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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Size, ulcer, differentiation, and location are known to be factors affecting the T stage accuracy of EUS in gastric cancer. However, whether an interaction exists among recognized variables is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the combinatorial characteristics of group with high overestimation rate to determine which group should be considered carefully for EUS-based treatment plans. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed early gastric cancer patients who underwent EUS from 2005 to 2016. The accuracy of EUS T stage and factors affecting over-/underestimation were examined by using decision tree analysis, the CHAID method. RESULTS: The most significant factor affecting the accuracy of the EUS T stage was the size. The rate of overestimation was higher in lesions > 3 cm (37.2% vs. 28.8% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001). In lesions > 3 cm, the rate of overestimation was higher in lesions with an ulcer (62.1% vs. 35.0%, p < 0.001). Moreover, for lesions ≤ 3 cm, the accuracy of the EUS T stage was more affected by differentiation and location. The rate of overestimation was higher in undifferentiated-type lesions ≤ 2 cm (24.5% vs. 13.9%, p < 0.001) and 2-3 cm (33.3% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.011). In the differentiated type, the location affected the accuracy of the EUS T stage. CONCLUSION: In this hierarchical analysis, the rate of overestimation was higher in lesions > 3 cm with ulcer, lesions > 3 cm irrespective of ulcer, and undifferentiated-type lesions measuring 2-3 cm.

2.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have shown to reduce the risk of various cancers. However, their effects on metachronous recurrence (MR) after endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancer (EGC) are unknown. We evaluate their effects on MR development after ER for EGC. METHODS: We selected 11,568 patients who received ER for EGC from 2002 to 2011 from the Korean National Health Insurance database and classified into 2 groups: control and statins using propensity score matching. Metachronous recurrence was defined as the second ER or gastrectomy performed 6 months after the first ER. RESULTS: Mean follow-up period was 8.8 ± 3.1 years. Statins showed a significantly lower incidence of MR than the control group (12.5% vs 2.2%, respectively, P < 0.01). After conducting competing risk analyses and time-dependent cox regression analysis considering immortal time bias, statins still showed a lower incidence rate of MR compared to that observed in the control group. For the multivariate analysis, statins remained significant (HR 0.17; 95% CI 0.13-0.24, P < 0.01). In the dose-response analysis, an inverse dose-response relationship was identified between MR and statins (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Statins was significantly associated with a reduced risk of MR after ER for EGC with an inverse dose-response relationship.

3.
Gut Liver ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816671

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Ghrelin agonists are emerging prokinetic agents for treating gastroparesis. Although recent clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with diabetic gastroparesis (DG), the impact of such agents on symptoms and gastric dysmotility remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ghrelin agonists in patients with DG. Methods: A search of common electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) was preformed, using keyword combinations that referenced ghrelin and DG and retrieving all eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ghrelin agonists versus placebo in patients with DG. The primary outcome measure was the change in patient-reported overall gastroparesis symptom scores. Secondary outcomes included the change in gastric emptying time, specific symptoms related to gastroparesis, and adverse events. A random-effects model was applied to all study outcomes. Heterogeneity among studies was determined by the chi-square test and I2 statistics. Results: We selected six RCTs of patients with DG (n=557) for meta-analysis. Ghrelin agonist administration (vs placebo) significantly improved overall gastroparesis symptoms (standardized mean difference, -0.34; 95% confidence interval, -0.56 to -0.13) and significantly improved symptoms related to gastroparesis, including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. Adverse events recorded for ghrelin agonists and placebo did not differ significantly. There was no significant heterogeneity among eligible studies. Conclusions: Compared with placebo, ghrelin agonists are effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of DG.

