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1.
Psychiatr Q ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898211

RESUMO

This study investigated whether rejection sensitivity (RS), shyness and unsociability would positively correlate with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity and whether shyness and unsociability would mediate the impact of RS on distress outcomes. Four hundred and one adolescents from three middle schools in China completed a demographic questionnaire, Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Children's Shyness Questionnaire, Child Social Preference Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, and the General Health Questionnaire-28. The results showed that RS and shyness were mostly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity whereas unsociability was not and therefore not a mediator. Shyness, on the other hand, mediated the impact of angry RS and anxious RS on PTSD, as well as anxious RS on psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, the severity of PTSD along with other psychological difficulties tends to increase for those who are shy and sensitive to rejection.

2.
Psychiatr Q ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900820

RESUMO

Child abuse among adolescents in China has been documented and can lead to a whole range of psychological and behavioural problems. This study examined whether male and female adolescents would differ in level of child abuse, emotional processing difficulties, alexithymia, psychological symptoms and behavioural problems, and whether the pattern of association between these variables would vary depending on gender. Eight hundred adolescents were recruited from China and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Emotional Processing Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Prediction Test of Problem Children. Male adolescents reported significantly higher levels of emotional and physical neglect, and external oriented thinking style than female adolescents. Females reported significantly more anxiety symptoms and problems with learning than males. For males, child abuse was associated with emotional processing difficulties which were associated with alexithymia. In turn, alexithymia was associated with both psychological and behavioural problems. For females, the same association was established for predicting behavioural problems but not psychological symptoms. Male and female adolescents differed in level of child abuse, alexithymia, psychological symptoms and behavioural problems. These psychological constructs were connected in a specific pattern to trigger psychological and behavioural problems for male adolescents whereas for females, different patterns were involved.

3.
Psychiatr Q ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802409

RESUMO

PTSD has profound personal, social and economic impact. Understanding factors that influence strong recovery is a priority for informing the use of limited treatment resources. This study follows up a preliminary finding from Hoelterhoff and Cheung Chung, Psychiatr Q, 88, 635-651, [30] which found that death anxiety is related to PTSD and suggested that self-efficacy may mediate this relationship. Specifically, this study examined self-efficacy as a protective factor in the context of people who have experienced a life-threatening event. 109 undergraduate university students completed self-report questionnaires on, self-efficacy, death anxiety, trauma and well-being as well as a number of demographic factors. Self-efficacy was found that to be significantly and inversely related to death anxiety and psychiatric co-morbidity, but not PTSD. Results were discussed in light of literature regarding death anxiety. It seems that self-efficacy is related to death anxiety and well-being; however, it interacts with these processes independently and not as a mediating factor. More research is needed to understand coping mechanisms that help develop resilience against the negative effects of death anxiety against PTSD and minimize its detrimental impact on mental health.

4.
Psychiatr Q ; 90(4): 803-814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423547

RESUMO

This study examined 1) the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity, and 2) whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies would mediate the impact of PTSD on specific distress outcomes. Four hundred seventy-five Kazakh students (F = 336, M = 139) participated in the study and completed a demographic page, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5, General Health Questionnaire-28, Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The results showed that 71% reported that they had experienced at least one trauma throughout their lifespan, of whom 39% met the criteria for full-PTSD. Controlling for age and university majors, PTSD was associated with interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies were correlated with specific distress outcomes. Whilst positive reappraisal and refocusing on planning were associated with interpersonal sensitivity, self-blame and putting the trauma into perspective were associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Self-blame mediated the impact of PTSD on psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, trauma can heighten levels of sensitivity in interpersonal interaction and psychological symptoms. Having specific thoughts about the trauma can impact on specific psychological reactions. Blaming oneself for the trauma can influence its impact on the severity of psychological symptoms.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 1-8, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634110

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of bombing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity over time, whether this relationship was mediated by shattered world assumptions and altered self-capacities, and whether the mediational effects were moderated by attachment style and crisis support among Iraqi civilians. One hundred and fifty-nine Iraqi civilians completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned psychological constructs. Bombing exposure was associated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity over time; 87% and 77% met the criteria for PTSD at baseline and five months respectively. Shattered world assumptions and altered self-capacities mediated the impact of bombing exposure on PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity over time. The mediational effect for shattered world assumptions was not moderated by attachment style and crisis support. However, the mediational effect for altered self-capacities was moderated by fearful attachment and a medium level of crisis support. To conclude, following bombing, Iraqi civilians' assumptions about the world and others can change. These changes can have long term effects on psychological distress but are not influenced by childhood attachment experiences or the amount of crisis support received. Bombing can also change civilians' perceptions of internal capacities like emotional regulation, particularly those with fearful attachment who rely on crisis support to some extent.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Ego , Negociação/psicologia , Autorrelato , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatr Q ; 90(1): 249-261, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515699

