Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
1.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (1) compare serum cotinine with self-report for ascertaining smoking status among reproductive-aged women; (2) estimate the relative odds of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among women by smoking status; (3) assess whether the association between adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and CV outcomes varies by smoking status. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study. Women attended a study visit 2 to 7 years after their first pregnancy. The exposure was smoking status, determined by self-report and by serum cotinine. Outcomes included incident chronic hypertension (HTN), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and dyslipidemia. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) for each outcome by smoking status. RESULTS: Of 4,392 women with serum cotinine measured, 3,610 were categorized as nonsmokers, 62 as secondhand smoke exposure, and 720 as smokers. Of 3,144 women who denied tobacco smoke exposure, serum cotinine was consistent with secondhand smoke exposure in 48 (1.5%) and current smoking in 131 (4.2%) After adjustment for APOs, smoking defined by serum cotinine was associated with MetS (adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21, 1.91) and dyslipidemia (aOR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62). When stratified by nicotine exposure, nonsmokers with an APO in their index pregnancy had higher odds of stage 1 (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.03) and stage 2 HTN (aOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.17, 3.93), MetS (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42, 2.18), and dyslipidemia (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.91) relative to women with no APO. Results were similar when smoking exposure was defined by self-report. CONCLUSION: Whether determined by serum cotinine or self-report, smoking is associated with subsequent CV outcomes in reproductive-aged women. APOs are also independently associated with CV outcomes in women. KEY POINTS: · Cotinine was detected in 5.7% of reported nonsmokers.. · Smoking and APOs were independently associated with CV health.. · Smoking was associated with MetS and dyslipidemia..

2.
Case Rep Womens Health ; 32: e00346, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381697

RESUMO

Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, with an incidence of 1 in 76,000-140,000 pregnancies. Given its high-risk nature, the standard of care is to terminate such pregnancies at the time of diagnosis. This is a case of a nulliparous patient at 23 5/7 weeks of gestation with a new diagnosis of a rudimentary horn pregnancy. She elected to proceed with full intervention for her fetus and was delivered at 24 0/7 weeks after administration of antenatal corticosteroid therapy. While the infant did have some adverse effects related to prematurity, she met developmental milestones and was alive and well at the age of two. Although the standard of care is to manage these cases as ectopic pregnancies, when diagnosed at a periviable gestational age, optimization of fetal status prior to delivery may be an alternative approach to immediate delivery.

3.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(10): 993-998, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is implicated in 30% of neonatal deaths. Since prostaglandins promote surfactant secretion and labor is associated with a lower risk of RDS in term neonates, it is plausible that synthetic prostaglandin (sPG) exposure is associated with a lower risk of RDS. Thus, we evaluated the association between sPG exposure and RDS in neonates born after the induction of labor (IOL). STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of women with singleton pregnancies undergoing IOL at 340/7 to 420/7 weeks in the nuMoM2b study, a multicenter prospective cohort of nulliparous women. RDS rates and secondary neonatal outcomes in neonates with intrapartum sPG exposure were compared with those who had IOL with non-sPG methods (e.g., balloon catheter, amniotomy, oxytocin, and laminaria). Logistic regression models estimated the association of sPG with RDS and with secondary outcomes after adjustment for clinical and demographic factors (including gestational age). A sensitivity analysis was performed in which analysis was restricted to those with an admission cervical dilation ≤2 cm. RESULTS: Of 10,038 women in the total cohort, 3,071 met inclusion criteria; 1,444 were exposed and 1,627 were unexposed to sPGs. Antenatal corticosteroid exposure rates were low (3.0%) and similar between groups. In univariable analysis, neonates with sPG exposure had higher rates of RDS (3.2 vs. 2.0%, odds ratio [OR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.50). This relationship was similar by gestational age at delivery (term vs. preterm, interaction p = 0.14). After adjustment, the association between sPG and RDS was no longer significant (adjusted odds ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.3). When analysis was restricted to subjects with admission cervical dilation of ≤2 cm, there was also no association between sPG exposure and RDS. CONCLUSION: In pregnancies between 34 and 42 weeks of gestation, exposure to sPG for cervical ripening or labor induction was not associated with newborn RDS. KEY POINTS: · RDS is implicated in 30% of neonatal deaths.. · sPG exposure was not associated with RDS.. · Avoiding preterm birth remains crucial in RDS prevention..