4.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Currently available endoscopic or minimally invasive antireflux modalities are not widely accepted due to high procedure cost or inconsistent results. Therefore, a simpler and less technically demanding method is required. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of new endoscopic antireflux method (the Ripple Procedure) using functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP). METHODS: This 5-week survival study included 10 domestic pigs (control, n = 4; experimental [Ripple], n = 6). The procedure includes the following steps: (i) semicircular marking along the lesser curvature of the cardia; (ii) submucosal injection; and (iii) semicircular mucosal incision along the marking. Endoscopic and FLIP evaluations were performed preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 14 and 35. Technical feasibility was evaluated, and FLIP parameters, including the distensibility index (DI) at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and histopathological findings, were compared between groups. RESULTS: The median procedure time was 28 (23.5-33.8) min. There was no significant difference in dysphagia score and body weight between groups. On POD 35, the Ripple group showed significantly lower EGJ DI at 30 mL [2.0 (1.3-2.5) vs 4.9 (2.7-5.0), P = 0.037]. The EGJ DI was significantly reduced at 30 mL, compared with that at the baseline level [- 59.0% (- 68.8% to - 32.1%) vs 27.8% (- 26.3% to 83.1%), P = 0.033]. Histologic evaluation revealed submucosal granulation tissues near the mucosal incision site, with increased intervening fibrosis between lower esophageal sphincter fibers in the Ripple group. CONCLUSION: The EGJ DI significantly decreased after the Ripple Procedure; hence, the procedure appears to be feasible and effective in this porcine model.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224614, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671169

RESUMO

Additional surgical resection should be considered for the patients with pathological findings beyond the expanded criteria with the risk for LN metastasis. However, close observation without additional surgery may be applied because of various reasons. We aimed to determine the clinical outcomes of early gastric cancer beyond the expanded criteria after endoscopic resection according to the pathological extent. A total of 288 patients with 289 lesions beyond the expanded criteria of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer were analyzed between 2005 and 2016, and classified into two groups according to additional treatment: observation (n = 175 patients, 175 lesions) and surgery (n = 113 patients, 114 lesions). The depth of tumor invasion was greater and the tumor-positive vertical margin and lymphatic and venous invasion were more common in the surgery group than in the observation group (P<0.001). Residual, synchronous, and metachronous tumors were more common in the observation group; however, the occurrence of regional lymph node and distant metastasis did not differ between the groups. Overall survival and 5-year disease-specific survival did not differ between the groups (observation vs surgery, 88.6 vs 93.8%; P = 0.259, 98.2 vs 100%; P = 0.484, respectively), but the 5-year disease-free survival was lower in the observation group (73.5 vs 97.9%; P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, tumor-positive lateral margin was a risk factor for residual tumor and lymphatic and venous invasion were risk factors for regional lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, the clinical course of beyond the expanded criteria of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer showed good prognosis over 98% in 5-year disease specific survival. If additional surgery cannot be performed, a close follow-up with endoscopy and abdominal computed tomography can be considered as an alternative for carefully selected patients without lymphatic and vascular invasion.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent study showed that early gastric cancer (EGC) with Lauren mixed-type (MT) histology is associated with worse prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of Lauren MT-EGCs that meets the criteria for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: We reviewed 2665 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between 2010 and 2015. The clinicopathologic features and invasiveness including lymph node metastasis (LNM) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) of MT-EGC were compared with those of intestinal type and diffuse type by Lauren histology. RESULTS: Among 2665 patients, EGCs in 241 (9%) patients were classified as MT. Tumor size was larger and depth of invasion was greater than other histology. Among patients with MT-EGC, 16.6% (40/241) showed LNM and 22.8% (55/241) showed lymphatic invasion, which were significantly higher than that of patients with other Lauren types (8.2% and 15.3% in intestinal type and 9.1% and 8.7% in diffuse type, P < 0.001). This finding remained significant even after adjusting for depth of invasion. However, when we analyzed the patient groups who met the absolute or expanded criteria of ESD, no significant difference was observed in the rates of LNM or LVI or cancer mortality by Lauren classification. CONCLUSION: Mixed-type early gastric cancer (MT-EGC) exhibited larger tumor size, greater depth of invasion, and higher risk of LNM and LVI. However, among the patients who met the absolute or expanded criteria of ESD, no significant difference was observed in LNM, LVI, and gastric cancer mortality risk.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 140: 143-149, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy (CTx) followed by chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for high-risk gastric cancer (GC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) Borrmann type 4; (2) large Borrmann type 3 (≥8 cm); (3) single bulky (≥3 cm × 1) or multiple lymph nodes (≥1.5 cm × 3). Patients received two 21-day courses of induction CTx of TS-1 (35 mg/m2, p.o, twice daily on days 1-14), docetaxel (30 mg/m2, i.v., days 1 and 8), and cisplatin (30 mg/m2, i.v., days 1 and 8) followed by CCRT (two courses of TS-1 and cisplatin in combination with 45 Gy radiation). RESULTS: Forty-two patients were enrolled between March 2014 and February 2016, and 39 of these completed sequential CTx and CCRT. Among the 33 patients who underwent R0 resection, the pathologic response rate was 39.4% [no residual carcinoma (n = 5, 15.2%), with 1-10% residual carcinoma (n = 8, 24.2%)]. Overall, 4 patients (12.1%) were pathologic stage 0, 7 (21.2%) were stage I, 10 (30.3%) were stage II, and 12 (36.4%) were stage III. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 77.9% for stages 0 and I, 66.8% for stages II-III, and 33.3% for unresectable cases (P = 0.001). Toxicity was mild to moderate with grade 4 neutropenia (n = 1) and neutropenic fever (n = 1) as the most prominent side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential CTx and CCRT prior to surgery are feasible and effective for high-risk GC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02495493.

