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1.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(5S): S188-S197, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370962

RESUMO

Ordering the appropriate diagnostic imaging for occupational lung disease requires a firm understanding of the relationship between occupational exposure and expected lower respiratory track manifestation. Where particular inorganic dust exposures typically lead to nodular and interstitial lung disease, other occupational exposures may lead to isolated small airway obstruction. Certain workplace exposures, like asbestos, increase the risk of malignancy, but also produce pulmonary findings that mimic malignancy. This publication aims to delineate the common and special considerations associated with occupational lung disease to assist the ordering physician in selecting the most appropriate imaging study, while still stressing the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

2.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(5S): S323-S334, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370976

RESUMO

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is the clinical entity that occurs with compression of the brachial plexus, subclavian artery, and/or subclavian vein at the superior thoracic outlet. Compression of each of these structures results in characteristic symptoms divided into three variants: neurogenic TOS, venous TOS, and arterial TOS, each arising from the specific structure that is compressed. The constellation of symptoms in each patient may vary, and patients may have more than one symptom simultaneously. Understanding the various anatomic spaces, causes of narrowing, and resulting neurovascular changes is important in choosing and interpreting radiological imaging performed to help diagnose TOS and plan for intervention. This publication has separated imaging appropriateness based on neurogenic, venous, or arterial symptoms, acknowledging that some patients may present with combined symptoms that may require more than one study to fully resolve. Additionally, in the postoperative setting, new symptoms may arise altering the need for specific imaging as compared to preoperative evaluation. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

3.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324653

RESUMO

Routine screening CT for the identification of COVID-19 pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CTs performed in persons under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term "viral pneumonia" can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term "COVID-19" in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other healthcare providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic.

4.
Org Lett ; 22(8): 3089-3093, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251602

RESUMO

Janadolide is a cyclic depsipeptide natural product isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Okeania sp. Herein, we describe the total synthesis of janadolide, along with eight simplified analogues, via an efficient solid-phase strategy. Crucial to the synthesis of the natural product was the construction of a key polyketide fragment via an enantioselective (-)-B-chlorodiisopinocampheylborane-mediated reduction and a B-alkyl Suzuki reaction. Janadolide and the simplified analogues exhibited antitrypanosomal activity against pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites.

6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(3): E1-E4, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944579

RESUMO

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE), which is primarily diagnosed in adults, is a progressive lung pathology associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PPFE is characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal disease causing dyspnea, cough, and recurrent pneumothoraces. PPFE can be precipitated by autoimmune disorders, recurrent respiratory infections, chemotherapy, and transplant. We describe the youngest recorded patient to develop PPFE, whose symptoms began several years after treatment for neuroblastoma. Her symptoms were initially mistaken for worsening asthma, and multiple comorbidities developed during the prolonged time to recognition of PPFE and she progressed to fatal lung disease before potentially curative lung transplantation could occur.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(2 Pt 1): 465-477, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that there is an association between chronic stress (as indexed by resting amygdalar activity [AmygA]), hematopoietic system activity (HMPA), and subclinical cardiovascular indexes (aortic vascular inflammation [VI] and noncalcified coronary plaque burden [NCB]) in psoriasis (PSO). The study also hypothesized that treatment of PSO would improve these parameters. BACKGROUND: PSO is a stress-related chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with increased prevalence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). In individuals without PSO, stress has been linked to CVD through a serial biological pathway that involves the amygdala, hematopoietic tissues, and atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: A total of 164 consecutive patients with PSO and 47 healthy volunteers underwent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans for assessment of AmygA, HMPA, and VI, as well as coronary computed tomography angiography scans for quantifying NCB. Furthermore, a consecutive subset of 30 patients with severe PSO (Psoriasis Area Severity Index Score >10) were followed at 1 year to assess the relationship between skin disease improvement and AmygA, HMPA, VI, and NCB. RESULTS: The PSO cohort was middle-aged (mean age: 50 years), had low cardiovascular risk (Framingham risk score: median: 3) and had mild to moderate PSO activity (median Psoriasis Area Severity Index Score: 5.6). AmygA was higher in patients with PSO compared to volunteer participants. AmygA was associated with HMPA (bone marrow activity: ß = 0.20, p = 0.01) and subclinical CVD (VI: ß = 0.31, p < 0.001; NCB: ß = 0.27, p < 0.001) The AmygA-CVD association was in part mediated by HMPA (VI: 20.9%, NCB: 36.7%). Following 1 year of PSO treatment in those with severe disease, improvement in skin disease was accompanied by a reduction in AmygA, bone marrow activity, and VI, with no progression of NCB. CONCLUSIONS: In PSO, a chronic inflammatory disease state, AmygA, which is a manifestation of chronic stress, substantially contributes to the risk of subclinical CVD. Additional studies that use psychometric measures of stress are required to explore therapeutic impact.

