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1.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 8(1): 37, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650272

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare birth defect characterized by incomplete closure of the diaphragm and herniation of fetal abdominal organs into the chest that results in pulmonary hypoplasia, postnatal pulmonary hypertension owing to vascular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction. The high mortality and morbidity rates associated with CDH are directly related to the severity of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. Although the aetiology remains unknown, CDH has a polygenic origin in approximately one-third of cases. CDH is typically diagnosed with antenatal ultrasonography, which also aids in risk stratification, alongside fetal MRI and echocardiography. At specialized centres, prenatal management includes fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion, which is a surgical intervention aimed at promoting lung growth in utero. Postnatal management focuses on cardiopulmonary stabilization and, in severe cases, can involve extracorporeal life support. Clinical practice guidelines continue to evolve owing to the rapidly changing landscape of therapeutic options, which include pulmonary hypertension management, ventilation strategies and surgical approaches. Survivors often have long-term, multisystem morbidities, including pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, musculoskeletal deformities and neurodevelopmental impairment. Emerging research focuses on small RNA species as biomarkers of severity and regenerative medicine approaches to improve fetal lung development.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Endoscopia , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/efeitos adversos
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(6): 981-988, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659933

RESUMO

The underrepresentation of non-European ancestry groups in current genomic databases complicates interpretation of their genetic test results, yielding a much higher prevalence of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs). Such VUS findings can frustrate the goals of genetic testing, create anxiety in patients, and lead to unnecessary medical interventions. Approaches to addressing underrepresentation of people with genetic ancestries other than European are being undertaken by broad-based recruitment efforts. However, some underrepresented groups have concerns that might preclude participation in such efforts. We describe here two initiatives aimed at meeting the needs of underrepresented ancestry groups in genomic datasets. The two communities, the Sephardi Jewish community in New York and First Peoples of Canada, have very different concerns about contributing to genomic research and datasets. Sephardi concerns focus on the possible negative effects of genetic findings on the marriage prospects of family members. Canadian Indigenous populations seek control over the research uses to which their genetic data would be put. Both cases involve targeted efforts to respond to the groups' concerns; these efforts include governance models aimed at ensuring that the data are used primarily to inform clinical test analyses and at achieving successful engagement and participation of community members. We suggest that these initiatives could provide models for other ancestral groups seeking to improve the accuracy and utility of clinical genetic testing while respecting the underlying preferences and values of community members with regard to the use of their genetic data.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Canadá , Família , Genômica , Humanos
3.
Clin Genet ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722745

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the CACNA1A gene have been associated with episodic ataxia type 2, familial hemiplegic migraine, and spinocerebellar ataxia 6. With increasing use of clinical genetic testing, associations have expanded to include developmental delay, epilepsy, paroxysmal dystonia, and neuropsychiatric disorders. We report 47 individuals with 33 unique likely pathogenic or pathogenic CACNA1A variants. A machine learning method, funNCion, was used to predict loss-of-function (LoF)/gain-of-function (GoF) impact of genetic variants, and a heuristic severity score was designed to analyze genotype/phenotype correlations. Commonly reported phenotypes include developmental delay/intellectual disability (96%), hemiplegic migraines (36%), episodic ataxia type 2 (32%), epilepsy (55%), autism spectrum disorder (23%), and paroxysmal tonic upward gaze (36%). Severity score was significantly higher for predicted GoF variants, variants in the S5/S6 helices, and the recurrent p.Val1392Met variant. Seizures/status epilepticus were correlated with GoF and were more frequent in those with the p.Val1392Met variant. Our findings demonstrate a breadth of disease severity in CACNA1A-related disease and suggest that the clinical phenotypic heterogeneity likely reflects diverse molecular phenotypes. A better understanding of the natural history of CACNA1A-related disease and genotype/phenotype correlations will help inform prognosis and prepare for future clinical trials.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3428, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701404