8.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although additive radical surgery is recommended for patients with non-curative endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer (EGC), lymph node (LN) metastasis or remnant tumor is detected in only about 10% of patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify patients who required surgery by identifying significant risk factors for LN metastasis and evaluate long-term outcomes in patients with non-curative endoscopic resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database of Seoul National University Hospital to identify patients who underwent endoscopic resection for EGC from June 2005 to December 2016. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty-nine patients did not meet the criteria for curative resection after endoscopic resection. Among them, 140 patients underwent additional surgery and 171 patients refused surgery and regularly received follow-up. In the surgery group, LN metastasis was found in 12.1% of patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the rate of LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with lymphatic invasion (LI) (odds ratio [OR] 5.84, p = 0.014) and venous invasion (VI) (OR 5.66, p = 0.006). We analyzed LN metastasis based on LI and VI in the surgical group. LN metastasis was significantly increased in the positive LI and VI groups compared with the negative LI and VI groups (OR 68.32; 95% confidence interval, 4.74-984.82; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Both LI and VI were significant predictors of LN metastasis. The risk of LN metastasis was augmented when both LI and VI were positive. Therefore, LI and VI should be evaluated separately in patients with non-curative endoscopic resection. Additive surgery should be recommended for patients with LI and/or VI.

9.
Gut Liver ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158949

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Patients treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) are at risk of developing metachronous gastric cancer (MGC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of MGC after ESD for EGC between the re-ESD and surgery groups. Methods: In total, data from 1,510 patients who underwent ESD for EGC from January 2005 to May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and data from 112 patients with MGC were analyzed according to the type of treatment, namely, re-ESD and surgery. The clinicopathological factors affecting the subsequent treatment and outcomes of MGC were evaluated. Results: The median duration to the development of MGC was 47 months. In multivariate analysis, lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.037) and multiplicity (p=0.014) of index cases were significantly associated with subsequent surgery for MGC. In cases of MGC, a diffuse or mixed-type Lauren classification (p=0.009), the depth of tumor mucosal invasion (p=0.001), and an upper stomach location (p=0.049) were associated with surgery. Overall survival was significantly shorter in the surgery group than in the re-ESD group after treatment for MGC (log-rank test, p=0.01). Conclusions: Lower BMI and multiplicity of index cancers were significantly associated with the surgical resection of MGC. Close follow-up is needed to minimize additional treatment for cases at high risk of advanced MGC after ESD for EGC.

10.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(12): 2135-2143, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of dementia associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as compared with the use of histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA). METHODS: We conducted retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Subjects were defined as the patients newly prescribed with PPI or H2RA between 2003 and 2013 without prior prescriptions of PPI/H2RA or diagnosis of dementia from their history within the past 1 year. We followed up participants until dementia occurrence, death, or the end of the study, whichever occurred first, with an intention-to-treat approach. A 1-year lag time between exposure and outcome measure was used to reduce protopathic bias. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years was estimated. The incidence rate of PPI was compared with that of H2RA, defined as incidence rate ratio (IRR), calculated with a 95% confidence interval. To control for potential confounds, propensity score matching at a 1:1 ratio was conducted, and the crude IRR was adjusted by risk factors. RESULTS: Our propensity score-matched cohort included 87 562 patients on PPIs and 87 562 patients on H2RAs. The IRR was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.96-1.06) with 1-year lag time. IRR showed the decreased trend as the longer lag time. Also, no treatment duration or dose-response relationship was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrated that PPIs did not associate with dementia more strongly than did H2RA. On this basis, we suggest that the previously reported risk for dementia associated with PPI may have been overestimated.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886618