8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(1): 50-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. This article will review the typical and atypical imaging features of sarcoidosis, identify entities that may be mistaken for sarcoidosis, and discuss patterns and clinical scenarios that suggest an alternative diagnosis. CONCLUSION. Radiologists must be familiar with the characteristic findings in sarcoidosis and be attentive to situations that suggest alternative diagnoses. The radiologist plays a major role in prompt diagnosis and one that may help reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

9.
Chest ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. Because it shares genetic, histopathologic, and radiographic features with the fibrosing interstitial lung disease seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the goal of this study was to investigate RA-related autoantibodies in IPF. METHODS: The study included patients with IPF from two separate cohorts at National Jewish Health and Brigham Women's Hospital (n = 181), general population control subjects (n = 160), and control subjects with disease (n = 86 [40 with RA-usual interstitial pneumonia and 46 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis]). Serum was tested for RA-associated antibodies (including IgG and IgA) to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPA). Lung tissue in 11 patients with IPF was examined for ectopic lymphoid aggregates. RESULTS: An increased prevalence of ACPA positivity was found in two separate IPF cohorts. In particular, positivity for IgA-ACPA was increased in these two IPF cohorts compared with general population control subjects (21.3% and 24.8% vs 5.6%; P < .01). Patients with IPF were more likely to be IgA-ACPA-positive than IgG-ACPA-positive (23.2% vs 8.3%; P < .01), whereas patients with RA were more likely to be IgG-ACPA-positive than IgA-ACPA-positive (72.5% vs 52.5%; P = .04). There was a strong correlation between IgA-ACPA level and the number of ectopic lymphoid aggregates on lung histologic examination in IPF (r = 0.72; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, IgA-ACPA was elevated in patients with IPF and correlated with lymphoid aggregates in the lung, supporting the theory that IgA-ACPA may play a role in lung disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals with IPF. Future studies are needed to determine whether this subset of ACPA-positive patients with IPF is distinct from patients with IPF but without antibodies.

10.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(11S): S331-S339, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685101

RESUMO

The immunocompromised patient with an acute respiratory illness (ARI) may present with fever, chills, weight loss, cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain. The number of immunocompromised patients continues to rise with medical advances including solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, and immunomodulatory therapy, along with the continued presence of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Given the myriad of pathogens that can infect immunocompromised individuals, identifying the specific organism or organisms causing the lung disease can be elusive. Moreover, immunocompromised patients often receive prophylactic or empiric antimicrobial therapy, further complicating diagnostic evaluation. Noninfectious causes for ARI should also be considered, including pulmonary edema, drug-induced lung disease, atelectasis, malignancy, radiation-induced lung disease, pulmonary hemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage, organizing pneumonia, lung transplant rejection, and pulmonary thromboembolic disease. As many immunocompromised patients with ARI progress along a rapid and potentially fatal course, timely selection of appropriate imaging is of great importance in this setting. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking, or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

