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J Korean Med Sci ; 35(5): e52, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030924
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(6): e42, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056402


BACKGROUND: To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed. METHODS: Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled "Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy" has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated. RESULTS: These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users. CONCLUSION: The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.

Anatomia Regional , Leitura , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia Regional/educação , Livros , Compreensão , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória , Inquéritos e Questionários
Clin Anat ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943396


Three-dimensional (3D) models of the brain made from magnetic resonance images (MRI) are used in various medical fields. 3D models assembled from grayscale color and low-resolution MTI can be complemented with true color sectioned images of the Visible Korean. The purpose of this study is to apply the MRI automatic segmentation technique to the sectioned images. 3D models of the sectioned images, which have true color and high resolution, can be produced without manual segmentation. The Brain Extraction Tool and the Automated Segmentation Tool of the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) were chosen for automatic segmentation. Using those tools, true color sectioned images were reconstructed from gray 3D models of brain, gray matter, and white matter. Color 3D models of those structures were generated from the gray 3D models using MRIcroGL. The color 3D models made from the sectioned images revealed details of brain anatomy that could not be observed on the 3D models from MRI. This trial suggests that convergence of the MRI segmentation technique with color sectioned images is a time-efficient method for producing color 3D models of various structures. In future, the method of this study will be used for various sectioned images of cadavers. The resulting color sectioned images and 3D models will be made available to other researchers.

Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(2): 143-153, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563971


PURPOSE: The connective tissue between suboccipital muscles and the cervical spinal dura mater (SDM) is known as the myodural bridge (MDB). However, the adjacent relationship of the different connective tissue fibers that form the MDB remains unclear. This information will be highly useful in exploring the function of the MDB. METHODS: The adjacent relationship of different connective tissue fibers of MDB was demonstrated based upon three-dimensional visualization model, P45 plastinated slices and histological sections of human MDB. RESULTS: We found that the MDB originating from the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and obliquus capitis inferior muscle (OCI) in the suboccipital region coexists. Part of the MDB fibers originate from the ventral aspect of the RCPmi and, together with that from the cranial segment of the RCPma, pass through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace (PAOiS) and enter into the posterior aspect of the upper cervical SDM. Also, part of the MDB fibers originate from the dorsal aspect of the RCPmi, the ventral aspect of the caudal segment of the RCPma, and the ventral aspect of the medial segment of the OCI, enter the central part of the posterior atlanto-axial interspace (PAAiS) and fuse with the vertebral dura ligament (VDL), which connects with the cervical SDM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings prove that the MDB exists as a complex structure which we termed the 'myodural bridge complex' (MDBC). In the process of head movement, tensile forces could be transferred possibly and effectively by means of the MDBC. The concept of MDBC will be beneficial in the overall exploration of the function of the MDB.

Clin Anat ; 33(1): 66-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573101


The anatomy of the pallidothalamic tracts, including the ansa lenticularis, lenticular fasciculus, and thalamic fasciculus (field H1 of Forel), should be elucidated by neurosurgeons and neuroscientists who study deep brain stimulation. In this study, serially sectioned images of a human cadaver head were employed to overcome the limitations of existing methods to observe the pallidothalamic tracts. Owing to the high resolution and real color of the sectioned images, 28 structures, including the pallidothalamic tracts and mammillothalamic fasciculus, were identified. The structures were segmented and made into surface models, which are helpful in improving the stereoscopic understanding. Observing the sectioned images and surface models may help in understanding the detailed anatomy of the pallidothalamic tracts. The new findings, such as the spatial relationship of the tracts, were summarized in a schematic figure. Moreover, to elucidate the anatomical structures along the course of deep brain stimulation, virtual electrodes were inserted into the surface models. The sectioned images and surface models of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of the pallidothalamic tract anatomy. A portable document format file containing the surface models and the sectioned images can be freely downloaded from the authors' homepage. Clin. Anat. 32:66-76, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Globo Pálido/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Subtálamo/anatomia & histologia , Tálamo/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Tridimensional
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(46): e321, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779060
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(41): e280, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650722
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(34): e215, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456381
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(34): e218, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456382


