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1.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test accuracy of patient self-report of breast cancer recurrence for enhancing standard population-based cancer registries that do not routinely collect cancer recurrence data despite the importance of this outcome. METHODS: Potential research subjects were identified in the Breast Cancer Research Database (BCRD) of the Swedish Cancer Institute (SCI). The BCRD has collected data within 45 days of each medical encounter on new primary breast cancer patients receiving all or part of their initial care at SCI. Females diagnosed with a new primary breast cancer 2004-2016, Stages I-III, and alive at the time of study initiation (2018) were identified. Recurrent breast cancer patients were matched 1:1 to surviving non-recurrent patients by patient age, date of diagnosis, and single or multiple primary tumors. Consented research subjects were surveyed about their initial and subsequent diagnostic, therapeutic, and recurrent events. PRO survey responses were compared with BCRD information for each individual participant. Discrepancies were reviewed in medical records. RESULTS: A matched sample of 88 recurrent and 88 non-recurrent patients were used in analyses. Respondents correctly identified the date of diagnosis of first primary breast cancer within 1 year 94% (165/176). Recurrence was reported by 97% (85/88) of recurrent patients. No recurrence was reported by 100% (88/88) of non-recurrent patients. Recurrence date within 1 year was correctly identified in 79% (67/85). Recurrence site was correctly identified in 82% (70/85). Medical record review of survey-registry discrepancies led to BCRD corrections in 4.5% (8/176) of cases. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Breast cancer patients can accurately report their disease characteristics, treatments, and recurrence history. Patient-reported information would enhance cancer registry data.

3.
JMIR Cancer ; 6(2): e18143, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for automated approaches to incorporate information on cancer recurrence events into population-based cancer registries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of a novel data mining algorithm to extract information from linked registry and medical claims data on the occurrence and timing of second breast cancer events (SBCE). METHODS: We used supervised data from 3092 stage I and II breast cancer cases (with 394 recurrences), diagnosed between 1993 and 2006 inclusive, of patients at Kaiser Permanente Washington and cases in the Puget Sound Cancer Surveillance System. Our goal was to classify each month after primary treatment as pre- versus post-SBCE. The prediction feature set for a given month consisted of registry variables on disease and patient characteristics related to the primary breast cancer event, as well as features based on monthly counts of diagnosis and procedure codes for the current, prior, and future months. A month was classified as post-SBCE if the predicted probability exceeded a probability threshold (PT); the predicted time of the SBCE was taken to be the month of maximum increase in the predicted probability between adjacent months. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier net probability of SBCE was 0.25 at 14 years. The month-level receiver operating characteristic curve on test data (20% of the data set) had an area under the curve of 0.986. The person-level predictions (at a monthly PT of 0.5) had a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.98, a positive predictive value of 0.85, and a negative predictive value of 0.98. The corresponding median difference between the observed and predicted months of recurrence was 0 and the mean difference was 0.04 months. CONCLUSIONS: Data mining of medical claims holds promise for the streamlining of cancer registry operations to feasibly collect information about second breast cancer events.

4.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(11): 947-958, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669318

RESUMO

Primary care provider's (PCP) perceptions of colorectal cancer screening test effectiveness and their recommendations for testing intervals influence patient screening uptake. Few large studies have examined providers' perceptions and recommendations, including their alignment with evidence suggesting comparable test effectiveness and guideline recommendations for screening frequency. Providers (n = 1,281) within four healthcare systems completed a survey in 2017-2018 regarding their perceptions of test effectiveness and recommended intervals for colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for patients ages 40-49, 50-74, and ≥75 years. For patients 50-74 (screening eligible), 82.9% of providers rated colonoscopy as very effective versus 59.6% for FIT, and 26.3% rated colonoscopy as more effective than FIT. Also, for this age group, 77.9% recommended colonoscopy every 10 years and 92.4% recommended FIT annually. For patients ages 40-49 and ≥75, more than one-third of providers believed the tests were somewhat or very effective, although >80% did not routinely recommend screening by either test for these age groups. Provider screening test interval recommendations generally aligned with colorectal cancer guidelines; however, 25% of providers believed colonoscopy was more effective than FIT for mortality reduction, which differs from some modeling studies that suggest comparable effectiveness. The latter finding may have implications for health systems where FIT is the dominant screening strategy. Only one-third of providers reported believing these screening tests were effective in younger and older patients (i.e., <50 and ≥75 years). Evidence addressing these beliefs may be relevant if cancer screening recommendations are modified to include older and/or younger patients.