RESUMO

Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that circulatory system diseases and nervous system disorders often co-occur in patients. However, genetic susceptibility factors shared between these disease categories remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized pleiotropy across 107 circulatory system and 40 nervous system traits using an ensemble of methods in the eMERGE Network and UK Biobank. Using a formal test of pleiotropy, five genomic loci demonstrated statistically significant evidence of pleiotropy. We observed region-specific patterns of direction of genetic effects for the two disease categories, suggesting potential antagonistic and synergistic pleiotropy. Our findings provide insights into the relationship between circulatory system diseases and nervous system disorders which can provide context for future prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Cell ; 185(12): 2007-2010, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688129

RESUMO

Significant disparities in the clinical usefulness of genomic information across diverse groups are due to underrepresentation in genetic databases and inequitable access to genetic services. Remedying disparities is immediately needed to ensure that genomic medicine is more equitable but will take a long-term commitment and active engagement of diverse communities.


Assuntos
Genômica , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Bases de Dados Genéticas
6.
Nat Med ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710995

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complex condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Polygenic prediction could enhance CKD screening and prevention; however, this approach has not been optimized for ancestrally diverse populations. By combining APOL1 risk genotypes with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of kidney function, we designed, optimized and validated a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for CKD. The new GPS was tested in 15 independent cohorts, including 3 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 97,050), 6 cohorts of African ancestry (n = 14,544), 4 cohorts of Asian ancestry (n = 8,625) and 2 admixed Latinx cohorts (n = 3,625). We demonstrated score transferability with reproducible performance across all tested cohorts. The top 2% of the GPS was associated with nearly threefold increased risk of CKD across ancestries. In African ancestry cohorts, the APOL1 risk genotype and polygenic component of the GPS had additive effects on the risk of CKD.

7.
Genet Med ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: WNK3 kinase (PRKWNK3) has been implicated in the development and function of the brain via its regulation of the cation-chloride cotransporters, but the role of WNK3 in human development is unknown. METHOD: We ascertained exome or genome sequences of individuals with rare familial or sporadic forms of intellectual disability (ID). RESULTS: We identified a total of 6 different maternally-inherited, hemizygous, 3 loss-of-function or 3 pathogenic missense variants (p.Pro204Arg, p.Leu300Ser, p.Glu607Val) in WNK3 in 14 male individuals from 6 unrelated families. Affected individuals had identifier with variable presence of epilepsy and structural brain defects. WNK3 variants cosegregated with the disease in 3 different families with multiple affected individuals. This included 1 large family previously diagnosed with X-linked Prieto syndrome. WNK3 pathogenic missense variants localize to the catalytic domain and impede the inhibitory phosphorylation of the neuronal-specific chloride cotransporter KCC2 at threonine 1007, a site critically regulated during the development of synaptic inhibition. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic WNK3 variants cause a rare form of human X-linked identifier with variable epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities and implicate impaired phospho-regulation of KCC2 as a pathogenic mechanism.

8.
Pulm Circ ; 12(1): e12033, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506084

RESUMO

Despite therapeutic advances over the past decades, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and related pulmonary vascular diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonates, infants, and children. Unfortunately, an adequate understanding of underlying biology is lacking. There has been a growing interest in the role that genetic factors influence pulmonary vascular disease, with the hope that genetic information may aid in identifying disease etiologies, guide therapeutic decisions, and ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets. In fact, current data suggest that genetic factors contribute to ~42% of pediatric-onset PH compared to ~12.5% of adult-onset PAH. We report a case in which the knowledge that biallelic ATP13A3 mutations are associated with malignant progression of PAH in young childhood, led us to alter our traditional treatment plan for a 21-month-old PAH patient. In this case, we elected to perform a historically high-risk Potts shunt before expected rapid deterioration. Short-term follow-up is encouraging, and the patient remains the only known surviving pediatric PAH patient with an associated biallelic ATP13A3 mutation in the literature. We speculate that an increased use of comprehensive genetic testing can aid in identifying the underlying pathobiology and the expected natural history, and guide treatment plans among PAH patients.