4.
Sleep Med ; 81: 312-318, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal outcomes. The relationship between SDB and infant birthweight is unclear. This study's primary aim is to determine if objectively measured SDB in pregnancy is associated with infant birthweight. METHODS: We measured SDB objectively in early (6-15 weeks' gestation) and mid (22-31 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in a large cohort of nulliparous women. SDB was defined as an Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5 and in secondary analyses we also examined measures of nocturnal hypoxemia. We used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks (RR) of large-for-gestational-age (LGA: >90th percentile for gestational age) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA: <10th percentile for gestational age) birthweights. RESULTS: The prevalence of early-pregnancy SDB was nearly 4%. The incidence of mid-pregnancy SDB was nearly 6.0%. The prevalence of LGA and SGA was 7.4% and 11.9%, respectively. Early-pregnancy SDB was associated with a higher risk of LGA in unadjusted models (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.5) but not BMI-adjusted models (aRR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.8). Mid-pregnancy SDB was not associated with SGA or LGA. Mid-pregnancy nocturnal hypoxemia (% of sleep time <90% oxygen saturation) and increasing nocturnal hypoxemia from early to mid-pregnancy were associated with a higher risk of LGA in BMI-adjusted models. SDB and nocturnal hypoxemia were not associated with SGA. CONCLUSIONS: SDB in pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of LGA or SGA birthweight, independent of BMI. Some measures nocturnal hypoxemia were associated with an increase in LGA risk, independent of BMI. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration number NCT02231398.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e017216, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619977

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular risk in young adulthood is an important determinant of lifetime cardiovascular disease risk. Women with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) have increased cardiovascular risk, but the relationship of other factors is unknown. Methods and Results Among 4471 primiparous women, we related first-trimester atherogenic markers to risk of APO (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth, small for gestational age), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertension (130/80 mm Hg or antihypertensive use) 2 to 7 years after delivery. Women with an APO/GDM (n=1102) had more atherogenic characteristics (obesity [34.2 versus 19.5%], higher blood pressure [systolic blood pressure 112.2 versus 108.4, diastolic blood pressure 69.2 versus 66.6 mm Hg], glucose [5.0 versus 4.8 mmol/L], insulin [77.6 versus 60.1 pmol/L], triglycerides [1.4 versus 1.3 mmol/L], and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [5.6 versus 4.0 nmol/L], and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [1.8 versus 1.9 mmol/L]; P<0.05) than women without an APO/GDM. They were also more likely to develop hypertension after delivery (32.8% versus 18.1%, P<0.05). Accounting for confounders and factors routinely assessed antepartum, higher glucose (relative risk [RR] 1.03 [95% CI, 1.00-1.06] per 0.6 mmol/L), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (RR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.11] per 2-fold higher), and triglycerides (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.14-1.41] per 2-fold higher) were associated with later hypertension. Higher physical activity was protective (RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99] per 3 h/week). When evaluated as latent profiles, the nonobese group with higher lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin values (6.9% of the cohort) had increased risk of an APO/GDM and later hypertension. Among these factors, 7% to 15% of excess RR was related to APO/GDM. Conclusions Individual and combined first-trimester atherogenic characteristics are associated with APO/GDM occurrence and hypertension 2 to 7 years later. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02231398.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(S 01): e46-e56, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of study is to compare the performance of ultrasonographic customized and population fetal growth standards for prediction adverse perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-Be, in which l data were collected at visits throughout pregnancy and after delivery. Percentiles were assigned to estimated fetal weights (EFWs) measured at 22 to 29 weeks using the Hadlock population standard and a customized standard (www.gestation.net). Areas under the curve were compared for the prediction of composite and severe composite perinatal morbidity using EFW percentile. RESULTS: Among 8,701 eligible study participants, the population standard diagnosed more fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR) than the customized standard (5.5 vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001). Neither standard performed better than chance to predict composite perinatal morbidity. Although the customized performed better than the population standard to predict severe perinatal morbidity (areas under the curve: 0.56 vs. 0.54, p = 0.003), both were poor. Fetuses considered FGR by the population standard but normal by the customized standard had morbidity rates similar to fetuses considered normally grown by both standards.The population standard diagnosed FGR among black women and Hispanic women at nearly double the rate it did among white women (p < 0.001 for both comparisons), even though morbidity was not different across racial/ethnic groups. The customized standard diagnosed FGR at similar rates across groups. Using the population standard, 77% of FGR cases were diagnosed among female fetuses even though morbidity among females was lower (p < 0.001). The customized model diagnosed FGR at similar rates in male and female fetuses. CONCLUSION: At 22 to 29 weeks' gestation, EFW percentile alone poorly predicts perinatal morbidity whether using customized or population fetal growth standards. The population standard diagnoses FGR at increased rates in subgroups not at increased risk of morbidity and at lower rates in subgroups at increased risk of morbidity, whereas the customized standard does not.