11.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 253, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic delays are common in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A substantial percentage of patients experience a diagnostic delay in the primary care setting, but the factors underpinning this observation remain unclear. In this multi-center investigation, we assessed ILD reporting on diagnostic test interpretation and its association with subsequent pulmonology referral by a primary care physician (PCP). METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of patients referred to the ILD programs at UC-Davis and University of Chicago by a PCP within each institution was performed. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen and pulmonary function test (PFT) were reviewed to identify the date ILD features were first present and determine the time from diagnostic test to pulmonology referral. The association between ILD reporting on diagnostic test interpretation and pulmonology referral was assessed, as was the association between years of diagnostic delay and changes in fibrotic features on longitudinal chest CT. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Prior to pulmonology referral, 66% (n = 97) of patients underwent chest CT, 15% (n = 21) underwent PFT and 15% (n = 21) underwent abdominal CT. ILD features were reported on 84, 62 and 33% of chest CT, PFT and abdominal CT interpretations, respectively. ILD reporting was associated with shorter time to pulmonology referral when undergoing chest CT (1.3 vs 15.1 months, respectively; p = 0.02), but not PFT or abdominal CT. ILD reporting was associated with increased likelihood of pulmonology referral within 6 months of diagnostic test when undergoing chest CT (rate ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.56; p = 0.04), but not PFT or abdominal CT. Each year of diagnostic delay was associated with a 1.8% increase in percent fibrosis on chest CT. Patients with documented dyspnea had shorter time to chest CT acquisition and pulmonology referral than patients with documented cough and lung crackles. CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of ILD diagnostic delays in the primary care setting include underreporting of ILD features on diagnostic testing and prolonged time to pulmonology referral even when ILD is reported. Interventions to modulate these factors may reduce ILD diagnostic delays in the primary care setting.

12.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746956

RESUMO

Importance: Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with accelerated noncalcified coronary burden (NCB) by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), accelerates lipoprotein oxidation in the form of oxidized modified lipoproteins. A transmembrane scavenger receptor for these oxidized modified lipoproteins is lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), which has been reported to be associated with coronary artery disease. It is unknown whether this receptor is associated with coronary artery disease in psoriasis. Objective: To assess the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and NCB in psoriasis over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cohort study at the National Institutes of Health, 175 consecutive patients with psoriasis were referred from outpatient dermatology practices between January 1, 2013, and October 1, 2017. A total of 138 consecutively recruited patients with psoriasis were followed up at 1 year. Exposures: Circulating soluble lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels were measured blindly by field scientists running undiluted serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coronary computed tomography angiography scans were performed to quantify NCB in all 3 major epicardial coronary arteries by a reader blinded to patient demographics, visit, and treatment status. Results: Among the 175 patients with psoriasis, the mean (SD) age was 49.7 (12.6) years and 91 were men (55%). The cohort had relatively low median cardiovascular risk by Framingham risk score (median, 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 1.0-6.0]) and had a mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) suggestive of overweight profiles (29.6 [6.0]). Elevated sLOX-1 levels were found in patients with psoriasis compared with age- and sex-matched controls (median, 210.3 [IQR, 110.9-336.2] vs 83.7 [IQR, 40.1-151.0]; P < .001), and were associated with Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score (ß = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.082-0.374; P = .003). Moreover, sLOX-1 was associated with NCB independent of hyperlipidemia status (ß = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.016-0.200; P = .023), an association which persisted after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, statin use, and biologic psoriasis treatment (ß = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.014-0.193; P = .03). At 1 year, in those who had clinical improvement in PASI (eg, >50% improvement), a reduction in sLOX-1 (median, 311.1 [IQR, 160.0-648.8] vs median, 224.2 [IQR, 149.1 - 427.4]; P = .01) was associated with a reduction in NCB (ß = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.028-0.246; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Soluble lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels were elevated in patients with psoriasis and were associated with severity of skin disease. Moreover, sLOX-1 associated with NCB independent of hyperlipidemia status, suggesting that inflammatory sLOX-1 induction may modulate lipid-rich NCB in psoriasis. Improvement of skin disease was associated with a reduction of sLOX-1 at 1 year, demonstrating the potential role of sLOX-1 in inflammatory atherogenesis in psoriasis.