5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 631-640, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAF mutation and DNA hypermethylation have linked sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) to serrated colorectal cancer (CRC) in cross-sectional studies, but they have not been evaluated in a longitudinal study. We aimed to evaluate the associations between molecular markers of serrated polyps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: Study subjects included Kaiser Permanente Washington members aged 20-75 years who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007 and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps according to study pathology review. Polyps from index colonoscopies were removed and assayed for BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and MLH1 methylation. Pathology reports and biopsies from the subsequent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We identified additional incident CRC cases through linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing index serrated polyps with different molecular markers. RESULTS: We included 553 individuals with index serrated polyps (420 HPs and 133 SSA/Ps) and 795 subsequent endoscopies. The prevalence of BRAF-mutant, CIMP-high, and MLH1-methylated serrated polyps were 51%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. BRAF and CIMP were not associated with subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. MLH1-methylated SSP/As were significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced neoplasia (OR = 4.66, 95% CI 1.06-20.51). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that BRAF-mutant and CIMP-high serrated polyps are not associated with subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Among SSA/Ps, MLH1 methylation may be an important marker to identify high-risk CRC precursors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Pólipos Intestinais/genética , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Pólipos Intestinais/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Programa de SEER , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1549-1556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proportion of time covered (PTC, or "covered time") is a longitudinal measure of adherence to preventive health services, the use of which has increased in recent years. This measure is helpful for evaluating the success of delivering screening interventions over time. However, there are challenges and nuances in computing and interpreting PTC. METHODS: In this manuscript, we describe some desired properties of PTC measures, challenges in achieving those, and potential solutions using hypothetical examples. RESULTS: We propose a modified PTC measure (mPTC) to complement the standard, existing PTC measure. The mPTC measure focuses on screening completion rather than initiation when a screening modality requires more than one step; is affected less by loss to follow-up, death, or cancer during covered time than the standard PTC measure; and is not sensitive to screening episode results. We propose weighting strategies to ensure that the average PTC and mPTC are more heavily influenced by individuals who were observed for longer and are thus more informative. We further describe how PTC and mPTC measures can incorporate test indication to focus specifically on screening. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that studies of covered time present ample descriptive information, calculate both PTC and mPTC, describe how symptoms and indication are handled, and present multiple complementary measures, such as the proportion never screened and the proportion in need of screening. IMPACT: Common approaches, terminology, and reporting practices for covered time measures have the potential to improve the study of longitudinal cancer screening adherence.

7.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 712-721, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have evaluated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta blockers (BBs) in relation to cardiotoxicity in patients with cancer, typically defined by ejection fraction declines. However, these trials have not examined long-term, hard clinical endpoints. Within a prospective study, we examined the risk of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events in relation to use of commonly used antihypertensive medications, including ACEis/ARBs, BBs, calcium channel blockers (CCB), and diuretics, comparing women with and without cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 56,997 Women's Health Initiative study participants free of cardiovascular disease who received antihypertensive treatment, we used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of developing CHD, HF, and a composite outcome of cardiac events (combining CHD and HF) in relation to use of ACEis/ARBs, CCBs, or diuretics versus BBs, separately in women with and without cancer. RESULTS: Whereas there was no difference in risk of cardiac events comparing ACEi/ARB with BB use among cancer-free women (HR = 0.99 [0.88-1.12]), among cancer survivors ACEi/ARB users were at a 2.24-fold risk of total cardiac events (1.18-4.24); p-interaction = .06). When investigated in relation to CHD only, an increased risk was similarly observed in ACEi/ARB versus BB use for cancer survivors (HR = 1.87 [0.88-3.95]) but not in cancer-free women (HR = 0.91 [0.79-1.06]; p-interaction = .04). A similar pattern was also seen in relation to HF but did not reach statistical significance (p-interaction = .23). CONCLUSION: These results from this observational study suggest differing risks of cardiac events in relation to antihypertensive medications depending on history of cancer. Although these results require replication before becoming actionable in a clinical setting, they suggest the need for more rigorous examination of the effect of antihypertensive choice on long-term cardiac outcomes in cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Although additional research is needed to replicate these findings, these data from a large, nationally representative sample of postmenopausal women indicate that beta blockers are favorable to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in reducing the risk of cardiac events among cancer survivors. This differs from the patterns observed in a noncancer cohort, which largely mirrors what is found in the randomized clinical trials in the general population.