7.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 676-682, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test the association of fetal adrenal size with perinatal morbidity among fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR; estimated fetal weight [EFW] < 10th percentile). STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b) adrenal study, which measured fetal adrenal gland size at 22 to 30 weeks' gestation. We analyzed the transverse adrenal area (TAA) and fetal zone area (absolute measurements and corrected for fetal size) and the ratio of the fetal zone area to the total transverse area using a composite perinatal outcome of stillbirth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, seizure, or death. Among fetuses with FGR, adrenal measurements were compared between those that did and did not experience the composite perinatal outcome. RESULTS: There were 1,709 eligible neonates. Seven percent (n = 120) were diagnosed with FGR at the time of adrenal measurement, and 14.7% (n = 251) experienced perinatal morbidity. EFW-corrected and absolute adrenal measurements were similar among fetuses with and without FGR as well as among those who did and did not experience morbidity. The area under the curve for corrected TAA was 0.52 (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.67). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, adrenal size was not associated with risk of morbidity among fetuses with FGR.

8.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(3): 361-369, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256258

RESUMO

Maternal stress is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). This study evaluates the associations of prenatal stress and APOs with maternal stress years after pregnancy. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (0-40 range) was completed in the first and third trimesters, and 2-7 years after delivery among a subsample (n = 4161) of nulliparous women enrolled at eight US medical centers between 2010 and 2013 in a prospective, observational cohort study. Demographics, medical history, and presence of APOs (gestational diabetes (GDM), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preeclampsia (PE), and medically indicated or spontaneous preterm birth (miPTB, sPTB)) were obtained. The associations of prenatal PSS and the presence of APOs with PSS scores years after delivery were estimated using multivariable linear regression. Mean PSS scores were 12.5 (95% CI 12.3, 12.7) and 11.3 (95% CI 11.1, 11.5) in the first and third trimesters respectively and 14.9 (95% CI 14.7, 15.1) 2-7 years later, an average increase of 2.4 points (95% CI 2.2, 2.6) from the start of pregnancy. Regressing PSS scores after delivery on first-trimester PSS and PSS increase through pregnancy showed positive associations, with coefficients (95% CI) of 2.8 (2.7, 3.0) and 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) per 5-point change, respectively. Adding APO indicator variables separately showed higher PSS scores for women with HDP (0.7 [0.1, 1.3]), PE (1.3 [0.6, 2.1]), and miPTB (1.3 [0.2, 2.4]), but not those with GDM or sPTB. In this geographically and demographically diverse sample, prenatal stress and some APOs were positively associated with stress levels 2-7 years after pregnancy.ClinicalTrials.gov Registration number NCT02231398.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Percepção , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e013092, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564189

