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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387860

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the genetic etiology of a rapidly progressing neurological disease present in two of six siblings with early childhood onset of severe progressive spastic paraparesis and learning disabilities. A homozygous mutation (c.2005G>T, p, V669L) was found in VAC14, and the clinical phenotype is consistent with the recently described VAC14-related striatonigral degeneration, childhood-onset syndrome (SNDC) (MIM#617054). However, the phenotype includes a distinct clinical presentation of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which has not previously been reported in association with VAC14 mutations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal magnetic susceptibility in the globus pallidus, which can be seen in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). RP is a group of inherited retinal diseases with phenotypic/genetic heterogeneity, and the pathophysiologic basis of RP is not completely understood but is thought to be due to a primary retinal photoreceptor cell degenerative process. Most cases of RP are seen in isolation (non-syndromic); this is a report of RP in two siblings with VAC14-associated syndrome, and it is suggested that a connection between RP and VAC14-associated syndrome should be explored in future studies.

2.
Semin Perinatol ; : 151169, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443905

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth defect that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially when associated with additional congenital anomalies. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to CDH. The genetic contributions to CDH are highly heterogeneous and incompletely defined. No one genetic cause accounts for more than 1-2% of CDH cases. In this review, we summarize the known genetic causes of CDH from chromosomal anomalies to individual genes. Both de novo and inherited variants contribute to CDH. Genes causing CDH are increasingly identified from animal models and from genomic strategies including exome and genome sequencing in humans. CDH genes are often transcription factors, genes involved in cell migration or the components of extracellular matrix. We provide clinical genetic testing strategies in the clinical evaluation that can identify a genetic cause in up to ∼30% of patients with non-isolated CDH and can be useful to refine prognosis, identify associated medical and neurodevelopmental issues to address, and inform family planning options.

3.
J Neurosci ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270155

RESUMO

Sensorimotor deficits are prevalent in many neurodevelopmental disorders like autism, including one of its common genetic etiologies, a 600 kb reciprocal deletion/duplication at 16p11.2. We have previously shown that copy number variations of 16p11.2 impact regional brain volume, white matter integrity and early sensory responses in auditory cortex. Here, we test the hypothesis that abnormal cortical neurophysiology is present when genes in the 16p11.2 region are haploinsufficient, and in humans that this in turn may account for behavioral deficits specific to deletion carriers. We examine sensorimotor cortical network activity in males and females with 16p11.2 deletions compared with both typically developing individuals, and those with duplications of 16p11.2, using magnetoencephalographic imaging during preparation of overt speech or hand movements in tasks designed to be easy for all participants. In deletion carriers, modulation of beta oscillations (12-30Hz) were increased during both movement types over effector-specific regions of motor cortices when compared to typically developing individuals or duplication carriers, with no task-related performance differences between cohorts, even when corrected for their own cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. Reduced left hemispheric language specialization was observed in deletion carriers but not in duplication carriers. Neural activity over sensorimotor cortices in deletion carriers was linearly related to clinical measures of speech and motor impairment. These findings link insufficient copy number repeats at 16p11.2 to excessive neural activity (e.g. increased beta oscillations) in motor cortical networks for speech and hand motor control. These results have significant implications for understanding the neural basis of autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe recurrent ∼600 kb deletion at 16p11.2 (BP4-BP5) is one of the most common genetic etiologies of ASD and, more generally, of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we use high-resolution magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I) in order to define with millisecond precision the underlying neurophysiological signature of motor impairments for individuals with 16p11.2 deletions. We identify significant increases in beta (12-30Hz) suppression in sensorimotor cortices related to performance during speech and hand movement tasks. These findings not only provide a neurophysiological phenotype for the clinical presentation of this genetic deletion, but also guide our understanding of how genetic variation encodes for neural oscillatory dynamics.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 413-424, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327508

RESUMO

WD40 repeat-containing proteins form a large family of proteins present in all eukaryotes. Here, we identified five pediatric probands with de novo variants in WDR37, which encodes a member of the WD40 repeat protein family. Two probands shared one variant and the others have variants in nearby amino acids outside the WD40 repeats. The probands exhibited shared phenotypes of epilepsy, colobomas, facial dysmorphology reminiscent of CHARGE syndrome, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia. The WDR37 protein is highly conserved in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms and is currently not associated with a human disease. We generated a null allele of the single Drosophila ortholog to gain functional insights and replaced the coding region of the fly gene CG12333/wdr37 with GAL4. These flies are homozygous viable but display severe bang sensitivity, a phenotype associated with seizures in flies. Additionally, the mutant flies fall when climbing the walls of the vials, suggesting a defect in grip strength, and repeat the cycle of climbing and falling. Similar to wall clinging defect, mutant males often lose grip of the female abdomen during copulation. These phenotypes are rescued by using the GAL4 in the CG12333/wdr37 locus to drive the UAS-human reference WDR37 cDNA. The two variants found in three human subjects failed to rescue these phenotypes, suggesting that these alleles severely affect the function of this protein. Taken together, our data suggest that variants in WDR37 underlie a novel syndromic neurological disorder.