RESUMO

This study examined 1) the link between PTSD from past trauma, interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity, 2) mediational effects of alexithymia on 1), and 3) moderated mediational effects with emotional expressivity as the moderator. Five hundred and fifteen Kazakh students completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure. The results showed that 28% met the criteria for full-PTSD. Controlling for academic year, age and university major, PTSD from past trauma was significantly correlated with interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia mediated the impact of PTSD on interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia, however, did not interact with type of emotional expressivity to influence outcomes. Moderated mediational effects were not found. To conclude, following trauma, Kazakh students can experience heightened levels of interpersonal sensitivity and psychological symptoms. These problems are particularly severe for those who have difficulty getting in touch with their emotions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 136-143, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472509

RESUMO

Past traumatic events are distressing experiences which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and other psychological symptoms among university students. However, little is known as to whether or not cognitive distortion and alexithymia would influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined a cognitive-emotional framework depicting potential roles that cognitive distortion and alexithymia could play in influencing the relationship between past trauma and psychiatric co-morbidities among university students in China. One thousand one hundred and eleven participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, Cognitive Distortion Scale (CDS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results indicated that PTSD following past trauma was significantly associated with increased psychiatric co-morbidities after controlling for covariates. Both alexithymia and distorted cognition mediated the association between PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidities. To conclude, university students can develop PTSD from past trauma and other mental health problems. The severity of psychological distress can be influenced by their distorted perceptions of themselves, the world, and the future, as well as their ability to identify, describe, and express distressing emotions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Cognição , Distorção da Percepção , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatr Q ; 90(1): 47-62, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264369

RESUMO

This study compared the severity of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and psychiatric symptoms between patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and investigated a model depicting the interrelationship between PTSD from past trauma, personality traits, coping strategies, CIU severity and psychiatric symptom severity. One hundred CIU and 60 allergy patients participated in the study, completing measures on PTSD, psychiatric symptoms, personality traits and coping strategies. The results showed that for CIU patients, 7%, 40 and 34% met the diagnostic criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD and full-PTSD respectively whereas for allergy patients, 15%, 45 and 18% met the same criteria. Apart from CIU, psychiatric symptom severity differed significantly between diagnostic groups. PTSD was associated with coping strategies which were in turn associated with CIU severity and psychiatric symptom severity. PTSD was not significantly associated with personality. Emotion-focused coping mediated PTSD and CIU severity, PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity and neuroticism and CIU severity. To conclude, psychiatric symptom severity varies depending on the level of PTSD among CIU patients. Neurotic patients with a high level of PTSD from past trauma show raised CIU and psychiatric symptom severity when using emotion-focused coping strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Urticária/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Urticária/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatr Q ; 89(4): 909-921, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981008

RESUMO

It has been documented that trauma centrality is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. Whether age would influence the levels of the above constructs and the association between trauma centrality and distress outcomes is unclear. This study compared age differences in 1) the levels of trauma centrality, posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity, and 2) models depicting the association between trauma centrality and distress outcomes among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees completed the Centrality of Event Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire-28. Age groups were divided into young, middle-aged adults and adults of 45 or above. No significant group differences were found in the proportion of refugees meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Controlling for demographic variables, all subscales of trauma centrality and psychiatric co-morbidity were significantly different between groups. Young adults reported significantly less trauma centrality and psychiatric co-morbidity than the other groups. Multiple-indicator multiple-cause modelling showed that trauma centrality was significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Multi-group analysis showed the model for the young adult group to be significantly different from the middle-aged group model. To conclude, age did not seem to influence the severity of PTSD among Syrian refugees. The war had a less severe impact on young adults' sense of self and other psychological problems than those who were older. The way in which young and middle-aged adults responded to distress varied depending on environment and personal characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Síria/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatry ; 81(1): 54-70, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. METHODS: A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. RESULTS: Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Síria/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Ment Health ; 27(5): 424-431, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. AIMS: This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. METHODS: One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. RESULTS: Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.


Assuntos
Cognição , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Ment Health ; 27(5): 442-449, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and CIU severity are linked and partially mediated by the high-anxious defense mechanism. What is unclear is whether emotional suppression, as a defense serving the opposite purpose for high-anxious defense, can also act as a mediator and whether this mediational effect is partly influenced by time since trauma and trauma type. AIMS: To investigate whether emotional suppression mediated the links between PTSD and CIU symptom severities, and PTSD and psychiatric co-morbid symptom severities. It then examined whether the mediating effect would be moderated by how long ago the trauma occurred and trauma type. METHODS: One hundred CIU patients were compared with 60 allergy patients. They completed questionnaires measuring PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and emotional suppression. RESULTS: Suppressing depression mediated the relationship between PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. How long ago the trauma occurred and trauma type moderated the mediational effect of suppressing depression. CONCLUSIONS: Following a past trauma, CIU patients may develop PTSD symptoms which influence their psychological well-being through using different levels of emotional suppression, especially suppressing depression. The levels depend on the severity of PTSD symptoms, trauma history and whether they experienced interpersonal traumas.


