare insurance (vs commercial; HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24-1.37). Factors associated with decreased FIT completion included younger age (50-54 years vs 70-74 years; HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92), obesity (vs normal body mass index; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91), and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score (≥3 vs 0; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Time to return of FIT varies by patient characteristics. We observed greater FIT completion among people of color, suggesting that racial disparities in CRC may not be due to patient completion of the test after an order is received.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 996-999, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about factors associated with long-term survival (LTS) following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) to explore predictors of LTS (defined as ≥7 years of survival) using electronic medical record data from a network of integrated health care systems. Multivariable logistic regression with forward selection was used to compare characteristics of women who survived ≥7 years after diagnosis (n = 148) to those who died within 7 years of diagnosis (n = 494). RESULTS: Our final model included study site, age, stage at diagnosis, CA-125, comorbidity score, receipt of chemotherapy, BMI, and four separate comorbid conditions: weight loss, depression, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Of these, only younger age, lower stage, and depression were statistically significantly associated with LTS. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any new characteristics associated with HGSOC survival. IMPACT: Prognosis of ovarian cancer generally remains poor. Large, pooled studies of ovarian cancer are needed to identify characteristics that may improve survival.

14.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(5): e143-e152, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with Medicaid insurance or Medicaid-like coverage would have longer times to follow-up and be less likely to complete colonoscopy compared with patients with commercial insurance within the same healthcare systems. METHODS: A total of 35,009 patients aged 50-64years with a positive fecal immunochemical test were evaluated in Northern and Southern California Kaiser Permanente systems and in a North Texas safety-net system between 2011 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier estimation was used between 2016 and 2017 to calculate the probability of having follow-up colonoscopy by coverage type. Among Kaiser Permanente patients, Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for the association between coverage type and receipt of follow-up, adjusting for sociodemographics and health status. RESULTS: Even within the same integrated system with organized follow-up, patients with Medicaid were 24% less likely to complete follow-up as those with commercial insurance. Percentage receiving colonoscopy within 3 months after a positive fecal immunochemical test was 74.6% for commercial insurance, 63.10% for Medicaid only, and 37.5% for patients served by the integrated safety-net system. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with Medicaid were less likely than those with commercial insurance to complete follow-up colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test and had longer average times to follow-up. With the future of coverage mechanisms uncertain, it is important and timely to assess influences of health insurance coverage on likelihood of follow-up colonoscopy and identify potential disparities in screening completion.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(3): 1071-1083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research has focused on risk factors for developing dementia, with increasing recognition of "resilient" people who live to old age with intact cognitive function despite pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate demographic factors, mid-life characteristics, and non-AD neuropathology findings that may be associated with cognitive resilience to AD pathology. METHODS: We analyzed data from 276 autopsy cases with intermediate or high levels of AD pathology from the Adult Changes in Thought study. We defined cognitive resilience as having Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scores ≥86 within two years of death and no clinical dementia diagnosis; non-resilient people had dementia diagnoses from AD or other causes before death. We compared mid-life characteristics, demographics, and additional neuropathology findings between resilient and non-resilient people. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for being resilient compared to not being resilient adjusting for demographic and neuropathology factors. RESULTS: We classified 68 (25%) people as resilient and 208 (75%) as not resilient. A greater proportion of resilient people had a college degree (50%) compared with non-resilient (32%, p = 0.01). The odds of being resilient were significantly increased among people with a college education (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.01-3.99) and significantly reduced among people with additional non-AD neuropathology findings such as hippocampal sclerosis (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89) and microinfarcts (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.78). CONCLUSION: Increased education and absence of non-AD pathology may be independently associated with cognitive resilience, highlighting the importance of evaluating co-morbid factors in future research on mechanisms of cognitive resilience.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 270, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular medications may be associated with cancer development, but little is known about their association with cancer recurrence. Medications such as statins and antihypertensives may be commonly used among colon cancer survivors, who are, on average, diagnosed in their mid-60s. We described the associations between statins and antihypertensive medications and colon cancer recurrence in a large, population-based study. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among adults with stage I-IIIA colon cancer diagnosed in 1995-2014 in two Kaiser Permanente regions, Colorado and Washington. Statin and antihypertensive use were obtained from electronic pharmacy dispensing data. People were classified as medication users on the date of their first dispensing after cohort entry, which started 90 days after completing cancer treatment, continuing through the earliest of death, health plan disenrollment, or chart abstraction. We collected outcome information from medical record abstraction and tumor registries on colon cancer recurrences and second primary cancers. Using Cox proportional hazards multivariable models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon cancer recurrences and any cancer event (recurrences and new primaries at any anatomic site) comparing medication users to non-users. RESULTS: Among 2039 people, 937 (46%) used statins and 1425 (70%) used antihypertensives at any point during a median of 4.9 years of follow-up; 460 people had any additional cancer event, including 152 with a colon cancer recurrence. Statin use was not associated with colon cancer recurrence (HR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.65-1.85) or any cancer event (HR = 1.12, 95%CI = 0.85-1.47), nor was antihypertensive use associated with recurrence (HR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.44-1.21) or any cancer event (HR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.70-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest no association between cardiovascular medication use and the risk of recurrence or any additional cancer, and may provide reassurance to colon cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
17.
Psychooncology ; 28(4): 750-758, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior research examining the association between use of antidepressants after colon cancer diagnosis and risk of recurrence is scant. We evaluated this association among colon cancer patients diagnosed at two integrated health care delivery systems in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of stage I to IIIA colon cancer patients diagnosed at greater than or equal to 18 years of age at Kaiser Permanente Colorado and Kaiser Permanente Washington during 1995 to 2014. We used pharmacy records to identify dispensings for antidepressants and tumor registry records and patients' medical charts to identify cancer recurrences. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of colon cancer recurrence comparing patients who used antidepressants after diagnosis to those who did not. We also evaluated the risk associated with use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) separately. RESULTS: Among the 1923 eligible colon cancer patients, 807 (42%) used an antidepressant after diagnosis and 139 had a colon cancer recurrence during an average 5.6 years of follow-up. Use of antidepressants after colon cancer diagnosis was not associated with risk of recurrence (HR: 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.87). The HR for use of SSRIs was 1.22 (95% CI, 0.64-2.30), and for TCAs, it was 1.18 (95% CI, 0.68-2.07). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that use of antidepressants after colon cancer diagnosis was common and not associated with risk of recurrence. Future larger studies with greater power to examine risk associated with individual antidepressants would be valuable additions to the evidence base.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Washington
18.
Int J Cancer ; 144(6): 1460-1473, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353911