RESUMO

Naïve and memory T cells co-exist in the peripheral T cell pool, but the cellular mechanisms that maintain the balance and homeostasis of these two populations remain mostly unclear. To address this question, here, we assessed homeostatic proliferation and repopulation kinetics of adoptively transferred naïve and memory T cells in lymphopenic host mice. We identified distinct kinetics of proliferation and tissue-distribution between naïve and memory donor T cells, which resulted in the occupancy of the peripheral T cell pool by mostly naïve-origin T cells in short term (<1 week), but, in a dramatic reversal, by mostly memory-origin T cells in long term (>4 weeks). To explain this finding, we assessed utilization of the homeostatic cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 by naïve and memory T cells. We found different efficiencies of IL-7 signaling between naïve and memory T cells, where memory T cells expressed larger amounts of IL-7Rα but were significantly less potent in activation of STAT5 that is downstream of IL-7 signaling. Nonetheless, memory T cells were superior in long-term repopulation of the peripheral T cell pool, presumably, because they preferentially migrated into non-lymphoid tissues upon adoptive transfer and additionally utilized tissue IL-15 for rapid expansion. Consequently, co-utilization of IL-7 and IL-15 provides memory T cells a long-term survival advantage. We consider this mechanism important, as it permits the memory T cell population to be maintained in face of constant influx of naïve T cells to the peripheral T cell pool and under competing conditions for survival cytokines.

12.
Surg Endosc ; 33(12): 4008-4015, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current standard treatment modality for clinical submucosal invasive (cT1b) early gastric cancer (EGC) is surgery. However, there are discrepancies in T staging between pre- and post-operative findings, and in cases of overestimation, patients may lose the opportunity to preserve the stomach. The aim of this study was to analyze surgical outcomes of cT1b EGC and determine the pre-treatment factors favoring ESD. METHODS: Patients who underwent gastrectomy for cT1b EGC with a tumor size of 30 mm or less in diameter and differentiated-type histology were retrospectively reviewed from January 2010 to December 2014. According to the final surgical pathologic results, two groups were classified: patients whose pathologic results qualified for current ESD indication (ESD-qualified group, n = 203) and patients whose pathologic results made them ineligible for ESD (ESD-disqualified group, n = 261). The preoperative clinical characteristics were compared. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of the patients (203/464) who underwent gastrectomy for cT1b EGC qualified for ESD; their endoscopic lesion tended to be smaller than 20 mm in size and located in the distal part of stomach. In addition, the ESD-qualified group showed a significantly higher proportion of well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and of the flat/depressed type in the endoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSION: Forty-three percent of the patients with cT1b EGC who underwent gastrectomy had a chance to preserve their stomach by ESD. Therefore, pre-treatment factors such as endoscopic lesion size, location, histology, and gross type should be considered for treatment modality selection for cT1b EGC.

13.
Surg Endosc ; 33(11): 3589-3599, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for undifferentiated early gastric cancer (UD EGC) is controversial due to the relatively high risk of lymph node metastasis. We compared long-term clinical outcomes of UD EGC between ESD and surgical resection groups. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with UD EGC treated by either ESD or surgical resection between January 2007 and December 2014. Long-term clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups in terms of survival. RESULTS: A total of 1147 patients were enrolled with median follow-up duration of 59.1 months. ESD and surgical resections were performed in 126 and 1021 patients respectively. Additional surgery was performed in 22 patients after ESD. There were no significant differences in overall survival [total, p = 0.641; propensity score matching (PSM), p = 0.330; expanded criteria, p = 0.512]. Although the disease-free survival rate was lower in ESD group because of the higher rate of metachronous cancer development (total, p < 0.001; PSM, p = 0.001), the difference was not significant in the group within expanded criteria (p = 0.071). CONCLUSIONS: ESD could be a comparable treatment option with surgical resection for UD EGC within expanded criteria in terms of long-term survival. It is mandatory to establish a meticulous indication of ESD for UD EGC considering the risk of lymph node metastasis.