8.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(2): 244-253, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ability to identify novel risk factors for health outcomes is a key strength of electronic health record (EHR)-based research. However, the validity of such studies is limited by error in EHR-derived phenotypes. The objective of this study was to develop a novel procedure for reducing bias in estimated associations between risk factors and phenotypes in EHR data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method combines the strengths of a gold-standard phenotype obtained through manual chart review for a small validation set of patients and an automatically-derived phenotype that is available for all patients but is potentially error-prone (hereafter referred to as the algorithm-derived phenotype). An augmented estimator of associations is obtained by optimally combining these 2 phenotypes. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the augmented estimator and conducted an analysis of risk factors for second breast cancer events using data on a cohort from Kaiser Permanente Washington. RESULTS: The proposed method was shown to reduce bias relative to an estimator using only the algorithm-derived phenotype and reduce variance compared to an estimator using only the validation data. DISCUSSION: Our simulation studies and real data application demonstrate that, compared to the estimator using validation data only, the augmented estimator has lower variance (ie, higher statistical efficiency). Compared to the estimator using error-prone EHR-derived phenotypes, the augmented estimator has smaller bias. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed estimator can effectively combine an error-prone phenotype with gold-standard data from a limited chart review in order to improve analyses of risk factors using EHR data.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 158(4): 884-894.e5, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The long-term risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC-related death following adenoma removal are uncertain. Data are needed to inform evidence-based surveillance guidelines, which vary in follow-up recommendations for some polyp types. Using data from a large, community-based integrated health care setting, we examined the risks of CRC and related death by baseline colonoscopy adenoma findings. METHODS: Participants at 21 medical centers underwent baseline colonoscopies from 2004 through 2010; findings were categorized as no-adenoma, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. Participants were followed until the earliest of CRC diagnosis, death, health plan disenrollment, or December 31, 2017. Risks of CRC and related deaths among the high- and low-risk adenoma groups were compared with the no-adenoma group using Cox regression adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Among 186,046 patients, 64,422 met eligibility criteria (54.3% female; mean age, 61.6 ± 7.1 years; median follow-up time, 8.1 years from the baseline colonoscopy). Compared with the no-adenoma group (45,881 patients), the high-risk adenoma group (7563 patients) had a higher risk of CRC (hazard ratio [HR] 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-3.63) and related death (HR 3.94; 95% CI 1.90-6.56), whereas the low-risk adenoma group (10,978 patients) did not have a significant increase in risk of CRC (HR 1.29; 95% CI 0.89-1.88) or related death (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.19-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: With up to 14 years of follow-up, high-risk adenomas were associated with an increased risk of CRC and related death, supporting early colonoscopy surveillance. Low-risk adenomas were not associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC or related deaths. These results can inform current surveillance guidelines for high- and low-risk adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 238-246, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer screening is a complex process encompassing risk assessment, the initial screening examination, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of cancer precursors or early cancers. Metrics that enable comparisons across different screening targets are needed. We present population-based screening metrics for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers for nine sites participating in the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens consortium. METHODS: We describe how selected metrics map to a trans-organ conceptual model of the screening process. For each cancer type, we calculated calendar year 2013 metrics for the screen-eligible target population (breast: ages 40-74 years; cervical: ages 21-64 years; colorectal: ages 50-75 years). Metrics for screening participation, timely diagnostic evaluation, and diagnosed cancers in the screened and total populations are presented for the total eligible population and stratified by age group and cancer type. RESULTS: The overall screening-eligible populations in 2013 were 305 568 participants for breast, 3 160 128 for cervical, and 2 363 922 for colorectal cancer screening. Being up-to-date for testing was common for all three cancer types: breast (63.5%), cervical (84.6%), and colorectal (77.5%). The percentage of abnormal screens ranged from 10.7% for breast, 4.4% for cervical, and 4.5% for colorectal cancer screening. Abnormal breast screens were followed up diagnostically in almost all (96.8%) cases, and cervical and colorectal were similar (76.2% and 76.3%, respectively). Cancer rates per 1000 screens were 5.66, 0.17, and 1.46 for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive assessment of metrics by the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens consortium enabled systematic identification of screening process steps in need of improvement. We encourage widespread use of common metrics to allow interventions to be tested across cancer types and health-care settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(12): 1341-1350, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe patterns of opioid use in cancer survivors. METHODS: In a cohort study of colon cancer patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 and enrolled at two Kaiser Permanente regions, we constructed quarterly measures of opioid use from 1 year before cancer diagnosis through 5 years after diagnosis to examine changes in use. Measures included any use, incident use, regular use (use ≥ 45 days in a 91-day quarter), and average daily dose (converted to morphine milligram equivalent, MME). We also assessed temporal trends of opioid use. RESULTS: Of 2,039 colon cancer patients, 11-15% received opioids in the four pre-diagnosis quarters, 68% in the first quarter after diagnosis, and 15-17% in each subsequent 19 quarters. Regular opioid use increased from 3 to 5% pre-diagnosis to 5-7% post diagnosis. Average dose increased from 15 to 17 MME/day pre-diagnosis to 14-22 MME/day post diagnosis (excluding the quarter in which cancer was diagnosed). Among post-diagnosis opioid users, 73-95% were on a low dose (< 20 MME/day). Over years, regular use of opioids increased in survivorship with no change in dosage. CONCLUSION: Opioid use slightly increased following a colon cancer diagnosis, but high-dose use was rare. Research is needed to differentiate under- versus over-treatment of cancer pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Head Neck ; 41(11): 3948-3959, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer survivors experience difficulty returning to work after treatment. To better understand specific barriers to returning to work, we investigated factors associated with discontinuing employment among older and working-age survivors. METHODS: The sample included 675 oropharyngeal cancer survivors (median: 6 years posttreatment) diagnosed from 2000 to 2013 and employed at diagnosis. Relative risk models were constructed to examine the independent associations of demographic and health factors, and symptom experiences per the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN) with posttreatment employment, overall and by age (<60 years vs ≥60 years at survey). RESULTS: Symptom interference was not statistically significantly associated with posttreatment employment status among respondents ≥60 years. Among working-age respondents <60 years, symptom interference was strongly associated with posttreatment employment. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to assess and lessen symptom burden in working-age survivors should be evaluated as approaches to support regaining core functions needed for continued employment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/complicações , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
13.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 37, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531383

