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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467512

RESUMO

This consensus statement presents a comprehensive and evidence-based set of guidelines for the care of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in both adult and pediatric populations. The guidelines are established by an international panel of experts under the auspices of the American Society of Enhanced Recovery and Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia based on a comprehensive search and review of literature up to September 2019. The guidelines provide recommendation on identifying high-risk patients, managing baseline PONV risks, choices for prophylaxis, and rescue treatment of PONV as well as recommendations for the institutional implementation of a PONV protocol. In addition, the current guidelines focus on the evidence for newer drugs (eg, second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 [5-HT3] receptor antagonists, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists, and dopamine antagonists), discussion regarding the use of general multimodal PONV prophylaxis, and PONV management as part of enhanced recovery pathways. This set of guidelines have been endorsed by 23 professional societies and organizations from different disciplines (Appendix 1). WHAT OTHER GUIDELINES ARE AVAILABLE ON THIS TOPIC?: Guidelines currently available include the 3 iterations of the consensus guideline we previously published, which was last updated 6 years ago; a guideline published by American Society of Health System Pharmacists in 1999; a brief discussion on PONV management as part of a comprehensive postoperative care guidelines; focused guidelines published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and the Association of Perianesthesia Nursing; and several guidelines published in other languages. WHY WAS THIS GUIDELINE DEVELOPED?: The current guideline was developed to provide perioperative practitioners with a comprehensive and up-to-date, evidence-based guidance on the risk stratification, prevention, and treatment of PONV in both adults and children. The guideline also provides guidance on the management of PONV within enhanced recovery pathways. HOW DOES THIS GUIDELINE DIFFER FROM EXISTING GUIDELINES?: The previous consensus guideline was published 6 years ago with a literature search updated to October 2011. Several guidelines, which have been published since, are either limited to a specific populations or do not address all aspects of PONV management. The current guideline was developed based on a systematic review of the literature published up through September 2019. This includes recent studies of newer pharmacological agents such as the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, a dopamine antagonist, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists as well as several novel combination therapies. In addition, it also contains an evidence-based discussion on the management of PONV in enhanced recovery pathways. We have also discussed the implementation of a general multimodal PONV prophylaxis in all at-risk surgical patients based on the consensus of the expert panel.

