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1.
Cancer ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancers (ECs) with somatic mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) are characterized by unfavorable pathological features, which prompt adjuvant treatment. Paradoxically, women with POLE-mutated EC have outstanding clinical outcomes, and this raises concerns of overtreatment. The authors investigated whether favorable outcomes were independent of treatment. METHODS: A PubMed search for POLE and endometrial was restricted to articles published between March 1, 2012, and March 1, 2018, that provided individual patient data (IPD), adjuvant treatment, and survival. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) reporting guidelines for IPD, the authors used univariate and multivariate one-stage meta-analyses with mixed effects Cox models (random effects for study cohorts) to infer the associations of treatment, traditional prognostic factors, and outcome, which was defined as the time from first diagnosis to any adverse event (progression/recurrence or death from EC). RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-nine women with POLE-mutated EC were identified; 294 (82%) had pathogenic mutations. Worse outcomes were demonstrated in patients with nonpathogenic POLE mutations (hazard ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-7.58; log-rank P < .01). Except for stage (P < .01), traditional prognosticators were not associated with progression/recurrence or death from disease. Adverse events were rare (11 progressions/recurrences and 3 disease-specific deaths). Salvage rates in patients who experienced recurrence were high and sustained, with 8 of 11 alive without evidence of disease (range, 5.5-14.2 years). Adjuvant treatment was not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes for ECs with pathogenic POLE mutations are not associated with most traditional risk parameters, and patients do not appear to benefit from adjuvant therapy. The observed low rates of recurrence/progression and the high and sustained salvage rates raise the possibility of safely de-escalating treatment for these patients. LAY SUMMARY: Ten percent of all endometrial cancers have mutations in the DNA repair gene DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE). Women who have endometrial cancers with true POLE mutations experience almost no recurrences or deaths from their cancer even when their tumors appear to have very unfavorable characteristics. Additional therapy (radiation and chemotherapy) does not appear to improve outcomes for women with POLE-mutated endometrial cancer, and this supports the move to less therapy and less associated toxicity. Diligent classification of endometrial cancers by molecular features provides valuable information to inform prognosis and to direct treatment/no treatment.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782566

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and, despite new targeted therapies and immunotherapies, many patients with advanced-stage- or high-risk cancers still die, owing to metastatic disease. Adoptive T-cell therapy, involving the autologous or allogeneic transplant of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes or genetically modified T cells expressing novel T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, has shown promise in the treatment of cancer patients, leading to durable responses and, in some cases, cure. Technological advances in genomics, computational biology, immunology and cell manufacturing have brought the aspiration of individualised therapies for cancer patients closer to reality. This new era of cell-based individualised therapeutics challenges the traditional standards of therapeutic interventions and provides opportunities for a paradigm shift in our approach to cancer therapy. Invited speakers at a 2020 symposium discussed three areas-cancer genomics, cancer immunology and cell-therapy manufacturing-that are essential to the effective translation of T-cell therapies in the treatment of solid malignancies. Key advances have been made in understanding genetic intratumour heterogeneity, and strategies to accurately identify neoantigens, overcome T-cell exhaustion and circumvent tumour immunosuppression after cell-therapy infusion are being developed. Advances are being made in cell-manufacturing approaches that have the potential to establish cell-therapies as credible therapeutic options. T-cell therapies face many challenges but hold great promise for improving clinical outcomes for patients with solid tumours.