RESUMO

Background: Despite the importance of characterizing colonoscopy indication for quality monitoring and cancer screening program evaluation, there is no standard approach to documenting colonoscopy indication in medical records. Methods: We applied two algorithms in three health care systems to assign colonoscopy indication to persons 50-89 years old who received a colonoscopy during 2010-2013. Both algorithms used standard procedure, diagnostic, and laboratory codes. One algorithm, the KPNC algorithm, used a hierarchical approach to classify exam indication into: diagnostic, surveillance, or screening; whereas the other, the SEARCH algorithm, used a logistic regression-based algorithm to provide the probability that colonoscopy was performed for screening. Gold standard assessment of indication was from medical records abstraction. Results: There were 1,796 colonoscopy exams included in analyses; age and racial/ethnic distributions of participants differed across health care systems. The KPNC algorithm's sensitivities and specificities for screening indication ranged from 0.78-0.82 and 0.78-0.91, respectively; sensitivities and specificities for diagnostic indication ranged from 0.78-0.89 and 0.74-0.82, respectively. The KPNC algorithm had poor sensitivities (ranging from 0.11-0.67) and high specificities for surveillance exams. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the SEARCH algorithm for screening indication ranged from 0.76-0.84 across health care systems. For screening indication, the KPNC algorithm obtained higher specificities than the SEARCH algorithm at the same sensitivity. Conclusion: Despite standardized implementation of these indication algorithms across three health care systems, the capture of colonoscopy indication data was imperfect. Thus, we recommend that standard, systematic documentation of colonoscopy indication should be added to medical records to ensure efficient and accurate data capture.