2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids have been reported to increase the risk for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in chronic non-cancer pain patients on opioid therapy. This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence of SDB in opioid users with chronic pain and comparing it to patients with "Pain:No-opioids" and "No-pain:No-opioids". METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. We included all observational studies that reported the prevalence of SDB in chronic pain patients on long-term opioid therapy (≥3 months). The primary outcome was the pooled prevalence of SDB in opioid users with chronic pain, "Pain:Opioids" group and comparing it to "Pain:No-opioids" and "No-pain:No-opioids" groups. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: After screening 1,404 studies, 9 studies with 3,791 patients were included in the meta-analysis. ["Pain:Opioids" group, n=3181 (84%); "Pain:No-opioids" group, n=359 (9.4%); "No- pain:No-opioids" group, n=251 (6.6%)]. The pooled prevalence of SDB in the Pain:Opioids, Pain:No-opioids, and No-pain:No-opioids groups were 91%, 83%, and 72% in sleep clinics, and 63%, 10%, and 75% in pain clinics, respectively. Furthermore, among the Pain:Opioids group, CSA prevalence in sleep and pain clinics was 33% and 20% respectively. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of SDB in chronic pain patients on opioid therapy is not significantly different compared to Pain:No-opioids and No-pain:No-opioids groups and varies considerably depending on site of patient recruitment (i.e. sleep versus pain clinics). The prevalence of CSA is high in sleep and pain clinics among the Pain:Opioids group.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 702-712, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine is commonly and effectively used for analgesia after joint arthroplasty, but has been associated with delayed respiratory depression. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at higher risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. However, data is limited regarding the safety of intrathecal morphine in this population undergoing arthroplasty. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the safety of intrathecal morphine in 1,326 patients with documented or suspected obstructive sleep apnea undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. Chart review was performed to determine clinical characteristics, perioperative events, and postoperative outcomes. All patients received neuraxial anesthesia with low-dose (100 µg) intrathecal morphine (exposure) or without opioids (control). The primary outcome was any postoperative pulmonary complication including: (1) respiratory depression requiring naloxone; (2) pneumonia; (3) acute respiratory event requiring consultation with the critical care response team; (4) respiratory failure requiring intubation/mechanical ventilation; (5) unplanned admission to the intensive care unit for respiratory support; and (6) death from a respiratory cause. The authors hypothesized that intrathecal morphine would be associated with increased postoperative complications. RESULTS: In 1,326 patients, 1,042 (78.6%) received intrathecal morphine. The mean age of patients was 65 ± 9 yr and body mass index was 34.7 ± 7.0 kg/m. Of 1,326 patients, 622 (46.9%) had suspected obstructive sleep apnea (Snoring, Tired, Observed, Pressure, Body Mass Index, Age, Neck size, Gender [STOP-Bang] score greater than 3), while 704 of 1,326 (53.1%) had documented polysomnographic diagnosis. Postoperatively, 20 of 1,322 (1.5%) patients experienced pulmonary complications, including 14 of 1,039 (1.3%) in the exposed and 6 of 283 (2.1%) in the control group (P = 0.345). Overall, there were 6 of 1 322 (0.5%) cases of respiratory depression, 18 of 1,322 (1.4%) respiratory events requiring critical care team consultation, and 4 of 1,322 (0.3%) unplanned intensive care unit admissions; these rates were similar between both groups. After adjustment for confounding, intrathecal morphine was not significantly associated with postoperative pulmonary complication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.24 to 1.67]; P = 0.308). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose intrathecal morphine, in conjunction with multimodal analgesia, was not reliably associated with postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing joint arthroplasty.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764157

RESUMO

Smokers are at increased risk for surgical complications. Despite the known benefits of smoking cessation, many perioperative health care providers do not routinely provide smoking cessation interventions. The variation in delivery of perioperative smoking cessation interventions may be due to limited high-level evidence for whether smoking cessation interventions used in the general population are effective and feasible in the surgical population, as well as the challenges and barriers to implementation of interventions. Yet smoking is a potentially modifiable risk factor for improving short- and long-term patient outcomes. The purpose of the Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI) Consensus Statement on Perioperative Smoking Cessation is to present recommendations based on current scientific evidence in surgical patients. These statements address questions regarding the timing and intensity of interventions, roles of perioperative health care providers, and behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Barriers and strategies to overcome challenges surrounding implementation of interventions and future areas of research are identified. These statements are based on the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a multidisciplinary group of experts at the time of publication.