13.
Thorax ; 74(12): 1131-1139, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatives of patients with familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP) are at increased risk for pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for preclinical pulmonary fibrosis (PrePF) in first-degree relatives of patients with FIP and determined the utility of deep learning in detecting PrePF on CT. METHODS: First-degree relatives of patients with FIP over 40 years of age who believed themselves to be unaffected by pulmonary fibrosis underwent CT scans of the chest. Images were visually reviewed, and a deep learning algorithm was used to quantify lung fibrosis. Genotyping for common idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis risk variants in MUC5B and TERT was performed. FINDINGS: In 494 relatives of patients with FIP from 263 families of patients with FIP, the prevalence of PrePF on visual CT evaluation was 15.6% (95% CI 12.6 to 19.0). Compared with visual CT evaluation, deep learning quantitative CT analysis had 84% sensitivity (95% CI 0.72 to 0.89) and 86% sensitivity (95% CI 0.83 to 0.89) for discriminating subjects with visual PrePF diagnosis. Subjects with PrePF were older (65.9, SD 10.1 years) than subjects without fibrosis (55.8 SD 8.7 years), more likely to be male (49% vs 37%), more likely to have smoked (44% vs 27%) and more likely to have the MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 (minor allele frequency 0.29 vs 0.21). MUC5B variant carriers had higher quantitative CT fibrosis scores (mean difference of 0.36%), a difference that remains significant when controlling for age and sex. INTERPRETATION: PrePF is common in relatives of patients with FIP. Its prevalence increases with age and the presence of a common MUC5B promoter variant. Quantitative CT analysis can detect these imaging abnormalities.

14.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413851

RESUMO

Objective: Subjects with SLE display an enhanced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is not explained by Framingham risk. This study sought to investigate the utility of nuclear MR (NMR) spectroscopy measurements of serum lipoprotein particle counts and size and glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA) burden to predict coronary atherosclerosis in SLE. Methods: Coronary plaque burden was assessed in SLE subjects and healthy controls using coronary CT angiography. Lipoproteins and GlycA were quantified by NMR spectroscopy. Results: SLE subjects displayed statistically significant decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle counts and increased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle counts compared with controls. Non-calcified coronary plaque burden (NCB) negatively associated with HDL subsets whereas it positively associated with VLDL particle counts in multivariate adjusted models. GlycA was significantly increased in SLE sera compared with controls. In contrast to high-sensitivity C reactive protein, elevations in GlycA in SLE significantly associated with NCB and insulin resistance (IR), though the association with NCB was no longer significant after adjusting for prednisone use. Conclusions: Patients with SLE display a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile that may significantly contribute to the development of premature CVD. The results demonstrate that NMR measures of GlycA and lipoprotein profiles, beyond what is captured in routine clinical labs, could be a useful tool in assessing CVD risk in patients with SLE.

15.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(5S): S184-S195, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054745