RESUMO

Background Identifying pregnancy-associated risk factors before the development of major cardiovascular disease events could provide opportunities for prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association between outcomes in first pregnancies and subsequent cardiovascular health. Methods and Results The Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study Monitoring Mothers-to-be Heart Health Study is a prospective observational cohort that followed 4484 women 2 to 7 years (mean 3.2 years) after their first pregnancy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (defined as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small-for-gestational-age birth, preterm birth, and stillbirth) were identified prospectively in 1017 of the women (22.7%) during this pregnancy. The primary outcome was incident hypertension (HTN). Women without adverse pregnancy outcomes served as controls. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, insurance type, and race/ethnicity at enrollment during pregnancy. The overall incidence of HTN was 5.4% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.1%). Women with adverse pregnancy outcomes had higher adjusted risk of HTN at follow-up compared with controls (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.1). The association held for individual adverse pregnancy outcomes: any hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6), preeclampsia (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0-4.0), and preterm birth (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Women who had an indicated preterm birth and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy had the highest risk of HTN (RR 4.3, 95% CI 2.7-6.7). Conclusions Several pregnancy complications in the first pregnancy are associated with development of HTN 2 to 7 years later. Preventive care for women should include a detailed pregnancy history to aid in counseling about HTN risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT02231398.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 1(4): 100040, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although uterine contractions have a diurnal periodicity and increase in frequency during hours of darkness, data on the relationship between sleep duration and sleep timing patterns and preterm birth are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relationship of self-reported sleep duration and timing in pregnancy with preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcome Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-be cohort, women completed a survey of sleep patterns at 6-13 weeks gestation (visit 1) and again at 22-29 weeks gestation (visit 3). Additionally, at 16-21 weeks gestation (visit 2), a subgroup completed a weeklong actigraphy recording of their sleep. Weekly averages of self-reported sleep duration and sleep midpoint were calculated. A priori, sleep duration of <7 hours was defined as "short," and sleep midpoint after 5 am was defined as "late." The relationships among these sleep characteristics and all preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation were examined in univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regressions that controlled for age and body mass index alone (model 1) and with additional covariates (race, smoking, insurance, and employment schedule) following a backward elimination process (model 2) were performed. RESULTS: Of the 10,038 women who were enrolled, sleep survey data were available on 7524 women at visit 1 and 7668 women at visit 3. The rate of short sleep duration was 17.1% at visit 1 and 20.7% at visit 3. The proportion with a late sleep midpoint was 11.6% at visit 1 and 12.2% at visit 3. There was no significant relationship between self-reported short sleep and preterm birth across all visits. However, self-reported late sleep midpoint (>5 am) was associated with preterm birth . Women with a late sleep midpoint (>5 am) in early pregnancy had a preterm birth rate of 9.5%, compared with 6.9% for women with sleep midpoint ≤5 am (P=.005). Similarly, women with a late sleep midpoint had a higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth (6.2% vs 4.4%; P=.019). Comparable results were observed for women with a late sleep midpoint at visit 3 (all preterm birth 8.9% vs 6.6%; P=.009; spontaneous preterm birth 5.9% vs 4.3%; P=.023). All adjusted analyses on self-reported sleep midpoint (models 1 and 2) maintained statistical significance (P<.05), except for visit 1, model 2 for spontaneous preterm birth (P=.07). The visit 2 objective data from the smaller subgroup (n=782) demonstrated similar trends in preterm birth rates by sleep midpoint status. CONCLUSION: Self-reported late sleep midpoint in both early and late pregnancy, but not short sleep duration, is associated with an increased rate of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono
12.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(12): 2047-2056, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518449

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of self-reported sleep during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A secondary objective was to describe the concordance between self-reported and objectively assessed sleep during pregnancy. METHODS: In this prospective cohort, women completed a survey of sleep patterns at 6 to 13 weeks' gestation (visit 1) and again at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation (visit 3). Additionally, at 16 to 21 weeks (visit 2), a subgroup completed a week-long sleep diary coincident with an actigraphy recording. Weekly averages of self-reported sleep duration and sleep midpoint were calculated. A priori, sleep duration < 7 hours was defined as "short," and sleep midpoint after 5:00 AM was defined as "late." The relationship of these sleep abnormalities with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was determined. RESULTS: Of the 10,038 women enrolled, sleep survey data were available for 7,524 women at visit 1 and 7,668 women at visit 3. A total of 752 women also provided ≥ 5 days of sleep diary data coincident with actigraphy at visit 2. We did not observe any consistent relationship between self-reported short sleep and HDP or GDM. There was an association between self-reported late sleep midpoint and GDM (visit 1 adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.17, 2.38; visit 2 adjusted odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.23, 2.43). At visit 2, 77.1% of participants had concordance between their diary and actigraphy for short sleep duration, whereas 94.3% were concordant for sleep midpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sleep midpoint, which is more accurate than self-reported sleep duration, is associated with the risk of GDM. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Title: Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes as Predictors of Increased Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, Identifier: NCT02231398, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02231398.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Privação do Sono/diagnóstico , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 27(5): 289-299, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413259