9.
HGG Adv ; 3(3): 100107, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519826

RESUMO

Esophageal atresias/tracheoesophageal fistulas (EA/TEF) are rare congenital anomalies caused by aberrant development of the foregut. Previous studies indicate that rare or de novo genetic variants significantly contribute to EA/TEF risk, and most individuals with EA/TEF do not have pathogenic genetic variants in established risk genes. To identify the genetic contributions to EA/TEF, we performed whole genome sequencing of 185 trios (probands and parents) with EA/TEF, including 59 isolated and 126 complex cases with additional congenital anomalies and/or neurodevelopmental disorders. There was a significant burden of protein-altering de novo coding variants in complex cases (p = 3.3 × 10-4), especially in genes that are intolerant of loss-of-function variants in the population. We performed simulation analysis of pathway enrichment based on background mutation rate and identified a number of pathways related to endocytosis and intracellular trafficking that as a group have a significant burden of protein-altering de novo variants. We assessed 18 variants for disease causality using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis in Xenopus and confirmed 13 with tracheoesophageal phenotypes. Our results implicate disruption of endosome-mediated epithelial remodeling as a potential mechanism of foregut developmental defects. Our results suggest significant genetic heterogeneity of EA/TEF and may have implications for the mechanisms of other rare congenital anomalies.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543142

RESUMO

The pre-mRNA-processing factor 8, encoded by PRPF8, is a scaffolding component of a spliceosome complex involved in the removal of introns from mRNA precursors. Previously, heterozygous pathogenic variants in PRPF8 have been associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. More recently, PRPF8 was suggested as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder due to the enrichment of sequence variants in this gene in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We report 14 individuals with various forms of neurodevelopmental conditions, found to have heterozygous, predominantly de novo, missense, and loss-of-function variants in PRPF8. These individuals have clinical features that may represent a new neurodevelopmental syndrome.