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. The major risk factor for lung cancer is personal tobacco smoking, particularly for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and squamous cell lung cancers, but other significant risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, environmental radon, occupational exposures, and air pollution. Education and socioeconomic status affect both incidence and outcomes. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, comprises about 85% of lung cancers. SCLC accounts for approximately 13% to 15% of cases. Prognosis is directly related to stage at presentation. NSCLC is staged using the eighth edition of the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer. For SCLC the eighth edition of TNM staging is recommended to be used in conjunction with the modified Veterans Administration Lung Study Group classification system distinguishing limited stage from extensive stage SCLC. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(6): 487-496, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the appropriate clinical setting, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) requires a pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia to be present on high-resolution chest CT (HRCT) or surgical lung biopsy. A molecular usual interstitial pneumonia signature can be identified by a machine learning algorithm in less-invasive transbronchial lung biopsy samples. We report prospective findings for the clinical validity and utility of this molecular test. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 237 patients for this study from those enrolled in the Bronchial Sample Collection for a Novel Genomic Test (BRAVE) study in 29 US and European sites. Patients were undergoing evaluation for interstitial lung disease and had had samples obtained by clinically indicated surgical or transbronchial biopsy or cryobiopsy for pathology. Histopathological diagnoses were made by experienced pathologists. Available HRCT scans were reviewed centrally. Three to five transbronchial lung biopsy samples were collected from all patients specifically for this study, pooled by patient, and extracted for transcriptomic sequencing. After exclusions, diagnostic histopathology and RNA sequence data from 90 patients were used to train a machine learning algorithm (Envisia Genomic Classifier, Veracyte, San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. The primary study endpoint was validation of the classifier in 49 patients by comparison with diagnostic histopathology. To assess clinical utility, we compared the agreement and confidence level of diagnosis made by central multidisciplinary teams based on anonymised clinical information and radiology results plus either molecular classifier or histopathology results. FINDINGS: The classifier identified usual interstitial pneumonia in transbronchial lung biopsy samples from 49 patients with 88% specificity (95% CI 70-98) and 70% sensitivity (47-87). Among 42 of these patients who had possible or inconsistent usual interstitial pneumonia on HRCT, the classifier showed 81% positive predictive value (95% CI 54-96) for underlying biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia. In the clinical utility analysis, we found 86% agreement (95% CI 78-92) between clinical diagnoses using classifier results and those using histopathology data. Diagnostic confidence was improved by the molecular classifier results compared with histopathology results in 18 with IPF diagnoses (proportion of diagnoses that were confident or provisional with high confidence 89% vs 56%, p=0·0339) and in all 48 patients with non-diagnostic pathology or non-classifiable fibrosis histopathology (63% vs 42%, p=0·0412). INTERPRETATION: The molecular test provided an objective method to aid clinicians and multidisciplinary teams in ascertaining a diagnosis of IPF, particularly for patients without a clear radiological diagnosis, in samples that can be obtained by a less invasive method. Further prospective clinical validation and utility studies are planned. FUNDING: Veracyte.

17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(4): 721-728, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721933

RESUMO

AIMS: The use of biologic therapy has increased over the past decade well beyond primary autoimmune diseases. Indeed, a recent trial using an anti-IL-1beta antibody reduced second myocardial infarction (MI) in those who have had MI. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease often treated with biologics when severe, is associated with increased risk of MI, in part driven by high-risk coronary plaque phenotypes by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We hypothesized that we would observe a reduction in inflammatory-driven phenotypes of coronary plaque, including non-calcified coronary plaque burden and lipid-rich necrotic core in those treated with biologic therapy after one-year compared with non-biologic therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, observational study, 290 participants were recruited from 1 January 2013 through 31 October 2018 with 215 completing one-year follow-up. Of the 238, 121 consecutive participants who were biologic treatment naïve at baseline were included. A blinded reader (blinded to patient demographics, visit and treatment) quantified total coronary plaque burden and plaque subcomponents (calcified and non-calcified) in the three main coronary vessels >2 mm using dedicated software (QAngio, Medis, Netherlands). Psoriasis patients were middle-aged [mean (standard deviation) age, 50.5 (12.1) years], mostly male (n = 70, 58%) with low cardiovascular risk by Framingham score [median (interquartile range, IQR), 3 (1-6)] and had moderate to severe skin disease at baseline [median (IQR) Psoriasis Area Severity Index, PASI, 8.6 (5.3-14.0)]. Biologic therapy was associated with a 6% reduction in non-calcified plaque burden (P = 0.005) reduction in necrotic core (P = 0.03), with no effect on fibrous burden (P = 0.71). Decrease in non-calcified plaque burden in the biologic treated group was significant compared with slow plaque progression in non-biologic treated (Δ, -0.07 mm2 vs. 0.06 mm2; P = 0.02) and associated with biologic treatment beyond adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (ß = 0.20, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In this observational study, we demonstrate that biologic therapy in severe psoriasis was associated with favourable modulation of coronary plaque indices by CCTA. These findings highlight the importance of systemic inflammation in coronary artery disease and support the conduct of larger, randomized trials.