RESUMO

Gastroschisis is a congenital, ventral wall defect associated with bowel evisceration. The defect is usually to the right of the umbilical cord insertion and requires postnatal surgical correction. The fetus is at risk for complications such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and intrauterine fetal demise. In addition, complex cases, defined by the presence of intestinal complications such as bowel atresia, stenosis, perforation, or ischemia, occur in up to one third of pregnancies affected by gastroschisis. As complex gastroschisis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, research has focused on the prenatal detection of this high risk subset of cases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the prenatal, diagnostic approach to the identification of gastroschisis, to describe potential signs of complex gastroschisis on prenatal ultrasound, to review current guidelines for antepartum management and delivery planning, and to summarize results of both past and current intervention trials in fetuses with gastroschisis.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Terapias Fetais/métodos , Gastrosquise/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastrosquise/terapia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
14.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 153, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and pregnancy outcomes across ethnicities is uncertain. We evaluated the associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) outside 2009 IOM guidelines, with maternal and infant outcomes across the USA, western Europe and east Asia, with subgroup analyses in Asia. The aim was to explore ethnic differences in maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), GWG and health outcomes across these regions. METHODS: Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of observational studies were used for the study. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and all Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews were searched from 1999 to 2017. Studies were stratified by prepregnancy BMI category and total pregnancy GWG. Odds ratio (ORs) 95% confidence intervals (CI) applied recommended GWG within each BMI category as the reference. Primary outcomes were small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth and large for gestational age (LGA). Secondary outcomes were macrosomia, caesarean section and gestational diabetes. RESULTS: Overall, 5874 studies were identified and 23 were included (n = 1,309,136). Prepregnancy overweight/obesity in the USA, Europe and Asia was measured at 42%, 30% and 10% respectively, with underweight 5%, 3% and 17%. GWG below guidelines in the USA, Europe and Asia was 21%, 18% and 31%, and above was 51%, 51% and 37% respectively. Applying regional BMI categories in Asia showed GWG above guidelines (51%) was similar to that in the USA and Europe. GWG below guidelines was associated with a higher risk of SGA (USA/Europe [OR 1.51; CI 1.39, 1.63]; Asia [1.63; 1.45, 1.82]) and preterm birth (USA/Europe [1.35; 1.17, 1.56]; Asia [1.06; 0.78, 1.44]) than GWG within guidelines. GWG above guidelines was associated with a higher risk of LGA (USA/Europe [1.93; 1.81, 2.06]; Asia [1.68; 1.51 , 1.87]), macrosomia (USA/Europe [1.87; 1.70, 2.06]; Asia [2.18; 1.91, 2.49]) and caesarean (USA/Europe [1.26; 1.21, 1.33]; Asia [1.37; 1.30, 1.45]). Risks remained elevated when regional BMI categories were applied for GWG recommendations. More women in Asia were categorised as having GWG below guidelines using World Health Organization (WHO) (60%) compared to regional BMI categories (16%), yet WHO BMI was not accompanied by increased risks of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Women in the USA and western Europe have higher prepregnancy BMI and higher rates of GWG above guidelines than women in east Asia. However, when using regional BMI categories in east Asia, rates of GWG above guidelines are similar across the three continents. GWG outside guidelines is associated with adverse outcomes across all regions. If regional BMI categories are used in east Asia, IOM guidelines are applicable in the USA, western Europe and east Asia.


Assuntos
Peso Fetal/etnologia , Resultado da Gravidez/etnologia , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 68, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although leisure-time physical activity (PA) contributes to overall health, including pregnancy health, patterns across pregnancy have not been related to birth outcomes. We hypothesized that women with sustained low leisure-time PA would have excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that changing patterns across pregnancy (high to low and low to high) may also be related to risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Nulliparous women (n = 10,038) were enrolled at 8 centers early in pregnancy (mean gestational age in weeks [SD] = 12.05 [1.51]. Frequency, duration, and intensity (metabolic equivalents) of up to three leisure activities reported in the first, second and third trimesters were analyzed. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify leisure-time PA patterns across pregnancy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, [PTB, overall and spontaneous], hypertensive disorders of pregnancy [HDP], gestational diabetes [GDM] and small-for-gestational-age births [SGA]) were assessed via chart abstraction. RESULTS: Five patterns of leisure-time PA across pregnancy were identified: High (35%), low (18%), late decreasing (24%), early decreasing (10%), and early increasing (13%). Women with sustained low leisure-time PA were younger and more likely to be black or Hispanic, obese, or to have smoked prior to pregnancy. Women with low vs. high leisure-time PA patterns had higher rates of PTB (10.4 vs. 7.5), HDP (13.9 vs. 11.4), and GDM (5.7 vs. 3.1, all p < 0.05). After adjusting for maternal factors (age, race/ethnicity, BMI and smoking), the risk of GDM (Odds ratio 2.00 [95% CI 1.47, 2.73]) remained higher in women with low compared to high patterns. Early and late decreasing leisure-time PA patterns were also associated with higher rates of GDM. In contrast, women with early increasing patterns had rates of GDM similar to the group with high leisure-time PA (3.8% vs. 3.1%, adjusted OR 1.16 [0.81, 1.68]). Adjusted risk of overall PTB (1.31 [1.05, 1.63]) was higher in the low pattern group, but spontaneous PTB, HDP and SGA were not associated with leisure-time PA patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained low leisure-time PA across pregnancy is associated with excess risk of GDM and overall PTB compared to high patterns in nulliparous women. Women with increased leisure-time PA early in pregnancy had low rates of GDM that were similar to women with high patterns, raising the possibility that early pregnancy increases in activity may be associated with improved pregnancy health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number NCT02231398 .