RESUMO

Little is known about the effect of evolving risk-based cervical cancer screening and management guidelines on United States (US) clinical practice and patient outcomes. We describe the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR I) consortium, methods and baseline findings from its cervical sites: Kaiser Permanente Washington, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Parkland Health & Hospital System/University of Texas Southwestern (Parkland-UTSW) and New Mexico HPV Pap Registry housed by University of New Mexico (UNM-NMHPVPR). Across these diverse healthcare settings, we collected data on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations, screening tests/results, diagnostic and treatment procedures/results and cancer diagnoses on nearly 4.7 million women aged 18-89 years from 2010 to 2014. We calculated baseline (2012 for UNM-NMHPVPR; 2010 for other sites) frequencies for sociodemographics, cervical cancer risk factors and key screening process measures for each site's cohort. Healthcare delivery settings, cervical cancer screening strategy, race/ethnicity and insurance status varied among sites. The proportion of women receiving a Pap test during the baseline year was similar across sites (26.1-36.1%). Most high-risk HPV tests were performed either reflexively or as cotests, and utilization pattern varied by site. Prevalence of colposcopy or biopsy was higher at Parkland-UTSW (3.6%) than other sites (1.3-1.4%). Incident cervical cancer was rare. HPV vaccination among age-eligible women not already immunized was modest across sites (0.1-7.2%). Cervical PROSPR I makes available high-quality, multilevel, longitudinal screening process data from a large and diverse cohort of women to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of US cervical cancer screening delivery.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Útero/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 91-98, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, experts recommend surveillance colonoscopy 3 years after advanced adenoma removal. Little is known about adherence to that interval. METHODS: We describe patterns of and factors associated with subsequent colonoscopy among persons with ≥3 adenomas and/or ≥1 adenoma with villous/tubulovillous histology in four U.S. integrated healthcare delivery systems. We report Kaplan-Meier estimators of the cumulative percentage of patients undergoing colonoscopy 6 months to 3.5 years after an index colonoscopy with high-risk findings. Combining data from three healthcare systems, we used multivariable logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between patient characteristics and receipt of subsequent colonoscopy. RESULTS: Among 6,909 persons with advanced adenomas, the percent receiving a subsequent colonoscopy 6 months to 3.5 years later ranged from 18.3% (95% CI: 11.7%-27.8%) to 59.5% (95% CI: 53.8%-65.2%) across healthcare systems. Differences remained significant in the multivariable model. Patients with ≥3 adenomas were more likely than those with 1 to 2 villous/tubulovillous adenomas to undergo subsequent colonoscopy. Subsequent colonoscopy was also more common for patients ages 60-74 and less common for patients ages 80 to 89 compared with those ages 50 to 54 years at their index colonoscopy. Sex, race/ethnicity, and comorbidity index score were generally not associated with subsequent colonoscopy receipt. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy within the recommended interval following advanced adenoma was underutilized and varied by healthcare system, age, and number of adenomas. IMPACT: Strategies to improve adherence to surveillance colonoscopy following advanced adenomas are needed.

20.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(2): 264-268, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many outcomes derived from electronic health records (EHR) not only are imperfect but also may suffer from exposure-dependent differential misclassification due to variability in the quality and availability of EHR data across exposure groups. The objective of this study was to quantify the inflation of type I error rates that can result from differential outcome misclassification. METHODS: We used data on gold-standard and EHR-derived second breast cancers in a cohort of women with a prior breast cancer diagnosis from 1993 to 2006 enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Washington. We simulated an exposure that was independent of the true outcome status. A surrogate outcome was then simulated with varying sensitivity and specificity according to exposure status. We estimated the type I error rate for a test of association relating this exposure to the surrogate outcome, while varying outcome sensitivity and specificity in exposed individuals. RESULTS: Type I error rates were substantially inflated above the nominal level (5%) for even modest departures from nondifferential misclassification. Holding sensitivity in exposed and unexposed groups at 85%, a difference in specificity of 10% between the exposed and unexposed (80% vs 90%) resulted in a 36% type I error rate. Type I error was inflated more by differential specificity than sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Differential outcome misclassification may induce spurious findings. Researchers using EHR-derived outcomes should use misclassification-adjusted methods whenever possible or conduct sensitivity analyses to investigate the possibility of false-positive findings, especially for exposures that may be related to the accuracy of outcome ascertainment.

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