3.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2) is a potential prognostic biomarker. We report on the establishment of a robust protocol for RCC2 expression analysis and prognostic tumour biomarker evaluation in patients who did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RCC2 was analysed in 2916 primary CRCs from the QUASAR2 randomised trial and two single-hospital Norwegian series. A new protocol using fluorescent antibody staining and digital image analysis was optimised. Biomarker value for 5-year relapse-free survival was analysed in relation to tumour stage, adjuvant chemotherapy and the molecular markers microsatellite instability, KRAS/BRAF V600E/TP53 mutations and CDX2 expression. RESULTS: Low RCC2 expression was scored in 41% of 2696 evaluable samples. Among patients with stage I-III CRC who had not received adjuvant chemotherapy, low RCC2 expression was an independent marker of inferior 5-year relapse-free survival in multivariable Cox models including clinicopathological factors and molecular markers (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.94, p=0.012, N=521). RCC2 was not prognostic in patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, neither in QUASAR2 nor the pooled Norwegian series. The interaction between RCC2 and adjuvant chemotherapy for prediction of patient outcome was significant in stage III, and strongest among patients with microsatellite stable tumours (pinteraction=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Low expression of RCC2 is a biomarker for poor prognosis in patients with stage I-III CRC and seems to be a predictive biomarker for effect of adjuvant chemotherapy.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Glasgow Microenvironment Score (GMS) combines peritumoural inflammation and tumour stroma percentage to assess interactions between tumour and microenvironment. This was previously demonstrated to associate with colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis, and now requires validation and assessment of interactions with adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Two cohorts were utilised; 862 TNM I-III CRC validation cohort, and 2912 TNM II-III CRC adjuvant chemotherapy cohort (TransSCOT). Primary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). Exploratory endpoint was adjuvant chemotherapy interaction. RESULTS: GMS independently associated with DFS (p = 0.001) and RFS (p < 0.001). GMS significantly stratified RFS for both low risk (GMS 0 v GMS 2: HR 3.24 95% CI 1.85-5.68, p < 0.001) and high-risk disease (GMS 0 v GMS 2: HR 2.18 95% CI 1.39-3.41, p = 0.001). In TransSCOT, chemotherapy type (pinteraction = 0.013), but not duration (p = 0.64) was dependent on GMS. Furthermore, GMS 0 significantly associated with improved DFS in patients receiving FOLFOX compared with CAPOX (HR 2.23 95% CI 1.19-4.16, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: This study validates the GMS as a prognostic tool for patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer, independent of TNM, with the ability to stratify both low- and high-risk disease. Furthermore, GMS 0 could be employed to identify a subset of patients that benefit from FOLFOX over CAPOX.

5.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(12): 1508-1519, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999003

RESUMO

Optimum risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer combines clinicopathologic factors and the molecular endometrial cancer classification defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). It is unclear whether analysis of intratumoral immune infiltrate improves this. We developed a machine-learning, image-based algorithm to quantify density of CD8+ and CD103+ immune cells in tumor epithelium and stroma in 695 stage I endometrioid endometrial cancers from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials. The relationship between immune cell density and clinicopathologic/molecular factors was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multiple regression. The prognostic value of immune infiltrate by cell type and location was analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression, incorporating the molecular endometrial cancer classification. Tumor-infiltrating immune cell density varied substantially between cases, and more modestly by immune cell type and location. Clustering revealed three groups with high, intermediate, and low densities, with highly significant variation in the proportion of molecular endometrial cancer subgroups between them. Univariable analysis revealed intraepithelial CD8+ cell density as the strongest predictor of endometrial cancer recurrence; multivariable analysis confirmed this was independent of pathologic factors and molecular subgroup. Exploratory analysis suggested this association was not uniform across molecular subgroups, but greatest in tumors with mutant p53 and absent in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cancers. Thus, this work identified that quantification of intraepithelial CD8+ cells improved upon the prognostic utility of the molecular endometrial cancer classification in early-stage endometrial cancer.

6.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 6(4): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401426

RESUMO

Histological 'phenotypic subtypes' that classify patients into four groups (immune, canonical, latent and stromal) have previously been demonstrated to stratify survival in a stage I-III colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot cohort. However, clinical utility has not yet been validated. Therefore, this study assessed prognostic value of these subtypes in additional patient cohorts along with associations with risk of recurrence and response to chemotherapy. Two independent stage I-III CRC patient cohorts (internal and external cohort) were utilised to investigate phenotypic subtypes. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) and the secondary endpoint was recurrence risk (RR). Stage II-III patients, from the SCOT adjuvant chemotherapy trial, were utilised to further validate prognostic value and for exploratory analysis assessing associations with adjuvant chemotherapy. In an 893-patient internal cohort, phenotypic subtype independently associated with DFS (p = 0.025) and this was attenuated in stage III patients (p = 0.020). Phenotypic subtype also independently associated with RR (p < 0.001) in these patients. In a 146-patient external cohort, phenotypic subtype independently stratified patients by DFS (p = 0.028), validating their prognostic value. In 1343 SCOT trial patients, the effect of treatment type significantly depended on phenotypic subtype (pinteraction = 0.011). Phenotypic subtype independently associated with DFS in stage III patients receiving FOLFOX (p = 0.028). Furthermore, the immune subtype significantly associated with better response to FOLFOX compared to CAPOX adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III patients (p = 0.013). In conclusion, histological phenotypic subtypes are an effective prognostic classification in patients with stage III CRC that associates with risk of recurrence and response to FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy.