14.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 25, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328132

RESUMO

Introduction: The symptom burden faced by long-term head and neck cancer survivors is not well understood. In addition, the accuracy of clinical data sources for symptom ascertainment is not clear. Objective: To 1) describe the prevalence of symptoms in 5-year survivors of head and neck cancer, and 2) to evaluate agreement between symptoms obtained via self-report and symptoms obtained from clinical data sources. Methods: We recruited 5-year survivors of head and neck cancer enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Washington (n = 54). Symptoms were assessed using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory head and neck cancer module. For each symptom, we assessed the agreement of the patient's survey response ("gold standard") with the 1) medical chart and 2) administrative health care claims data. We computed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value, along with their 95 percent confidence intervals, for each clinical data source. Results: Eighty percent of patients responded. Nearly all participants (95 percent) reported experiencing at least one symptom from the MDASI-HN, and 93 percent reported two or more symptoms. Among patients reporting a given symptom, there was generally no evidence of the symptom from either clinical data source (i.e., sensitivity was generally no greater than 40 percent). The specificity and PPV of the clinical data sources were generally higher than the sensitivity. Conclusion: Relying only on medical chart review and/or administrative health data would substantially underestimate symptom burden in long-term head and neck cancer survivors.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196570, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276178

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer screening rates are suboptimal, particularly among sociodemographically disadvantaged groups. Objective: To examine whether guaranteed money or probabilistic lottery financial incentives conditional on completion of colorectal cancer screening increase screening uptake, particularly among groups with lower screening rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This parallel, 3-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 13, 2017, through April 12, 2018, at 21 medical centers in an integrated health care system in western Washington. A total of 838 age-eligible patients overdue for colorectal cancer screening who completed a questionnaire that confirmed eligibility and included sociodemographic and psychosocial questions were enrolled. Interventions: Interventions were (1) mail only (n = 284; up to 3 mailings that included information on the importance of colorectal cancer screening and screening test choices, a fecal immunochemical test [FIT], and a reminder letter if necessary), (2) mail and monetary (n = 270; mailings plus guaranteed $10 on screening completion), or (3) mail and lottery (n = 284; mailings plus a 1 in 10 chance of receiving $50 on screening completion). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was completion of any colorectal cancer screening within 6 months of randomization. Secondary outcomes were FIT or colonoscopy completion within 6 months of randomization. Intervention effects were compared across sociodemographic subgroups and self-reported psychosocial measures. Results: A total of 838 participants (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [7.2] years; 546 [65.2%] female; 433 [52.2%] white race and 101 [12.1%] Hispanic ethnicity) were included in the study. Completion of any colorectal screening was not significantly higher for the mail and monetary group (207 of 270 [76.7%]) or the mail and lottery group (212 of 284 [74.6%]) than for the mail only group (203 of 284 [71.5%]) (P = .11). For FIT completion, interventions had a statistically significant effect (P = .04), with a net increase of 7.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-15.1%) in the mail and monetary group and 7.1% (95% CI, -0.2% to 14.3%) in the mail and lottery group compared with the mail only group. For patients with Medicaid insurance, the net increase compared with mail only in FIT completion for the mail and monetary or the mail and lottery group was 37.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-64.3%) (34.2% for the mail and monetary group and 40.4% for the mail and lottery group) compared with a net increase of only 5.6% (95% CI, -0.9% to 12.2%) among those not Medicaid insured (test for interaction P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Financial incentives increased FIT uptake but not overall colorectal cancer screening. Financial incentives may decrease screening disparities among some sociodemographically disadvantaged groups. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00697047.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Motivação , Sangue Oculto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Demografia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Postais/métodos , Serviços Postais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 979-987, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines recommend increased surveillance of individuals with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), but there is uncertainty about the risk associated with SSA/Ps. We aimed to determine the association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: This case-control study included Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA) members who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007, and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps but no conventional adenomas according to study pathologist histologic review. Subsequent pathology reports and biopsies through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We linked to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry to identify additional CRC cases. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing those with SSA/Ps to those with HPs. RESULTS: There were 161 individuals with index SSA/Ps, 548 with HPs, and 918 subsequent endoscopies included in analyses. Of those with index SSA/Ps, 19 had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia; 39 with HPs had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Compared to those with HPs, those with SSA/Ps were not statistically significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia (adjusted OR 1.79; CI 0.98-3.28). Polyp size ≥ 10 mm, right colon location, and the presence of multiple serrated polyps were also not associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is not a strong association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia during the 5 years following SSA/P removal.