Assuntos
Emoções , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Urticária/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Comorbidade , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Urticária/epidemiologia
13.
Psychiatr Q ; 89(2): 439-449, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086239

RESUMO

To examine the prevalence of PTSD following homicide and investigate the relationship between PTSD from past traumas, defense styles and PTSD following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. 167 male homicide perpetrators participated in the study and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28 and the Defense Styles Questionnaire. 45% met the criteria for PTSD following homicide and 55% for no-PTSD. With the number of times for imprisonment adjusted, regression analyses showed that immature defense style was associated with PTSD following homicide with the severity of PTSD from past traumas as a moderator. Neurotic and immature defense styles and PTSD from past trauma were significantly and independently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators could develop PTSD following homicide. The severity of PTSD from past traumas could affect PTSD following homicide and other psychological problems, and influence the effect of using immature defense against PTSD from homicide. Past trauma, immature and neurotic defense styles had a unique and specific pattern of influence on psychological symptoms, other than trauma symptoms.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
14.
Midwifery ; 56: 70-78, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096282

RESUMO

the mental health of new mothers is a public health concern as it is likely to have an impact on the mother herself, her close relationships and the behavioural and emotional health of her children. Post-traumatic stress disorder affects some women after childbirth. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to explore how women were affected by the memories of a birth that they perceived as traumatic. DESIGN: in this paper the authors report the qualitative analysis of interview data from seven postnatal women reporting symptoms of PTSD. Participants were recruited from a large NHS Trust in the South West of England. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview data collected from the seven women reporting symptoms of postnatal PTSD. FINDINGS: complicating factors such as relationship difficulties and pre-existing health problems appeared to contribute to postnatal post-traumatic stress disorder and some women reported difficulty expressing emotions. The study findings confirm that women value good relationships with midwives during labour. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: antenatal screening for personality traits such as alexithymia (difficulty expressing emotions) may be useful and midwives should be alert to current life events that may increase women's vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Parto/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
15.
J Ment Health ; 26(4): 342-350, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between serious illness and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric comorbidity has been established. In populations with asthma, however, few studies have investigated this link, or what psychological mechanisms mediate it. Healthcare guidance for chronic conditions, and PTSD literature, highlight "agency beliefs" as a direction for investigation. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PTSD following asthma attack, and investigate whether agency beliefs mediate PTSD and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this population. METHOD: We recruited 110 adults with asthma from online peer support forums. Participants completed the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, GHQ-28, General Self-Efficacy scale, and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale. RESULTS: 20% of our sample met criteria for PTSD. Regression results indicated that higher asthma severity significantly predicted PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Lower self-efficacy significantly predicted PTSD symptoms while controlling for asthma severity, however Locus of Control (LoC) did not improve the model further. Self-efficacy, but not LoC, significantly partially mediated the effect of asthma severity on PTSD severity and psychiatric co-morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD and other psychiatric symptoms in asthma populations are mediated in part by self-efficacy. Safeguarding and improving self-efficacy in this population is an important area for future research and intervention.


Assuntos
Asma/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocontrole , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 94: 107-115, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697422

RESUMO

This study examined the inter-relationship between trauma centrality, self-efficacy, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among a group of Syrian refugees living in Turkey, and whether gender would moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the impact of trauma centrality on distress. Seven hundred and ninety-two Syrian refugees completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-28, Centrality of Event Scale and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that 52% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma centrality was positively correlated with PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was negatively correlated with PTSD only. Gender did not moderate the mediational effect of self-efficacy on the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. To conclude, following exposure to traumatic events, more than half reported PTSD. Perception of the future and identity construction was affected. Signs of psychological distress were evident, alongside resilience, regardless of gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria/etnologia , Turquia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Ment Health ; 26(4): 334-341, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28485695

RESUMO

AIMS: Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. METHODS: One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
18.
J Ment Health ; 26(3): 204-211, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26940708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In literature, the effect of age on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is inconclusive; the effect on flood-related PTSD is particularly unclear. Little is known on distorted cognitions among flood victims, although cognition distortions and PTSD have been linked among victims of other traumas. AIMS: To investigate: (1) whether flood-related PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and cognitive distortions would differ according to age and (2) distinctive patterns of association between the preceding variables for different age groups. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four flood victims of different ages completed standardized questionnaires measuring PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and cognitive distortions. RESULTS: Adolescents and young adults reported significantly fewer PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and distorted cognition symptoms than people who were older. Preoccupation with danger and hopelessness were associated with both outcomes for adolescents, people in their thirties and middle-aged/older people. For young adults, helplessness was associated with PTSD; hopelessness and preoccupation with danger with psychiatric co-morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and young adults buffered against flood-related psychological distress better than older people. Distorted cognitions related to distress outcomes differently depending on age.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Inundações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatr Q ; 88(2): 307-321, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338722

RESUMO

This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.


Assuntos
Cognição , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Natimorto/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 48(4): 610-618, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704299

RESUMO

This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Emoções , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Adolescente , China/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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