7.
ESMO Open ; 5(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 10%-15% of early-stage colon cancers harbour either deficient mismatch repair (dMMR), microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) or POLE exonuclease domain mutations, and are characterised by high tumour mutational burden and increased lymphocytic infiltrate. Metastatic dMMR colon cancers are highly sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibition, and recent data show POLE-mutant tumours are similarly responsive. We are conducting a phase III randomised trial to determine if the addition of the anti-PD-L1 antibody avelumab following adjuvant chemotherapy improves disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage III dMMR/MSI-H or POLE mutant colon cancer and is a cost-effective approach for the UK National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: We are recruiting patients with completely resected, stage III colon cancer confirmed to have dMMR/MSI-H, locally or POLE exonuclease domain mutation on central testing. Eligible patients are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to standard fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (capecitabine, oxaliplatin for 12 weeks or capecitabine for 24 weeks) or chemotherapy, followed by avelumab (10 mg/kg, 2 weekly for 24 weeks). Stratification is by chemotherapy received and MMR/MSI-H status. The primary endpoint is DFS. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, toxicity, quality of life and health resource use. The 3-year DFS rate in the control arm is expected to be ~75%. Avelumab is expected to improve the 3-year DFS rate by 12% (ie, 87%). Target accrual is 402 patients, which provides 80% power to detect an HR of 0.48 for DFS at a two-sided alpha of 0.05. This national, multicentre phase III trial is sponsored by the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and it is anticipated that approximately 40 centres in the UK will participate. This study opened to recruitment in August 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03827044.

8.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 350-360, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved markers of prognosis are needed to stratify patients with early-stage colorectal cancer to refine selection of adjuvant therapy. The aim of the present study was to develop a biomarker of patient outcome after primary colorectal cancer resection by directly analysing scanned conventional haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using deep learning. METHODS: More than 12 000 000 image tiles from patients with a distinctly good or poor disease outcome from four cohorts were used to train a total of ten convolutional neural networks, purpose-built for classifying supersized heterogeneous images. A prognostic biomarker integrating the ten networks was determined using patients with a non-distinct outcome. The marker was tested on 920 patients with slides prepared in the UK, and then independently validated according to a predefined protocol in 1122 patients treated with single-agent capecitabine using slides prepared in Norway. All cohorts included only patients with resectable tumours, and a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour tissue block available for analysis. The primary outcome was cancer-specific survival. FINDINGS: 828 patients from four cohorts had a distinct outcome and were used as a training cohort to obtain clear ground truth. 1645 patients had a non-distinct outcome and were used for tuning. The biomarker provided a hazard ratio for poor versus good prognosis of 3·84 (95% CI 2·72-5·43; p<0·0001) in the primary analysis of the validation cohort, and 3·04 (2·07-4·47; p<0·0001) after adjusting for established prognostic markers significant in univariable analyses of the same cohort, which were pN stage, pT stage, lymphatic invasion, and venous vascular invasion. INTERPRETATION: A clinically useful prognostic marker was developed using deep learning allied to digital scanning of conventional haematoxylin and eosin stained tumour tissue sections. The assay has been extensively evaluated in large, independent patient populations, correlates with and outperforms established molecular and morphological prognostic markers, and gives consistent results across tumour and nodal stage. The biomarker stratified stage II and III patients into sufficiently distinct prognostic groups that potentially could be used to guide selection of adjuvant treatment by avoiding therapy in very low risk groups and identifying patients who would benefit from more intensive treatment regimes. FUNDING: The Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/metabolismo , Feminino , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 323-335, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829442