5.
SLAS Discov ; 24(8): 829-841, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284814

RESUMO

The etiological underpinnings of many CNS disorders are not well understood. This is likely due to the fact that individual diseases aggregate numerous pathological subtypes, each associated with a complex landscape of genetic risk factors. To overcome these challenges, researchers are integrating novel data types from numerous patients, including imaging studies capturing broadly applicable features from patient-derived materials. These datasets, when combined with machine learning, potentially hold the power to elucidate the subtle patterns that stratify patients by shared pathology. In this study, we interrogated whether high-content imaging of primary skin fibroblasts, using the Cell Painting method, could reveal disease-relevant information among patients. First, we showed that technical features such as batch/plate type, plate, and location within a plate lead to detectable nuisance signals, as revealed by a pre-trained deep neural network and analysis with deep image embeddings. Using a plate design and image acquisition strategy that accounts for these variables, we performed a pilot study with 12 healthy controls and 12 subjects affected by the severe genetic neurological disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and evaluated whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) generated using a subset of the cells could distinguish disease states on cells from the remaining unseen control-SMA pair. Our results indicate that these two populations could effectively be differentiated from one another and that model selectivity is insensitive to batch/plate type. One caveat is that the samples were also largely separated by source. These findings lay a foundation for how to conduct future studies exploring diseases with more complex genetic contributions and unknown subtypes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166600

RESUMO

CONTEXT: X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG), a condition of infant-onset acrogigantism marked by elevated GH, IGF-1, and prolactin (PRL), is extremely rare. Thirty-three cases, including three kindreds, have been reported. These patients have pituitary adenomas that are thought to be mixed lactotrophs and somatotrophs. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient's mother, diagnosed with acrogigantism at 21 months, underwent pituitary tumor excision at 24 months. For over 30 years, stable PRL, GH, and IGF-1 concentrations and serial imaging studies indicated no tumor recurrence. During pre-conception planning, X-LAG was diagnosed: single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray showed chromosome Xq26.3 microduplication. After conception, SNP microarray on a chorionic villus sample showed the same microduplication in the fetus, confirming familial X-LAG. The infant grew rapidly with rising PRL, GH, and IGF-1 concentrations and an enlarging suprasellar pituitary mass, despite treatment with bromocriptine. At 15 months, he underwent tumor resection. The pituitary adenoma resembled the mother's pituitary adenoma, with tumor cells arranged in trabeculae and glandular structures. In both cases, many tumor cells expressed PRL, GH, and PIT1. Furthermore, the tumor expressed other lineage-specific transcription factors, as well as SOX2 and OCT4, demonstrating the multipotentiality of X-LAG tumors. Both showed an elevated Ki-67 proliferation index-5.6% (mother) and 8.5% (infant)-the highest reported in X-LAG. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prenatally diagnosed case of X-LAG. Clinical follow-up and biochemical evaluation have provided insight into the natural history of this disease. Expression of stem cell markers and several cell lineage-specific transcription factors suggests that these tumors are multipotential.

7.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), etiological evaluation can be a diagnostic odyssey involving numerous genetic tests, underscoring the need to develop a streamlined algorithm maximizing molecular diagnostic yield for this clinical indication. Our objective was to compare the yield of exome sequencing (ES) with that of chromosomal microarray (CMA), the current first-tier test for NDDs. METHODS: We performed a PubMed scoping review and meta-analysis investigating the diagnostic yield of ES for NDDs as the basis of a consensus development conference. We defined NDD as global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and/or autism spectrum disorder. The consensus development conference included input from genetics professionals, pediatric neurologists, and developmental behavioral pediatricians. RESULTS: After applying strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, we identified 30 articles with data on molecular diagnostic yield in individuals with isolated NDD, or NDD plus associated conditions (such as Rett-like features). Yield of ES was 36% overall, 31% for isolated NDD, and 53% for the NDD plus associated conditions. ES yield for NDDs is markedly greater than previous studies of CMA (15-20%). CONCLUSION: Our review demonstrates that ES consistently outperforms CMA for evaluation of unexplained NDDs. We propose a diagnostic algorithm placing ES at the beginning of the evaluation of unexplained NDDs.