5.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688082
6.
Anesth Analg ; 129(4): 1130-1136, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients undergoing general anesthesia are at risk of hypoxemia during anesthesia induction. High-flow nasal oxygenation use during anesthesia induction prolongs safe apnea time in nonobese surgical patients. The primary objective of our study was to compare safe apnea time, between patients given high-flow nasal oxygenation or conventional facemask oxygenation during anesthesia induction, in morbidly obese surgical patients. METHODS: Research ethics board approval was obtained. Elective surgical patients ≥18 years with body mass index ≥40 kg·m were included. Patients with severe comorbidity, gastric reflux disease, known difficult airway, or nasal obstruction were excluded. After obtaining informed consent patients were randomized. In the intervention (high-flow nasal oxygenation) group, preoxygenation was provided by 100% nasal oxygen for 3 minutes at 40 L·minute; in the control group, preoxygenation was delivered using a facemask with 100% oxygen, targeting end-tidal O2 >85%. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. Bag-mask ventilation was not performed. At 2 minutes after rocuronium, videolaryngoscopy was performed. If the laryngoscopy grade was I or II, laryngoscope was left in place and the study was continued; if grade III or IV was observed, the patient was excluded from the study. During the apnea period, high-flow nasal oxygenation patients received nasal oxygen at 60 L·minute; control group patients received no supplemental oxygen. The primary outcome, safe apnea time, was reached when oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) fell to 95% or maximum 6 minutes of apnea. The patient was then intubated. T tests and χ analyses were used to compare groups. P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Forty patients completed the study. Baseline parameters were comparable between groups. Safe apnea time was significantly longer (261.4 ± 77.7 vs 185.5 ± 52.9 seconds; mean difference [95% CI], 75.9 [33.3-118.5]; P = .001) and the minimum peri-intubation SpO2 was higher (91.0 ± 3.5 vs 88.0 ± 4.8; mean difference [95% CI], 3.1 [0.4-5.7]; P = .026) in the high-flow nasal oxygenation group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: High-flow nasal oxygenation, compared to conventional oxygenation, provided a longer safe apnea time by 76 seconds (40%) and higher minimum SpO2 in morbidly obese patients during anesthesia induction. High-flow oxygenation use should be considered in morbidly obese surgical patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Apneia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Oxigenoterapia , Oxigênio/sangue , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Apneia/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 195, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly, leading to deleterious health effects and decreasing quality of life. This systematic review aims to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and examine whether an association between OSA and MCI exists. METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsychINFO, Scopus, the Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for published and unpublished studies. We included studies in adults with a diagnosis of MCI that reported on the prevalence of OSA. Two independent reviewers performed the abstract and full-text screening, data extraction and the study quality critical appraisal. RESULTS: Five studies were included in the systematic review. Overall, OSA prevalence rates in patients with MCI varied between 11 and 71% and were influenced by OSA diagnostic methods and patient recruitment locations (community or clinic based). Among studies using the following OSA diagnostic measures- self-report, Home Sleep Apnea Testing, Berlin Questionnaire and polysomnography- the OSA prevalence rates in MCI were 11, 27, 59 and 71%, respectively. In a community-based sample, the prevalence of OSA in patients with and without MCI was 27 and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on limited evidence, the prevalence of OSA in patients with MCI is 27% and varies based upon OSA diagnostic methods and patient recruitment locations. Our findings provide an important framework for future studies to prospectively investigate the association between OSA and MCI among larger community-based cohorts and implement a standardized approach to diagnose OSA in memory clinics. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42018096577.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações
12.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175500

RESUMO

The utility of capnography to detect early respiratory compromise in surgical patients after anesthesia is unclear due to limited prospective data. The purpose of this trial was to determine the frequency and duration of capnography-detected respiratory adverse events in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). In this prospective observational trial, 250 consenting patients undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia were monitored by standard monitoring together with blinded capnography and pulse oximetry monitoring. The capnography notification settings were adjusted to match nursing (Level II) and physician (Level I) alarm thresholds. 163 (95%) patients had a Level II notification and 135 (78%) had a Level I notification during standard monitoring. The most common events detected by the capnography monitor included hypocapnia, apnea, tachypnea, bradypnea and hypoxemia, with silent notification duration for these events ranging from 17 ± 13 to 189 ± 127 s. During standard monitoring, 15 respiratory adverse events were reported, with 8 events occurring when valid blinded/silenced capnography and pulse oximetry data was collected simultaneously. Capnography and the Integrated Pulmonary Index™ algorithm (IPI) detected respiratory adverse events earlier than standard monitoring in 75% and 88% of cases, respectively, with an average early warning time of 8 ± 11 min. Three patients' blinded capnography was unblinded to facilitate clinical care. Respiratory adverse events are frequent in the PACU, and the addition of capnography and IPI to current standard monitoring provides potentially clinically relevant information on respiratory status, including early warning of some respiratory adverse events.Trial registration ClinialTrials.gov Identifier NCT02707003 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02707003 ).