RESUMO

Pathogenic somatic missense mutations within the DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) exonuclease domain define the important subtype of ultramutated tumours ('POLE-ultramutated') within the novel molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma (EC). However, clinical implementation of this classifier requires systematic evaluation of the pathogenicity of POLE mutations. To address this, we examined base changes, tumour mutational burden (TMB), DNA microsatellite instability (MSI) status, POLE variant frequency, and the results from six in silico tools on 82 ECs with whole-exome sequencing from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Of these, 41 had one of five known pathogenic POLE exonuclease domain mutations (EDM) and showed characteristic genomic alterations: C>A substitution > 20%, T>G substitutions > 4%, C>G substitutions < 0.6%, indels < 5%, TMB > 100 mut/Mb. A scoring system to assess these alterations (POLE-score) was developed; based on their scores, 7/18 (39%) additional tumours with EDM were classified as POLE-ultramutated ECs, and the six POLE mutations present in these tumours were considered pathogenic. Only 1/23 (4%) tumours with non-EDM showed these genomic alterations, indicating that a large majority of mutations outside the exonuclease domain are not pathogenic. The infrequent combination of MSI-H with POLE EDM led us to investigate the clinical significance of this association. Tumours with pathogenic POLE EDM co-existent with MSI-H showed genomic alterations characteristic of POLE-ultramutated ECs. In a pooled analysis of 3361 ECs, 13 ECs with DNA mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd)/MSI-H and a pathogenic POLE EDM had a 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 92.3%, comparable to previously reported POLE-ultramutated ECs. Additionally, 14 cases with non-pathogenic POLE EDM and MMRd/MSI-H had a 5-year RFS of 76.2%, similar to MMRd/MSI-H, POLE wild-type ECs, suggesting that these should be categorised as MMRd, rather than POLE-ultramutated ECs for prognostication. This work provides guidance on classification of ECs with POLE mutations, facilitating implementation of POLE testing in routine clinical care. © 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 312-322, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829447

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma (EC) molecular classification based on four molecular subclasses identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has gained relevance in recent years due to its prognostic utility and potential to predict benefit from adjuvant treatment. While most ECs can be classified based on a single classifier (POLE exonuclease domain mutations - POLEmut, MMR deficiency - MMRd, p53 abnormal - p53abn), a small but clinically relevant group of tumours harbour more than one molecular classifying feature and are referred to as 'multiple-classifier' ECs. We aimed to describe the clinicopathological and molecular features of multiple-classifier ECs with abnormal p53 (p53abn). Within a cohort of 3518 molecularly profiled ECs, 107 (3%) tumours displayed p53abn in addition to another classifier(s), including 64 with MMRd (MMRd-p53abn), 31 with POLEmut (POLEmut-p53abn), and 12 with all three aberrations (MMRd-POLEmut-p53abn). MMRd-p53abn ECs and POLEmut-p53abn ECs were mostly grade 3 endometrioid ECs, early stage, and frequently showed morphological features characteristic of MMRd or POLEmut ECs. 18/28 (60%) MMRd-p53abn ECs and 7/15 (46.7%) POLEmut-p53abn ECs showed subclonal p53 overexpression, suggesting that TP53 mutation was a secondary event acquired during tumour progression. Hierarchical clustering of TCGA ECs by single nucleotide variant (SNV) type and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) revealed that MMRd-p53abn tumours mostly clustered with single-classifier MMRd tumours (20/23) rather than single-classifier p53abn tumours (3/23), while POLEmut-p53abn tumours mostly clustered with single-classifier POLEmut tumours (12/13) and seldom with single-classifier p53abn tumours (1/13) (both p ≤ 0.001, chi-squared test). Finally, the clinical outcome of patients with MMRd-p53abn and POLEmut-p53abn ECs [stage I 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 92.2% and 94.1%, respectively] was significantly different from single-classifier p53abn EC (stage I RFS 70.8%, p = 0.024 and p = 0.050, respectively). Our results support the classification of MMRd-p53abn EC as MMRd and POLEmut-p53abn EC as POLEmut. © 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico
12.
Br J Cancer ; 121(6): 474-482, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intratumoural T-cell infiltrate intensity cortes wrelaith clinical outcome in stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to determine whether this association varies across this heterogeneous group. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 1804 CRCs from the QUASAR2 and VICTOR trials. Intratumoural CD8+ and CD3+ densities were quantified by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray (TMA) cores, and their association with clinical outcome analysed by Cox regression. We validated our results using publicly available gene expression data in a pooled analysis of 1375 CRCs from seven independent series. RESULTS: In QUASAR2, intratumoural CD8+ was a stronger predictor of CRC recurrence than CD3+ and showed similar discriminative ability to both markers in combination. Pooled multivariable analysis of both trials showed increasing CD8+ density was associated with reduced recurrence risk independent of confounders including DNA mismatch repair deficiency, POLE mutation and chromosomal instability (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] for each two-fold increase = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.87-0.97, P = 3.6 × 10-3). This association was not uniform across risk strata defined by tumour and nodal stage: absent in low-risk (pT3,N0) cases (HR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.87-1.21, P = 0.75), modest in intermediate-risk (pT4,N0 or pT1-3,N1-2) cases (HR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.86-1.0, P = 0.046) and strong in high-risk (pT4,N1-2) cases (HR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.79-0.97, P = 9.4 × 10-3); PINTERACTION = 0.090. Analysis of tumour CD8A expression in the independent validation cohort revealed similar variation in prognostic value across risk strata (PINTERACTION = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of intratumoural CD8+ cell infiltration in stage II/III CRC varies across tumour and nodal risk strata.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(5): 784-796, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872264