14.
Intest Res ; 17(1): 135-143, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous intramural small bowel hematoma (SISBH) is an extremely rare complication of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with SISBH according to the anatomical location of the hematoma. METHODS: From January 2003 to February 2016, medical records for all patients hospitalized for SISBH at 2 tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was requirement for surgery. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 74.1 years. Among them, 33 patients (89.2%) were taking anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents. Duodenal intramural hematoma was detected in 4 patients (10.8%), jejunal in 16 (43.2%), and ileal in 17 (45.9%). Compared to jejunal and ileal involvement, duodenal intramural hematoma was significantly associated with high Charlson comorbidity index and low levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets in the blood. SISBH in the duodenum was related to thrombocytopenia in 3 patients following systemic chemotherapy for malignancy. All patients with SISBH showed clinical improvement with conservative therapy. Mean length of hospital stay was 9.35 days. Independent predictors of a hospital stay of more than 7 days were body weight less than 60 kg (odds ratio [OR], 12.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.755-84.998; P=0.011) and a history of cerebrovascular accidents (OR, 6.667; 95% CI, 1.121-39.650; P=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to jejunal and ileal involvement, thrombocytopenia may result in spontaneous duodenal intramural hematoma among patients who are treated with systemic chemotherapy for malignancies. Patients with SISBH have excellent clinical outcomes with conservative therapy regardless of the anatomical location of the hematoma.

15.
Am J Ther ; 26(4): e452-e461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because achalasia subtype is associated with therapeutic response, it is possible that regional differences in subtype distribution could lead to differences in therapeutic outcomes. STUDY QUESTION: We aimed to evaluate and compare high-resolution manometry (HRM) profiles among the different subtypes of achalasia and to elucidate predictive factors associated with treatment outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Patients who were diagnosed with achalasia using HRM at 4 Korean university hospitals were retrospectively identified and analyzed. Sixty-four patients with untreated achalasia were divided into 3 subtypes using the Chicago classification system. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: Clinical characteristics, manometric features, and treatment outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Among 64 patients diagnosed with achalasia, 31 patients were classified as type I, 27 as type II, and 6 as type III. Regarding HRM parameters, there were statistically significant differences in basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure, 4-second-integrated relaxation pressure, residual upper esophageal sphincter pressure, body amplitude, and maximal intrabolus pressure between subtypes. Regarding therapeutic outcome, type II patients (overall success rate of 80.0%) were more likely to respond than type I (55.2%) or type III (33.2%) patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that achalasia subtype (type I vs. III, P = 0.072; type II vs. III, P = 0.005), therapeutic modality (dilation vs. pharmacologic, P = 0.013; laparoscopic Heller's myotomy vs. pharmacologic, P = 0.006), and HRM-measured esophageal length (<27.5 vs. ≥27.5 cm, P = 0.014) are independent predictive factors for therapeutic failure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type II achalasia had better treatment outcomes than patients with other achalasia subtypes. Achalasia subtype, therapeutic modality, and esophageal length are independent predictive factors of therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Manometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateteres , Acalasia Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Acalasia Esofágica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Gut Liver ; 12(5): 523-529, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938460

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Although forceps biopsy is performed for suspicious gastric tumors during endoscopy, it is difficult to determine treatment strategies for atypical gastric glands due to uncertainty of the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical implications and risk factors for predicting malignancy in atypical gastric glands during forceps biopsy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 252 patients with a diagnosis of atypical gastric gland during forceps biopsy. Predictors of malignancy were analyzed using initial endoscopic findings and clinical data. Results: The final diagnosis for 252 consecutive patients was gastric cancer in 189 (75%), adenoma in 26 (10.3%), and gastritis in 37 (14.7%). In the multivariate analysis, lesion sizes of more than 10 mm (odds ratio [OR], 3.021; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.480 to 6.165; p=0.002), depressed morphology (OR, 3.181; 95% CI, 1.579 to 6.406, p=0.001), and surface nodularity (OR, 3.432; 95% CI, 1.667 to 7.064, p=0.001) were significant risk factors for malignancy. Conclusions: Further evaluation and treatment should be considered for atypical gastric gland during forceps biopsy if there is a large-sized (>10 mm) lesion, depressed morphology, or surface nodularity.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
17.
Mucosal Immunol ; 11(4): 1092-1102, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743613