13.
JAMA ; 321(18): 1788-1798, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087023

RESUMO

Importance: Unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea increases cardiovascular risks in the general population, but whether obstructive sleep apnea poses a similar risk in the perioperative period remains uncertain. Objectives: To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day risk of cardiovascular complications after major noncardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study involving adult at-risk patients without prior diagnosis of sleep apnea and undergoing major noncardiac surgery from 8 hospitals in 5 countries between January 2012 and July 2017, with follow-up until August 2017. Postoperative monitoring included nocturnal pulse oximetry and measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations. Exposures: Obstructive sleep apnea was classified as mild (respiratory event index [REI] 5-14.9 events/h), moderate (REI 15-30), and severe (REI >30), based on preoperative portable sleep monitoring. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial injury, cardiac death, heart failure, thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and stroke within 30 days of surgery. Proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative cardiovascular complications. Results: Among a total of 1364 patients recruited for the study, 1218 patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 9] years; 40.2% women) were included in the analyses. At 30 days after surgery, rates of the primary outcome were 30.1% (41/136) for patients with severe OSA, 22.1% (52/235) for patients with moderate OSA, 19.0% (86/452) for patients with mild OSA, and 14.2% (56/395) for patients with no OSA. OSA was associated with higher risk for the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-2.01]; P = .01); however, the association was significant only among patients with severe OSA (adjusted HR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.49-3.34]; P = .001) and not among those with moderate OSA (adjusted HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.98-2.09]; P = .07) or mild OSA (adjusted HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.97-1.91]; P = .08) (P = .01 for interaction). The mean cumulative duration of oxyhemoglobin desaturation less than 80% during the first 3 postoperative nights in patients with cardiovascular complications (23.1 [95% CI, 15.5-27.7] minutes) was longer than in those without (10.2 [95% CI, 7.8-10.9] minutes) (P < .001). No significant interaction effects on perioperative outcomes were observed with type of anesthesia, use of postoperative opioids, and supplemental oxygen therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Among at-risk adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery, unrecognized severe obstructive sleep apnea was significantly associated with increased risk of 30-day postoperative cardiovascular complications. Further research would be needed to assess whether interventions can modify this risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
14.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1098-1105, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs commonly in surgical patients despite widespread prophylactic antiemetic use. Rescue options are currently limited. 5HT3 antagonists are most frequently used for prophylaxis, but if they fail, additional doses are not effective as rescue medication. Intravenous (IV) amisulpride, a well-studied D2/D3 antagonist, has been shown in trials to prevent PONV. This study was designed to determine if amisulpride could be used to treat established PONV in patients at low-to-moderate risk of PONV who had not received any prior prophylaxis. METHODS: Men and women aged over 18 years were permitted to enroll if they were to undergo general inhalational anesthesia, expected to last at least 1 hour, for an outpatient or inpatient surgical procedure. Patients who then suffered PONV were randomized equally to 1 of 3 single-dose IV regimens: placebo or 5 or 10 mg amisulpride. The primary end point was complete response, defined as no emesis in the period 30 minutes to 24 hours after study drug treatment and no use of rescue medication in the entire 24-hour period. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled preoperatively, of whom 560 were randomized to a treatment arm. Complete response occurred in 39 of 181 patients (21.5%) in the placebo group compared to 60 of 191 patients (31.4%; P = .016) and 59 of 188 patients (31.4%; P = .016) in the amisulpride 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively. The adverse event profile of amisulpride at either dose was similar to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: IV amisulpride at 5 and 10 mg was safe and efficacious in the treatment of established PONV in surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with no prior PONV prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Amissulprida/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Amissulprida/efeitos adversos , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
Anesth Analg ; 129(1): 204-211, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882519