8.
Public Health Genomics ; : 1-11, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ashkenazi Jews have a 1:40 prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations. Orthodox Jews are an understudied population with unique cultural and religious factors that may influence BRCA1/2 genetic testing uptake. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey and focus groups among Orthodox Jewish women in New York/New Jersey to explore factors affecting decision-making about BRCA1/2 genetic testing. RESULTS: Among 321 evaluable survey participants, the median age was 47 years (range, 25-82); 56% were Modern Orthodox and 44% Yeshivish/Chassidish/other; 84% were married; 7% had a personal history of breast or ovarian cancer. Nearly 20% of the women had undergone BRCA1/2genetic testing. Predictors of genetic testing uptake included being Modern Orthodox (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31), married (OR = 3.49), and having a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer (OR = 9.74). Focus group participants (n = 31) confirmed the importance of rabbinic consultation in medical decision-making and revealed that stigma was a prominent factor in decisions about BRCA1/2 testing due to its potential impact on marriageability. CONCLUSION: In order to increase the uptake of BRCA1/2 genetic testing among the Orthodox Jewish population, it is crucial to understand religious and cultural factors, such as stigma and effect on marriageability, and engage religious leaders in raising awareness within the community.

9.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) enters the clinic, there is an urgent need to understand the psychological effects of test result disclosure. Through a Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER), phase 1 (CSER1) Consortium collaboration, we evaluated participants' psychological outcomes across multiple clinical settings. METHODS: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of state anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]/Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item), depressive symptoms (HADS/Personal Health Questionnaire 9-item), and multidimensional impact (i.e., test-related distress, uncertainty and positive impact: modified Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment/Feelings About Genomic Testing Results scale). RESULTS: Anxiety and depression did not increase significantly following test result disclosure. Meta-analyses examining mean differences from pre- to postdisclosure revealed an overall trend for a decrease in participants' anxiety. We observed low levels of test-related distress and perceptions of uncertainty in some populations (e.g., pediatric patients) and a wide range of positive responses. CONCLUSION: Our findings across multiple clinical settings suggest no clinically significant psychological harms from the return of ES/GS results. Some populations may experience low levels of test-related distress or greater positive psychological effects. Future research should further investigate the reasons for test-related psychological response variation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167805

RESUMO

Heterozygous deleterious variants in PHIP have been associated with behavioral problems, intellectual disability/developmental delay, obesity/overweight, and dysmorphic features (BIDOD syndrome). We report an additional 10 individuals with pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP)-predicted deleterious variants (four frameshift, three missense, two nonsense, and one splice site; six of which are confirmed de novo). The mutation spectrum is diverse, and there is no clustering of mutations across the protein. The clinical phenotype of these individuals is consistent with previous reports and includes behavioral problems, intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. The additional individuals we report have a lower frequency of obesity than previous reports and a higher frequency of gastrointestinal problems, social deficits, and behavioral challenges. Characterizing additional individuals with diverse mutations longitudinally will provide better natural history data to assist with medical management and educational and behavioral support.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(28): 14049-14054, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235600

RESUMO

Genomic analyses of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have identified significant contribution from mutations affecting cilia genes and chromatin remodeling genes; however, the mechanism(s) connecting chromatin remodeling to CHD is unknown. Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is catalyzed by the RNF20 complex consisting of RNF20, RNF40, and UBE2B. Here, we show significant enrichment of loss-of-function mutations affecting H2Bub1 in CHD patients (enrichment 6.01, P = 1.67 × 10-03), some of whom had abnormal laterality associated with ciliary dysfunction. In Xenopus, knockdown of rnf20 and rnf40 results in abnormal heart looping, defective development of left-right (LR) asymmetry, and impaired cilia motility. Rnf20, Rnf40, and Ube2b affect LR patterning and cilia synergistically. Examination of global H2Bub1 level in Xenopus embryos shows that H2Bub1 is developmentally regulated and requires Rnf20. To examine gene-specific H2Bub1, we performed ChIP-seq of mouse ciliated and nonciliated tissues and showed tissue-specific H2Bub1 marks significantly enriched at cilia genes including the transcription factor Rfx3 Rnf20 knockdown results in decreased levels of rfx3 mRNA in Xenopus, and exogenous rfx3 can rescue the Rnf20 depletion phenotype. These data suggest that Rnf20 functions at the Rfx3 locus regulating cilia motility and cardiac situs and identify H2Bub1 as an upstream transcriptional regulator controlling tissue-specific expression of cilia genes. Our findings mechanistically link the two functional gene ontologies that have been implicated in human CHD: chromatin remodeling and cilia function.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

13.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108507

RESUMO

Pharmacogenetics may help physicians deliver individualized treatments based on how a person's genes affect a drug's effects and metabolism. This information can help prevent adverse events or improve drug efficacy by enabling the physician to optimize dosage or to avoid a medication with adverse reactions and to prescribe an alternative therapy. This article discusses the current clinical utility of pharmacogenetic testing in the context of a patient who requires anticoagulation with warfarin.