RESUMO

The oral mucosa is a critical barrier tissue that protects the oral cavity against invading pathogens and foreign antigens. Interestingly, inflammation in the oral cavity is rarely observed, indicating that overt immune activation in this site is actively suppressed. Whether Foxp3+ Treg cells are involved in controlling immunity of the oral mucosa, however, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the oral mucosa is highly enriched in Foxp3+ Treg cells, and that oral mucosa Treg cells are phenotypically distinct from those of LN or spleen, as they expressed copious amounts of the tissue-retention molecule CD103 and unusually high-levels of CTLA4. Acute depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells had catastrophic effects, resulting in marked infiltration of activated effector T cells that were associated with autoimmunity and tissue destruction of the oral mucosa. Moreover, adoptive transfer of naive CD4 T cells revealed that the oral mucosa is highly ineffective in inducing Foxp3+ Treg cells in situ, so that it depends on recruitment and migration of exogenous Treg cells to populate this mucosal site. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role and a distinct developmental pathway for Foxp3+ Treg cells in the oral mucosa, which are essential to control local tissue immunity.


Assuntos
Boca/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Autoimunidade , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Separação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Homeostase , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Surg Endosc ; 32(9): 3789-3797, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate preoperative tumor staging of gastric cancer is indispensable with expansion of indications for laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection. It is important to distinguish mucosal cancer (T1a) in smaller lesion and differentiate early gastric cancer (EGC) in larger lesion considering endoscopic resection indication and laparoscopic surgery indication. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the decision of treatment strategy of gastric cancer compared with pathological staging. METHODS: The patients who underwent EUS and surgical or endoscopic resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed between September 2005 and February 2016. The depth of tumor invasion (T staging) by EUS was compared with the pathological staging after endoscopic or surgical resection. RESULTS: A total of 6084 patients were finally analyzed. The accuracy rates for T1a and EGC were 75.0 and 89.4%, respectively. The overall accuracy of T staging by EUS was 66.3% when divided by T1a, T1b, and over T2. The accuracy of EUS prior to endoscopic resection was 75.1% in absolute indication and 73.1% in expanded criteria, respectively. The accuracy rates for T1a with lesion ≤ 2 cm in miniprobe EUS and EGC with lesion > 2 cm in conventional EUS were 84.6 and 83.2%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, presence of ulcer, large tumor size, and radial EUS were associated with overestimation, and small tumor size and miniprobe were associated with underestimation in T staging. CONCLUSIONS: EUS showed the high accuracy of 84.6% for T1a in lesion ≤ 2 cm in miniprobe EUS and 83.2% for EGC in lesion > 2 cm in conventional EUS, respectively. EUS can be a complementary diagnostic method to determine endoscopic or surgical treatment modality.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Gastrectomia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Surg Endosc ; 32(8): 3540-3547, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze long-term clinical and oncologic outcomes in patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) managed with either endoscopic resection (ER) or surgery. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were AEG, meeting classic or expanded indications for ER of early gastric cancer, and complete resection. A total of 66 patients with Siewert type II AEG were included (ER group, n = 38; vs. surgery group, n = 28). RESULTS: The mean age of the ER group was greater than that of the surgery group (mean ± SD, 66.9 ± 9.7 vs. 58.5 ± 10.4 years, respectively; p = 0.001). Compared to the ER group, macroscopically flat or depressed-type lesions were more common (47.4 vs. 89.3%; p = 0.001), and mean lesion size was larger in the surgery group (13.3 ± 8.4 vs. 18.6 ± 11.0 mm; p = 0.039). One intensive care unit admission and subsequent surgery-related death occurred in the surgery group (1/28 vs. 0/38 in the ER group; p = 0.424). During follow-up, recurrence was detected in both groups (4/38 vs. 1/28; p = 0.385). Overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival did not differ between the groups (93.3 vs. 92.9%; p = 0.282 and 88.0 vs. 100.0%; p = 0.066). CONCLUSIONS: Once complete resection is achieved in patients with AEG who met the expanded criteria for endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric cancer, there was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between ER and surgery.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Junção Esofagogástrica/cirurgia , Gastrectomia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Endosc ; 51(1): 28-32, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397648

RESUMO

Gastroparesis (GP) is a syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction of the stomach or proximal small bowel. Currently available dietary and medical therapies are limited and have suboptimal efficacy. Pylorus-directed therapies have showed promising results. Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) has been reported for the treatment of GP refractory to standard therapy with promising results. This article reviews the current applications and results of G-POEM for the treatment of refractory GP.

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