RESUMO

The chemokine CXCL13 mediates recruitment of B cells to tumors and is essential for the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). TLSs are thought to support antitumor immunity and are associated with improved prognosis. However, it remains unknown whether TLSs are formed in response to the general inflammatory character of the tumor microenvironment, or rather, are induced by (neo)antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We here report on the finding that the TGFß-dependent CD103+CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T-cell (TIL) subpopulation expressed and produced CXCL13. Accordingly, CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood activated in the presence of TGFß upregulated CD103 and secreted CXCL13. Conversely, inhibition of TGFß receptor signaling abrogated CXCL13 production. CXCL13+CD103+CD8+ TILs correlated with B-cell recruitment, TLSs, and neoantigen burden in six cohorts of human tumors. Altogether, our findings indicated that TGFß plays a noncanonical role in coordinating immune responses against human tumors and suggest a potential role for CXCL13+CD103+CD8+ TILs in mediating B-cell recruitment and TLS formation in human tumors.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL13/imunologia , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(8): 828-836, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional loss of function (LOF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pattern recognition receptors FPR1, TLR3, and TLR4 have previously been reported to predict oxaliplatin benefit in colorectal cancer. Confirmation of this association could substantially improve patient stratification. METHODS: We performed a retrospective biomarker analysis of the Short Course in Oncology Therapy (SCOT) and COIN/COIN-B trials. Participant status for LOF variants in FPR1 (rs867228), TLR3 (rs3775291), and TLR4 (rs4986790/rs4986791) was determined by genotyping array or genotype imputation. Associations between LOF variants and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by Cox regression, adjusted for confounders, using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Our validation study populations included 2929 and 1948 patients in the SCOT and COIN/COIN-B cohorts, respectively, of whom 2728 and 1672 patients had functional status of all three SNPs determined. We found no evidence of an association between any SNP and DFS in the SCOT cohort, or with OS in either cohort, irrespective of the type of model used. This included models for which an association was previously reported for rs867228 (recessive model, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for DFS in SCOT = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99 to 1.45, P = .07; HR for OS in COIN/COIN-B = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.34, P = .66), and rs4986790 (dominant model, multivariable-adjusted HR for DFS in SCOT = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.13, P = .27; HR for OS in COIN/COIN-B = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.31, P = .40). CONCLUSION: In this prespecified analysis of two large clinical trials, we found no evidence that constitutional LOF SNPs in FPR1, TLR3, or TLR4 are associated with differential benefit from oxaliplatin. Our results suggest these SNPs are unlikely to be clinically useful biomarkers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1087-1097, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The elevated levels of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) in a subset of high-risk endometrial cancers are suggestive of defects in pathways governing genome integrity. We sought to assess the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in endometrial cancers and its association with histopathologic and molecular characteristics. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tumor tissue was prospectively collected from 36 endometrial cancers, and functional HRD was examined by the ability of replicating tumor cells to accumulate RAD51 protein at DNA double-strand breaks (RAD51 foci) induced by ionizing radiation. Genomic alterations were determined by next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization/SNP array. The prevalence of BRCA-associated genomic scars, a surrogate marker for HRD, was determined in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer cohort. RESULTS: Most endometrial cancers included in the final analysis (n = 25) were of non-endometrioid (52%), grade 3 (60%) histology, and FIGO stage I (72%). HRD was observed in 24% (n = 6) of cases and was restricted to non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC), with 46% of NEECs being HRD compared with none of the endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC, P = 0.014). All but 1 of the HRD cases harbored either a pathogenic BRCA1 variant or high somatic copy-number (SCN) losses of HR genes. Analysis of TCGA cases supported these results, with BRCA-associated genomic scars present in up to 48% (63/132) of NEEC versus 12% (37/312) of EEC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRD occurs in endometrial cancers and is largely restricted to non-endometrioid, TP53-mutant endometrial cancers. Evaluation of HRD may help select patients that could benefit from treatments targeting this defect, including platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo
16.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 3(9): 635-643, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular indicators of colorectal cancer prognosis have been assessed in several studies, but most analyses have been restricted to a handful of markers. We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer by sequencing panels of multiple driver genes. METHODS: In stage II or III colorectal cancers from the QUASAR 2 open-label randomised phase 3 clinical trial and an Australian community-based series, we used targeted next-generation sequencing of 82 and 113 genes, respectively, including the main colorectal cancer drivers. We investigated molecular pathways of tumorigenesis, and analysed individual driver gene mutations, combinations of mutations, or global measures such as microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutation burden (total number of non-synonymous mutations and coding indels) for associations with relapse-free survival in univariable and multivariable models, principally Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: In QUASAR 2 (511 tumours), TP53, KRAS, BRAF, and GNAS mutations were independently associated with shorter relapse-free survival (p<0·035 in all cases), and total somatic mutation burden with longer survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81 [95% CI 0·68-0·96]; p=0·014). MSI was not independently associated with survival (HR 1·12 [95% CI 0·57-2·19]; p=0·75). We successfully validated these associations in the Australian sample set (296 tumours). In a combined analysis of both the QUASAR 2 and the Australian sample sets, mutation burden was also associated with longer survival (HR 0·84 [95% CI 0·74-0·94]; p=0·004) after exclusion of MSI-positive and POLE mutant tumours. In an extended analysis of 1732 QUASAR 2 and Australian colorectal cancers for which KRAS, BRAF, and MSI status were available, KRAS and BRAF mutations were specifically associated with poor prognosis in MSI-negative cancers. MSI-positive cancers with KRAS or BRAF mutations had better prognosis than MSI-negative cancers that were wild-type for KRAS or BRAF. Mutations in the genes NF1 and NRAS from the MAPK pathway co-occurred, and mutations in the DNA damage-response genes TP53 and ATM were mutually exclusive. We compared a prognostic model based on the gold standard of clinicopathological variables and MSI with our new model incorporating clinicopathological variables, mutation burden, and driver mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and TP53. In both QUASAR 2 and the Australian cohort, our new model was significantly better (p=0·00004 and p=0·0057, respectively, based on a likelihood ratio test). INTERPRETATION: Multigene panels identified two previously unreported prognostic associations in colorectal cancer involving TP53 mutation and total mutation burden, and confirmed associations with KRAS and BRAF. Even a modest-sized gene panel can provide important information for use in clinical practice and outperform MSI-based prognostic models. FUNDING: UK Technology Strategy Board, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Cancer Australia Project, Cancer Council Victoria, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victorian Government.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação , Austrália , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
J Pathol ; 245(3): 283-296, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604063