11.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621276

RESUMO

Mitochondrial complex V plays an important role in oxidative phosphorylation by catalyzing the generation of ATP. Most complex V subunits are nuclear encoded and not yet associated with recognized Mendelian disorders. Using exome sequencing, we identified a rare homozygous splice variant (c.87+3A>G) in ATP5PO, the complex V subunit which encodes the oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein, in three individuals from two unrelated families, with clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder. These individuals had a similar severe infantile and often lethal multi-systemic disorder that included hypotonia, developmental delay, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, progressive epileptic encephalopathy, progressive cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities on brain MRI consistent with Leigh syndrome. cDNA studies showed a predominant shortened transcript with skipping of exon 2 and low levels of the normal full-length transcript. Fibroblasts from the affected individuals demonstrated decreased ATP5PO protein, defective assembly of complex V with greatly reduced amounts of peripheral stalk proteins, and greatly reduced complex V hydrolytic activity. Further, expression of human ATP5PO cDNA without exon 2 (hATP5PO-∆ex2) in yeast cells deleted for yATP5 (ATP5PO homolog) was unable to rescue growth on media which requires oxidative phosphorylation when compared to the wild type construct (hATP5PO-WT), indicating that exon 2 deletion leads to a non-functional protein. Collectively, our findings support the pathogenicity of the ATP5PO c.87+3A>G variant, which significantly reduces but does not eliminate complex V activity. These data along with the recent report of an affected individual with ATP5PO variants, add to the evidence that rare biallelic variants in ATP5PO result in defective complex V assembly, function and are associated with Leigh syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier onset of breast development (thelarche) is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Identifying modifiable factors associated with earlier thelarche may provide an opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction starting early in life, which could especially benefit girls with a greater absolute risk of breast cancer due to family history. METHODS: We assessed associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity during pregnancy, gestational weight gain and daughters' weight and length at birth with age at thelarche using longitudinal Weibull models in 1031 girls in the Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study-a prospective cohort of girls, half of whom have a breast cancer family history (BCFH). RESULTS: Girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of ≥25 and gained ≥30 lbs were 57% more likely to experience earlier thelarche than girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25 and gained <30 lbs [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.12]. This association was not mediated by childhood BMI and was similar in girls with and without a BCFH (BCFH: HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.27; No BCFH: HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Daughters of women who reported no recreational physical activity during pregnancy were more likely to experience earlier thelarche compared with daughters of physically active women. Birthweight and birth length were not associated with thelarche. CONCLUSION: Earlier thelarche, a breast cancer risk factor, was associated with three potentially modifiable maternal risk factors-pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and physical inactivity-in a cohort of girls enriched for BCFH.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 14(1): 52, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: epi-cblC is a recently discovered inherited disorder of intracellular vitamin B12 metabolism associating hematological, neurological, and cardiometabolic outcomes. It is produced by an epimutation at the promoter common to CCDC163P and MMACHC, which results from an aberrant antisense transcription due to splicing mutations in the antisense PRDX1 gene neighboring MMACHC. We studied whether the aberrant transcription produced a second epimutation by encompassing the CpG island of the TESK2 gene neighboring CCDC163P. METHODS: We unraveled the methylome architecture of the CCDC163P-MMACHC CpG island (CpG:33) and the TESK2 CpG island (CpG:51) of 17 epi-cblC cases. We performed an integrative analysis of the DNA methylome profiling, transcriptome reconstruction of RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of histone H3, and transcription expression of MMACHC and TESK2. RESULTS: The PRDX1 splice mutations and activation of numerous cryptic splice sites produced antisense readthrough transcripts encompassing the bidirectional MMACHC/CCDC163P promoter and the TESK2 promoter, resulting in the silencing of both the MMACHC and TESK2 genes through the deposition of SETD2-dependent H3K36me3 marks and the generation of epimutations in the CpG islands of the two promoters. CONCLUSIONS: The antisense readthrough transcription of the mutated PRDX1 produces an epigenetic silencing of MMACHC and TESK2. We propose using the term 'epi-digenism' to define this epigenetic disorder that affects two genes. Epi-cblC is an entity that differs from cblC. Indeed, the PRDX1 and TESK2 altered expressions are observed in epi-cblC but not in cblC, suggesting further evaluating the potential consequences on cancer risk and spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Homocistinúria , Vitamina B 12 , Metilação de DNA , Homocistinúria/genética , Homocistinúria/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Vitaminas
14.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 835-844, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446370