14.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 129-143, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041561

RESUMO

We previously reported a pathogenic de novo p.R342W mutation in the transcriptional corepressor CTBP1 in four independent patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities [1]. Here, we report the clinical phenotypes of seven additional individuals with the same recurrent de novo CTBP1 mutation. Within this cohort, we identified consistent CtBP1-related phenotypes of intellectual disability, ataxia, hypotonia, and tooth enamel defects present in most patients. The R342W mutation in CtBP1 is located within a region implicated in a high affinity-binding cleft for CtBP-interacting proteins. Unbiased proteomic analysis demonstrated reduced interaction of several chromatin-modifying factors with the CtBP1 W342 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in human glioblastoma cell lines expressing -CtBP1 R342 (wt) or W342 mutation revealed changes in the expression profiles of genes controlling multiple cellular processes. Patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were found to be more sensitive to apoptosis during acute glucose deprivation compared to controls. Glucose deprivation strongly activated the BH3-only pro-apoptotic gene NOXA, suggesting a link between enhanced cell death and NOXA expression in patient fibroblasts. Our results suggest that context-dependent relief of transcriptional repression of the CtBP1 mutant W342 allele may contribute to deregulation of apoptosis in target tissues of patients leading to neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

17.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(10): 710-716, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083726

RESUMO

Sudden death in a family is associated with serious anxiety among family members. Assessing the cause of death may help determine the risk for other family members, thus alleviating some anxiety. In some cases, the cause of death may be evident on autopsy; however, in cases of arrhythmias, standard autopsy will not reveal the cause of death. Evaluation of the circumstances of death, medical history of the deceased, and results of genetic testing may reveal a diagnosis. Once a diagnosis is made, relatives should receive genetic testing and clinical assessment to stratify their risk. Depending on their risk, various interventions are available, including medication, defibrillators, and lifestyle modifications.

18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(6): 1023-1029, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic variation in the first intron of FTO (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs9939609) is strongly associated with adiposity. This effect is thought to be mediated (at least in part) via increasing caloric intake, although the precise molecular genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. Prior pediatric studies of FTO have included youth with overweight and obesity; however, they have not informed whether a genotypic effect on ingestive behavior is present prior to obesity onset. Therefore, this study investigated the association between FTO and caloric intake in children aged 5 to 10 years without obesity (adiposity ≤ 95th percentile). METHODS: A total of 122 children were genotyped for rs9939609 and ate ad libitum from a laboratory lunch buffet following a standardized breakfast. Linear regressions, adjusting for body mass, were used to examine the association between FTO "dose" (number of copies of SNP rs9939609) and intake variables. RESULTS: There was a significant association between FTO and total intake. Each risk allele predicted an additional 64 calories, accounting for 3% of the variance. There were no associations between FTO and macronutrient preference, energy density, or diet variety. Results were influenced by race. CONCLUSIONS: Results corroborate and extend prior work by showing a dose-dependent effect on food intake in children without obesity.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recruitment of participants from diverse backgrounds is crucial to the generalizability of genetic research, but has proven challenging. We retrospectively evaluated recruitment methods used for a study on return of genetic results. METHODS: The costs of study design, development, and participant enrollment were calculated, and the characteristics of the participants enrolled through the seven recruitment methods were examined. RESULTS: A total of 1118 participants provided consent, a blood sample, and questionnaire data. The estimated cost across recruitment methods ranged from $579 to $1666 per participant and required a large recruitment team. Recruitment methods using flyers and staff networks were the most cost-efficient and resulted in the highest completion rate. Targeted sampling that emphasized the importance of Latino/a participation, utilization of translated materials, and in-person recruitments contributed to enrolling a demographically diverse sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although all methods were deployed in the same hospital or neighborhood and shared the same staff, each recruitment method was different in terms of cost and characteristics of the enrolled participants, suggesting the importance of carefully choosing the recruitment methods based on the desired composition of the final study sample. This analysis provides information about the effectiveness and cost of different methods to recruit adults for genetic research.

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