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(7): 747-755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our objective was to describe differences in treatment patterns and survival between early-onset (< 50 years old) and late-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in community-based health systems. METHODS: We used tumor registry and electronic health record data to identify and characterize patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum from 2010 to 2014 at six US health systems in the patient outcomes to advance learning (PORTAL) network. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the distribution of tumor characteristics and treatment patterns in early-onset versus late-onset CRC. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and CIs comparing survival between early- and late-onset CRC patients. RESULTS: There were 1,424 early-onset and 10,810 late-onset CRC cases in our analyses. Compared to late-onset CRC, early-onset CRC was significantly associated with advanced-stage disease, high-grade histology, signet ring histology, and rectal or left colon location. After adjusting for differences in tumor and patient characteristics, early-onset patients were more likely than late-onset patients to have > 12 lymph nodes examined (OR 1.60, CI 1.37-1.87), to receive systemic therapy (chemotherapy or immunotherapy) within 6 months of diagnosis (OR 2.84, CI 2.40-3.37), and to have a reduced risk of CRC-specific death (HR 0.66, CI 0.56-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset CRC is associated with aggressive tumor characteristics, distal location, and systemic therapy use. Despite some adverse risk factors, these patients tend to have better survival than older onset patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 996-999, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about factors associated with long-term survival (LTS) following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) to explore predictors of LTS (defined as ≥7 years of survival) using electronic medical record data from a network of integrated health care systems. Multivariable logistic regression with forward selection was used to compare characteristics of women who survived ≥7 years after diagnosis (n = 148) to those who died within 7 years of diagnosis (n = 494). RESULTS: Our final model included study site, age, stage at diagnosis, CA-125, comorbidity score, receipt of chemotherapy, BMI, and four separate comorbid conditions: weight loss, depression, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Of these, only younger age, lower stage, and depression were statistically significantly associated with LTS. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any new characteristics associated with HGSOC survival. IMPACT: Prognosis of ovarian cancer generally remains poor. Large, pooled studies of ovarian cancer are needed to identify characteristics that may improve survival.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(5): 740-753, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids may increase cancer risk and progression through multiple pathways. Our objective was to estimate the association between chronic opioid use and risk of second breast cancer events (SBCEs). METHODS: Cohort study of women greater than or equal to 18 years, diagnosed with early stage breast cancer between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2008, and enrolled in a large health plan for 1+ years before and after (unless died) diagnosis. SBCEs were defined as evidence of recurrence or second primary breast cancer in the medical chart. Chronic opioid use was defined as 75+ days of use in any moving 90-day window after breast cancer diagnosis and varied to 150+ days in a 180-day window in a sensitivity analysis. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SBCE and components of SBCE by chronic opioid use. RESULTS: Almost 10% met the criteria for chronic use and almost a third of users were taking opioids for greater than 3 years. Risk of SBCEs (HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.85-1.70), including second primary breast cancer (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 0.71-2.70), was nonsignificantly higher among chronic users vs nonchronic/nonusers. The HR for recurrence was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.76-2.70). Results of the sensitivity analyses on longer opioid use does support an association with SBCE or recurrence. CONCLUSION: This first US-based study on chronic opioid use and cancer outcomes provides some reassurance on safety. However, the question warrants further exploration in other populations and settings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/induzido quimicamente , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(5): e143-e152, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with Medicaid insurance or Medicaid-like coverage would have longer times to follow-up and be less likely to complete colonoscopy compared with patients with commercial insurance within the same healthcare systems. METHODS: A total of 35,009 patients aged 50-64years with a positive fecal immunochemical test were evaluated in Northern and Southern California Kaiser Permanente systems and in a North Texas safety-net system between 2011 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier estimation was used between 2016 and 2017 to calculate the probability of having follow-up colonoscopy by coverage type. Among Kaiser Permanente patients, Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for the association between coverage type and receipt of follow-up, adjusting for sociodemographics and health status. RESULTS: Even within the same integrated system with organized follow-up, patients with Medicaid were 24% less likely to complete follow-up as those with commercial insurance. Percentage receiving colonoscopy within 3 months after a positive fecal immunochemical test was 74.6% for commercial insurance, 63.10% for Medicaid only, and 37.5% for patients served by the integrated safety-net system. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with Medicaid were less likely than those with commercial insurance to complete follow-up colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test and had longer average times to follow-up. With the future of coverage mechanisms uncertain, it is important and timely to assess influences of health insurance coverage on likelihood of follow-up colonoscopy and identify potential disparities in screening completion.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/classificação , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento , California , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Texas , Estados Unidos
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