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge about the spectrum of diseases associated with hereditary cancer syndromes may improve disease diagnosis and management for patients and help to identify high-risk individuals. Objective: To identify phenotypes associated with hereditary cancer genes through a phenome-wide association study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study used health data from participants in 3 cohorts. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Sequencing (eMERGEseq) data set recruited predominantly healthy individuals from 10 US medical centers from July 16, 2016, through February 18, 2018, with a mean follow-up through electronic health records (EHRs) of 12.7 (7.4) years. The UK Biobank (UKB) cohort recruited participants from March 15, 2006, through August 1, 2010, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.4 (1.0) years. The Hereditary Cancer Registry (HCR) recruited patients undergoing clinical genetic testing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from May 1, 2012, through December 31, 2019, with a mean (SD) follow-up through EHRs of 8.8 (6.5) years. Exposures: Germline variants in 23 hereditary cancer genes. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants for each gene were aggregated for association analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Phenotypes in the eMERGEseq and HCR cohorts were derived from the linked EHRs. Phenotypes in UKB were from multiple sources of health-related data. Results: A total of 214 020 participants were identified, including 23 544 in eMERGEseq cohort (mean [SD] age, 47.8 [23.7] years; 12 611 women [53.6%]), 187 234 in the UKB cohort (mean [SD] age, 56.7 [8.1] years; 104 055 [55.6%] women), and 3242 in the HCR cohort (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [15.5] years; 2851 [87.9%] women). All 38 established gene-cancer associations were replicated, and 19 new associations were identified. These included the following 7 associations with neoplasms: CHEK2 with leukemia (odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.64-5.48]) and plasma cell neoplasms (OR, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.84-5.28]), ATM with gastric cancer (OR, 4.27 [95% CI, 2.35-7.44]) and pancreatic cancer (OR, 4.44 [95% CI, 2.66-7.40]), MUTYH (biallelic) with kidney cancer (OR, 32.28 [95% CI, 6.40-162.73]), MSH6 with bladder cancer (OR, 5.63 [95% CI, 2.75-11.49]), and APC with benign liver/intrahepatic bile duct tumors (OR, 52.01 [95% CI, 14.29-189.29]). The remaining 12 associations with nonneoplastic diseases included BRCA1/2 with ovarian cysts (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 2.22-4.46] and 3.12 [95% CI, 2.36-4.12], respectively), MEN1 with acute pancreatitis (OR, 33.45 [95% CI, 9.25-121.02]), APC with gastritis and duodenitis (OR, 4.66 [95% CI, 2.61-8.33]), and PTEN with chronic gastritis (OR, 15.68 [95% CI, 6.01-40.92]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this genetic association study analyzing the EHRs of 3 large cohorts suggest that these new phenotypes associated with hereditary cancer genes may facilitate early detection and better management of cancers. This study highlights the potential benefits of using EHR data in genomic medicine.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Prenat Diagn ; 42(7): 947-954, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the experiences of individuals who chose to participate in a study and receive prenatal genomic sequencing (pGS) for fetuses with congenital structural anomalies. METHOD: Individuals who received research results of prenatal sequencing were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews about their experiences. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to code and analyze interviews. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants from 27 pregnancies were interviewed. Participants were motivated to enroll in the study to find out more about their fetus' condition and prepare for the future. The waiting period was a time of significant anxiety for participants. Most participants felt relief and closure upon receiving results, regardless of the category of result, and had a clear understanding of the implications of the results. CONCLUSION: Participants' experiences with pGS were often intertwined with the experience of having a fetus with an abnormality. Participants were satisfied with the decision to participate in research and the support they received from the healthcare team, although waiting for results was associated with anxiety. The healthcare team plays an integral role in setting expectations and validating feelings of anxiety, fear and uncertainty.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Feto , Atitude , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Genômica , Humanos , Gravidez
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(4): 601-617, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395208

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders are highly heterogenous conditions resulting from abnormalities of brain architecture and/or function. FBXW7 (F-box and WD-repeat-domain-containing 7), a recognized developmental regulator and tumor suppressor, has been shown to regulate cell-cycle progression and cell growth and survival by targeting substrates including CYCLIN E1/2 and NOTCH for degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. We used a genotype-first approach and global data-sharing platforms to identify 35 individuals harboring de novo and inherited FBXW7 germline monoallelic chromosomal deletions and nonsense, frameshift, splice-site, and missense variants associated with a neurodevelopmental syndrome. The FBXW7 neurodevelopmental syndrome is distinguished by global developmental delay, borderline to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and gastrointestinal issues. Brain imaging detailed variable underlying structural abnormalities affecting the cerebellum, corpus collosum, and white matter. A crystal-structure model of FBXW7 predicted that missense variants were clustered at the substrate-binding surface of the WD40 domain and that these might reduce FBXW7 substrate binding affinity. Expression of recombinant FBXW7 missense variants in cultured cells demonstrated impaired CYCLIN E1 and CYCLIN E2 turnover. Pan-neuronal knockdown of the Drosophila ortholog, archipelago, impaired learning and neuronal function. Collectively, the data presented herein provide compelling evidence of an F-Box protein-related, phenotypically variable neurodevelopmental disorder associated with monoallelic variants in FBXW7.