RESUMO

There is increasing awareness that sleep disorders may be associated with increased perioperative risk. The Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine created the Narcolepsy Perioperative Task Force: (1) to investigate the current state of knowledge of the perioperative risk for patients with narcolepsy, (2) to determine the viability of developing perioperative guidelines for the management of patients with narcolepsy, and (3) to delineate future research goals and clinically relevant outcomes. The Narcolepsy Perioperative Task Force established that there is evidence for increased perioperative risk in patients with narcolepsy; however, this evidence is sparse and based on case reviews, case series, and retrospective reviews. Mechanistically, there are a number of potential mechanisms by which patients with narcolepsy could be at increased risk for perioperative complications. These include aggravation of the disease itself, dysautonomia, narcolepsy-related medications, anesthesia interactions, and withdrawal of narcolepsy-related medications. At this time, there is inadequate research to develop an expert consensus or guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with narcolepsy. The paucity of available literature highlights the critical need to determine if patients with narcolepsy are at an increased perioperative risk and to establish appropriate research protocols and clearly delineated patient-centered outcomes. There is a real need for collaborative research among sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative providers. This future research will become the foundation for the development of guidelines, or at a minimum, a better understanding how to optimize the perioperative care of patients with narcolepsy.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Narcolepsia/complicações , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/normas , Sono , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Narcolepsia/diagnóstico , Narcolepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 25, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a common post-operative complication in elderly individuals and imposes a significant health and financial burden. Identifying predictive biomarkers may help understand the pathophysiology of POD. Our objective is to summarize the evidence of pre-operative biomarkers and imaging tests to predict POD in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: A systematic search of English language articles in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, PsychINFO, PubMed and ClinicalTrials. Gov up to January 2018 was performed. Studies that used biomarkers or imaging tests to predict POD and a validated POD assessment tool were included. Animal studies, paediatric, cardiac and intracranial surgery were excluded. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality In Prognosis Study tool. RESULTS: Thirty-four prospective cohort studies involving 4424 patients were included. Nineteen studies described serum tests [Interleukin-6, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), cholinesterases, apolipoprotein-E genotype, leptin, hypovitaminosis, hypoalbuminaemia, gamma-amino butyric acid], 10 described cerebral-spinal fluid tests (monoamine precursor, melatonin, acute phase proteins, S100B and neurofibrillary tangles), and 5 described imaging tests. Two studies had high risk of bias due to unclear outcome measurement and study participation. CRP was significantly associated with POD in 5 studies. Other biomarkers were either examined by only a single study or two or more studies with conflicting results. CONCLUSION: CRP is the most promising biomarker associated with POD. However, we are still in the early stages in identifying biomarkers and imaging tests that may further understanding of the pathophysiology of POD.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Delírio do Despertar/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Delírio do Despertar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Anesth Analg ; 129(5): 1374-1380, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy may be at increased perioperative risk due to the interactions among anesthesia, narcolepsy, and narcolepsy medications. This study sought to determine the perioperative experience of narcoleptic patients undergoing anesthesia or sedation, the frequency of perioperative counseling, and self-reported surgical complications. METHODS: A 22-question survey was developed by expert consensus and distributed by the Narcolepsy Network. Recruitment was via the Narcolepsy Network's list-serve and a Facebook link to the survey. One thousand and twenty respondents reported a diagnosis of narcolepsy and 1 or more procedures under anesthesia or sedation. Descriptive, comparative statistics and logistic regression were utilized. RESULTS: Respondents were mostly women (79.5%) and Caucasian (84.9%), with a mean age of 45 ± 16 years. Most respondents did not receive counseling regarding the possibility of increased sleepiness (70%), cataplexy (90%), or drowsy driving (59%) postanesthesia. More than half of respondents reported adverse events (medication withdrawal symptoms, inadequate pain relief, increased cataplexy). Subjects with cataplexy more frequently reported surgical complications (70% vs 31%; P = .03) and medication withdrawal symptoms (stimulant medications: odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.9, 3.06]; P > .001 and antidepressant medications: odds ratio, 6.5 [95% CI, 2.1-19.5]; P = .001). Of the total sample, 18% indicated surgical complications. Undergoing 5 or more separate surgeries or procedures was associated with a 2-fold increase in self-reported complications (odds ratio, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.3-3.4]; P = .001), difficulty waking (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.45-3.06]; P = .001), and inadequate pain relief (odds ratio, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.01-3.13]; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Most narcoleptic patients report not receiving counseling regarding potential worsening of narcolepsy symptoms postanesthesia or an increased risk of drowsy driving. Enhanced education of perioperative providers about potential narcolepsy-related issues is essential. Respondents frequently self-report adverse events in the perioperative period. Future studies should clarify the perioperative risk associated with narcolepsy to optimize the care and safety of narcoleptic patients.