BACKGROUND: The sectioned images of a cadaver head made from the Visible Korean project have been used for research and educational purposes. However, the image resolution is insufficient to observe detailed structures suitable for experts. In this study, advanced sectioned images with higher resolution were produced for the identification of more detailed structures. METHODS: The head of a donated female cadaver was scanned for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor images (DTIs). After the head was frozen, the head was sectioned serially at 0.04-mm intervals and photographed repeatedly using a digital camera. RESULTS: On the resulting 4,000 sectioned images (intervals and pixel size, 0.04 mm³; color depth, 48 bits color; a file size, 288 Mbytes), minute brain structures, which can be observed not on previous sectioned images but on microscopic slides, were observed. The voxel size of this study (0.04 mm³) was very minute compared to our previous study (0.1 mm³; resolution, 4,368 × 2,912) and Visible Human Project of the USA (0.33 mm³; resolution, 2,048 × 2,048). Furthermore, the sectioned images were combined with tractography of the DTIs to elucidate the white matter with high resolution and the actual color of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The sectioned images will be used for diverse research, including the applications for the cross sectional anatomy and three-dimensional models for virtual experiments.

Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Anatomia Transversal , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(29): e200, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347311
Surg Radiol Anat ; 41(10): 1211-1216, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254041


PURPOSE: The sectioned images of a male's whole body were used for making the four learning tools: the first tool to show the sectioned and color-filled images; the second tool to show surface models of individual structures; the third tool to show a volume model that was continuously peeled; the fourth tool to show a volume model that was freely sectioned. This study was intended to propose the possible learning effects of the four tools. METHODS: The fourth tool that was recently developed to facilitate oblique sectioning and rotation of the volume model in real time. RESULTS: The four learning tools had their own characteristics, so that they could be separately used for specific achievements. Further, the combination of the tools based on the same raw data may result in a synergic effect. All the tools can be downloaded from the Visible Korean homepage ( gratis. CONCLUSIONS: With the four learning tools, students may experience virtual dissection simulation regardless of the place, time, or economic status. Such free learning tools and commercial learning tools need to be improved to compensate and compete with each other.

Interface Usuário-Computador , Projetos Ser Humano Visível , Cadáver , Dissecação , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Aprendizagem , República da Coreia , Software , Estudantes
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(22): e166, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172698
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(13): e113, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950255

J Korean Med Sci ; 34(15): e129, 2019 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001940
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(9): e72, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863268
Phys Med Biol ; 64(8): 085020, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818284


In the present study, to overcome the dosimetric limitations of the previous voxel-type reference Korean computational phantoms due to their limited voxel resolutions (i.e. on the order of millimeters) and the nature of voxel geometry, a pair of new reference Korean phantoms, called mesh-type reference Korean phantoms (MRKPs), were developed for the adult male and female in a high-quality/fidelity mesh format. The developed phantoms include all target and source regions required for effective dose calculation, even micrometer-scale target and source regions of the respiratory and alimentary tract organs, skin, urinary bladder, and eye lens. The developed phantoms, which are in either the polygon-mesh (PM) format or the tetrahedral-mesh (TM) format as necessary, can be directly used in several general-purpose Monte Carlo codes (e.g. Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS) without voxelization. In order to understand the dosimetric impact of the new phantoms, the dose coefficients (=fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients) were calculated for photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 GeV for the anterior-posterior (AP) irradiation geometry and compared with those of the previous voxel-type reference Korean phantoms. The results demonstrate that the effective dose coefficients of the MRKPs were generally similar to those of the previous voxel-type reference phantoms for photons; however, for electrons, significant differences were observed at energies lower than 1 MeV that were mainly due to the explicit definition of the 50 µm-thick radiosensitive target layer in the skin of the new mesh phantoms.

Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Imagens de Fantasmas/normas , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica/normas , Adulto , Elétrons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Fótons , Proteção Radiológica/métodos