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Obesidade/complicações , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
16.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 177: 175-186, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808078

RESUMO

Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 218(5): 521.e1-521.e12, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in pregnancy, but there are limited data on predictors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop predictive models of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Nulliparous women completed validated questionnaires to assess for symptoms related to snoring, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The questionnaires included questions regarding the timing of sleep and sleep duration, work schedules (eg, shift work, night work), sleep positions, and previously diagnosed sleep disorders. Frequent snoring was defined as self-reported snoring ≥3 days per week. Participants underwent in-home portable sleep studies for sleep-disordered breathing assessment in early (6-15 weeks gestation) and mid pregnancy (22-31 weeks gestation). Sleep-disordered breathing was characterized by an apnea hypopnea index that included all apneas, plus hypopneas with ≥3% oxygen desaturation. For primary analyses, an apnea hypopnea index ≥5 events per hour was used to define sleep-disordered breathing. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for predictor variables. Predictive ability of the logistic models was estimated with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves, along with sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Among 3705 women who were enrolled, data were available for 3264 and 2512 women in early and mid pregnancy, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was 3.6% and 8.3%, respectively. At each time point in gestation, frequent snoring, chronic hypertension, greater maternal age, body mass index, neck circumference, and systolic blood pressure were associated most strongly with an increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing. Logistic regression models that included current age, body mass index, and frequent snoring predicted sleep-disordered breathing in early pregnancy, sleep-disordered breathing in mid pregnancy, and new onset sleep-disordered breathing in mid pregnancy with 10-fold cross-validated area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves of 0.870, 0.838, and 0.809. We provide a supplement with expanded tables, integrated predictiveness, classification curves, and an predicted probability calculator. CONCLUSION: Among nulliparous pregnant women, logistic regression models with just 3 variables (ie, age, body mass index, and frequent snoring) achieved good prediction of prevalent and incident sleep-disordered breathing. These results can help with screening for sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting and for future clinical treatment trials.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/complicações , Idade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Ronco/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Ronco/epidemiologia , Ronco/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA ; 317(21): 2207-2225, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586887