19.
Anesthesiology ; 130(2): 203-212, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antiemetics are commonly used to prevent postoperative nausea or vomiting, the failure rate is appreciable and there is currently no generally accepted standard for rescue treatment of postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was designed to test the hypothesis that intravenous amisulpride, a dopamine D2/D3-antagonist, is superior to placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. METHODS: A total of 2,285 adult patients undergoing surgery under general inhalational anesthesia and receiving standard antiemetic prophylaxis were enrolled at 23 sites in Canada, France, Germany, and the United States. Of these, 702 patients experienced postoperative nausea or vomiting in the 24-h period after surgery and were randomized to receive a single dose of 5 or 10 mg intravenous amisulpride or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was complete response, defined as no emesis or rescue antiemetic use for 24 h after study drug administration, excluding emesis in the first 30 min. Secondary endpoints included incidence of emesis and rescue medication use, nausea burden, time to treatment failure, and length of stay in postanesthesia care unit and hospital. RESULTS: Complete response occurred in significantly more patients receiving 10 mg amisulpride (96 of 230, 41.7%) than placebo (67 of 235, 28.5%), a 13.2% difference (95% CI, 4.6 to 21.8; odds ratio, 1.80; P = 0.006). A 5-mg dose of amisulpride did not show a significant benefit (80 of 237, 33.8%); the difference from placebo was 5.2% (95% CI, 3.1 to 13.6; odds ratio, 1.24; P = 0.109). The total number of adverse events recorded and proportion of patients with at least one adverse event were comparable between the placebo and amisulpride groups. No clinically relevant toxicities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A single 10-mg dose of intravenous amisulpride was safe and more effective than placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients failing postoperative nausea or vomiting prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Amissulprida/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amissulprida/administração & dosagem , Canadá , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chest ; 155(4): 855-867, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359618

RESUMO

In the surgical setting, OSA is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. At present, risk stratification using OSA-associated parameters derived from polysomnography (PSG) or overnight oximetry to predict postoperative complications has not been established. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the literature to determine the association between parameters extracted from in-laboratory PSG, portable PSG, or overnight oximetry and postoperative adverse events. We obtained pertinent articles from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase (2008 to December 2017). The search included studies with adult patients undergoing surgery who had OSA diagnosed with portable PSG, in-laboratory PSG, or overnight oximetry that reported on specific sleep parameters and at least one adverse outcome. The search was restricted to English-language articles. The search yielded 1,810 articles, of which 21 were included in the review. Preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and measurements of nocturnal hypoxemia such as oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cumulative sleep time percentage with oxyhemoglobin saturation (Spo2) < 90% (CT90), minimum Spo2, mean Spo2, and longest apnea duration were associated with postoperative complications. OSA is associated with postoperative complications in the population undergoing surgery. Clinically and statistically significant associations between AHI and postoperative adverse events exists. Complications may be more likely to occur in the category of moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15). Other parameters from PSG or overnight oximetry such as ODI, CT90, mean and minimal Spo2, and longest apnea duration can be associated with postoperative complications and may provide additional value in risk stratification and minimization.


Assuntos
Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Sono/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Polissonografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
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