18.
Respir Med ; 146: 23-27, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665514

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) are diffuse lung diseases whose cause is unknown and often present with features of autoimmunity despite not meeting criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Recent studies suggest that anti-RNA binding protein (anti-RBP) antibodies, which include anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, and anti-RNP, play a role in the loss of immune tolerance and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in CTDs. We hypothesized that anti-RBP positive (RBP+) subjects would have worse measures of lung function, radiographic findings, PH, and survival than anti-RBP negative (RBP-) subjects. METHODS: Subjects with both IIP and serologies for review were identified retrospectively and stratified based on anti-RBP antibody seropositivity. Baseline cohort characteristics, pulmonary function tests (PFT), ambulatory oxygen requirement, radiographic characteristics, markers of PH, and transplant-free survival were compared between anti-RBP positive and negative groups. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty patients with IIP were identified, of which ten percent (n = 53) were anti-RBP positive. RBP+ as compared to RBP- subjects had significantly worse PFTs as indicated by FEV1 (59.6 vs. 64.9, p = 0.046) and FVC (71.6 vs. 78.8, p = 0.018). There was a higher prevalence of radiographic honeycombing (49.1% vs. 38.3%, p = 0.006) and emphysema (22.6% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) in the RBP+ group despite no difference in smoking history. The Pulmonary Artery-Aorta ratio was also larger in the RBP+ group (0.93 vs. 0.88, p = 0.040). There was no difference in transplant-free survival between groups (log rank = 0.912). CONCLUSION: Anti-RBP+ IIP patients may have worse lung function, increased chest radiographic abnormalities, and PH compared with those without these antibodies.

20.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(5): 580-588, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653927

RESUMO

Rationale: Honeycombing on chest computed tomography (CT) has been described in diverse forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD); however, its prevalence and association with mortality across the spectrum of ILD remains unclear. Objective: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of CT honeycombing and characterize associated mortality patterns across diverse ILD subtypes in a multicenter cohort. Methods: This was an observational cohort study of adult participants with multidisciplinary or adjudicated ILD diagnosis and documentation of chest CT imaging at index diagnosis across five U.S. hospitals (one tertiary and four nontertiary medical centers). Participants were stratified based on presence or absence of CT honeycombing. Vital status was determined from review of medical records and social security death index. Transplant-free survival was analyzed using univariate and multivariable Cox regression. Results: The sample comprised 1,330 participants (mean age, 66.8 yr; 50% men) with 4,831 person-years of follow-up. The prevalences of CT honeycombing were 42.0%, 41.9%, 37.6%, and 28.6% in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and unclassifiable/other ILDs, respectively. Among those with CT honeycombing, cumulative mortality hazards were similar across ILD subtypes, except for CTD-ILD, which had a lower mortality hazard. Overall, the mean survival time was shorter among those with CT honeycombing (107 mo; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92-122 mo) than those without CT honeycombing (161 mo; 95% CI, 147-174 mo). CT honeycombing was associated with an increased mortality rate (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.38-2.14) even after adjustment for center, sex, age, forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity, ILD subtype, and use of immunosuppressive therapy (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.29-2.02). CT honeycombing was associated with an increased mortality rate within non-IPF ILD subgroups (chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, CTD-ILD, and unclassifiable/other ILD). In IPF, however, mortality rates were similar between those with and without CT honeycombing. Conclusions: CT honeycombing is prevalent in diverse forms of ILD and uniquely identifies a progressive fibrotic ILD phenotype with a high mortality rate similar to IPF. CT honeycombing did not confer additional risk in IPF, which is already known to be a progressive fibrotic ILD phenotype regardless of the presence of CT honeycombing.

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