RESUMO

Importance: Body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain are increasing globally. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) provided specific recommendations regarding the ideal gestational weight gain. However, the association between gestational weight gain consistent with theIOM guidelines and pregnancy outcomes is unclear. Objective: To perform a systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression to evaluate associations between gestational weight gain above or below the IOM guidelines (gain of 12.5-18 kg for underweight women [BMI <18.5]; 11.5-16 kg for normal-weight women [BMI 18.5-24.9]; 7-11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies stratified by prepregnancy BMI category and total gestational weight gain. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Odds ratios (ORs) and absolute risk differences (ARDs) per live birth were calculated using a random-effects model based on a subset of studies with available data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth, and large for gestational age (LGA). Secondary outcomes were macrosomia, cesarean delivery, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Results: Of 5354 identified studies, 23 (n = 1 309 136 women) met inclusion criteria. Gestational weight gain was below or above guidelines in 23% and 47% of pregnancies, respectively. Gestational weight gain below the recommendations was associated with higher risk of SGA (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.44-1.64]; ARD, 5% [95% CI, 4%-6%]) and preterm birth (OR, 1.70 [1.32-2.20]; ARD, 5% [3%-8%]) and lower risk of LGA (OR, 0.59 [0.55-0.64]; ARD, -2% [-10% to -6%]) and macrosomia (OR, 0.60 [0.52-0.68]; ARD, -2% [-3% to -1%]); cesarean delivery showed no significant difference (OR, 0.98 [0.96-1.02]; ARD, 0% [-2% to 1%]). Gestational weight gain above the recommendations was associated with lower risk of SGA (OR, 0.66 [0.63-0.69]; ARD, -3%; [-4% to -2%]) and preterm birth (OR, 0.77 [0.69-0.86]; ARD, -2% [-2% to -1%]) and higher risk of LGA (OR, 1.85 [1.76-1.95]; ARD, 4% [2%-5%]), macrosomia (OR, 1.95 [1.79-2.11]; ARD, 6% [4%-9%]), and cesarean delivery (OR, 1.30 [1.25-1.35]; ARD, 4% [3%-6%]). Gestational diabetes mellitus could not be evaluated because of the nature of available data. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of more than 1 million pregnant women, 47% had gestational weight gain greater than IOM recommendations and 23% had gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Cesárea , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 217(4): 447.e1-447.e13, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that among nonpregnant adults, sleep duration may be an important risk factor for chronic disease. Although pregnant women commonly report poor sleep, few studies objectively evaluated the quality of sleep in pregnancy or explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and maternal and perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the relationship between objectively assessed sleep duration, timing, and continuity (measured via wrist actigraphy) and maternal cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity specific to pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women. Women were recruited between 16 0/7 and 21 6/7 weeks' gestation. They were asked to wear a wrist actigraphy monitor and complete a daily sleep log for a period of 7 consecutive days. The primary sleep exposure variables were the averages of the following over the total valid nights (minimum 5, maximum 7 nights): short sleep duration during the primary sleep period (<7 h/night), late sleep midpoint (midpoint between sleep onset and sleep offset >5 am), and top quartile of minutes of wake time after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation index. The primary outcomes of interest were a composite of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (mild, severe, or superimposed preeclampsia; eclampsia; or antepartum gestational hypertension) and gestational diabetes mellitus. We used χ2 tests to assess associations between sleep variables and categorical baseline characteristics. Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from univariate logistic regression models to characterize the magnitude of the relationship between sleep characteristics and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes. For associations significant in univariate analysis, multiple logistic regression was used to explore further the association of sleep characteristics with pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: In all, 901 eligible women consented to participate; 782 submitted valid actigraphy studies. Short sleep duration and a later sleep midpoint were associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-4.53; and odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36, respectively) but not of hypertensive disorders. A model with both sleep duration and sleep midpoint as well as their interaction term revealed that while there was no significant interaction between these exposures, the main effects of both short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint with gestational diabetes remained significant (adjusted odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.19; and adjusted odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-4.97, respectively). Additionally, after adjusting separately for age, body mass index, and race/ethnicity, both short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint remained associated with gestational diabetes. No associations were demonstrated between the sleep quality measures (wake after sleep onset, sleep fragmentation) and hypertensive disorders or gestational diabetes. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a relationship between short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint with gestational diabetes. Our data suggest independent contributions of these 2 sleep characteristics to the risk for gestational diabetes in nulliparous women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sleep ; 40(5)2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369543

RESUMO

Study Objectives: To characterize sleep duration, timing and continuity measures in pregnancy and their association with key demographic variables. Methods: Multisite prospective cohort study. Women enrolled in the nuMoM2b study (nulliparous women with a singleton gestation) were recruited at the second study visit (16-21 weeks of gestation) to participate in the Sleep Duration and Continuity substudy. Women <18 years of age or with pregestational diabetes or chronic hypertension were excluded from participation. Women wore a wrist activity monitor and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Time in bed, sleep duration, fragmentation index, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep midpoint were averaged across valid primary sleep periods for each participant. Results: Valid data were available from 782 women with mean age of 27.3 (5.5) years. Median sleep duration was 7.4 hours. Approximately 27.9% of women had a sleep duration of <7 hours; 2.6% had a sleep duration of >9 hours. In multivariable models including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, insurance status, and recent smoking history, sleep duration was significantly associated with race/ethnicity and insurance status, while time in bed was only associated with insurance status. Sleep continuity measures and sleep midpoint were significantly associated with all covariates in the model, with the exception of age for fragmentation index and smoking for wake after sleep onset. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the relationship between sleep and important demographic characteristics during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Gravidez/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...