Assuntos
Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Ubiquitinação , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/química , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/genética , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/metabolismo , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(5): 961-966, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397206

RESUMO

The well-established manifestation of mitochondrial mutations in functional cardiac disease (e.g., mitochondrial cardiomyopathy) prompted the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and/or copy number (mtDNAcn) variation contribute to cardiac defects in congenital heart disease (CHD). MtDNAcns were calculated and rare, non-synonymous mtDNA mutations were identified in 1,837 CHD-affected proband-parent trios, 116 CHD-affected singletons, and 114 paired cardiovascular tissue/blood samples. The variant allele fraction (VAF) of heteroplasmic variants in mitochondrial RNA from 257 CHD cardiovascular tissue samples was also calculated. On average, mtDNA from blood had 0.14 rare variants and 52.9 mtDNA copies per nuclear genome per proband. No variation with parental age at proband birth or CHD-affected proband age was seen. mtDNAcns in valve/vessel tissue (320 ± 70) were lower than in atrial tissue (1,080 ± 320, p = 6.8E-21), which were lower than in ventricle tissue (1,340 ± 280, p = 1.4E-4). The frequency of rare variants in CHD-affected individual DNA was indistinguishable from the frequency in an unaffected cohort, and proband mtDNAcns did not vary from those of CHD cohort parents. In both the CHD and the comparison cohorts, mtDNAcns were significantly correlated between mother-child, father-child, and mother-father. mtDNAcns among people with European (mean = 52.0), African (53.0), and Asian haplogroups (53.5) were calculated and were significantly different for European and Asian haplogroups (p = 2.6E-3). Variant heteroplasmic fraction (HF) in blood correlated well with paired cardiovascular tissue HF (r = 0.975) and RNA VAF (r = 0.953), which suggests blood HF is a reasonable proxy for HF in heart tissue. We conclude that mtDNA mutations and mtDNAcns are unlikely to contribute significantly to CHD risk.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436152

RESUMO

Genomic tests expand diagnostic and screening opportunities but also identify genetic variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUSs). Only a minority of VUSs are likely to prove pathogenic when later reassessed, but resolution of the uncertainty is rarely timely. That uncertainty adds complexity to clinical decision making and can result in harms and costs to patients and the health care system, including the time-consuming analysis required to interpret a VUS and the potential for unnecessary treatment and adverse psychological effects. Current efforts to improve variant interpretation will help reduce the scope of the problem, but the high prevalence of rare and novel variants in the human genome points to VUSs as an ongoing challenge. Additional strategies can help mitigate the potential harms of VUSs, including testing protocols that limit identification or reporting of VUSs, subclassification of VUSs according to the likelihood of pathogenicity, routine family-based evaluation of variants, and enhanced counseling efforts. All involve tradeoffs, and the appropriate balance of measures is likely to vary for different test uses and clinical settings. Cross-specialty deliberation and public input could contribute to systematic and broadly supported policies for managing VUSs.

20.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 8(2)2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466194

RESUMO

Seven months after the launch of a pilot study to screen newborns for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in New York State, New York City became an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. All in-person research activities were suspended at the study enrollment institutions of Northwell Health and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospitals, and study recruitment was transitioned to 100% remote. Pre-pandemic, all recruitment was in-person with research staff visiting the postpartum patients 1-2 days after delivery to obtain consent. With the onset of pandemic, the multilingual research staff shifted to calling new mothers while they were in the hospital or shortly after discharge, and consent was collected via emailed e-consent links. With return of study staff to the hospitals, a hybrid approach was implemented with in-person recruitment for babies delivered during the weekdays and remote recruitment for babies delivered on weekends and holidays, a cohort not recruited pre-pandemic. There was a drop in the proportion of eligible babies enrolled with the transition to fully remote recruitment from 64% to 38%. In addition, the proportion of babies enrolled after being approached dropped from 91% to 55%. With hybrid recruitment, the proportion of eligible babies enrolled (70%) and approached babies enrolled (84%) returned to pre-pandemic levels. Our experience adapting our study during the COVID-19 pandemic led us to develop new recruitment strategies that we continue to utilize. The lessons learned from this pilot study can serve to help other research studies adapt novel and effective recruitment methods.

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