RESUMO

Genomic instability, which is a hallmark of cancer, is generally thought to occur in the middle to late stages of tumourigenesis, following the acquisition of permissive molecular aberrations such as TP53 mutation or whole genome doubling. Tumours with somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations are notable for their extreme genomic instability (their mutation burden is among the highest in human cancer), distinct mutational signature, lymphocytic infiltrate, and excellent prognosis. To what extent these characteristics are determined by the timing of POLE mutations in oncogenesis is unknown. Here, we have shown that pathogenic POLE mutations are detectable in non-malignant precursors of endometrial and colorectal cancer. Using genome and exome sequencing, we found that multiple driver mutations in POLE-mutant cancers show the characteristic POLE mutational signature, including those in genes conventionally regarded as initiators of tumourigenesis. In POLE-mutant cancers, the proportion of monoclonal predicted neoantigens was similar to that in other cancers, but the absolute number was much greater. We also found that the prominent CD8+ T-cell infiltrate present in POLE-mutant cancers was evident in their precursor lesions. Collectively, these data indicate that somatic POLE mutations are early, quite possibly initiating, events in the endometrial and colorectal cancers in which they occur. The resulting early onset of genomic instability may account for the striking immune response and excellent prognosis of these tumours, as well as their early presentation. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Neoplasias do Endométrio/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(13): 3197-3203, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559562

RESUMO

Purpose: Pathogenic POLE proofreading domain mutations are found in many malignancies where they are associated with ultramutation and favorable prognosis. The extent to which this prognosis depends on their sensitivity to adjuvant treatment is unknown, as is the optimal therapy for advanced-staged or recurrent POLE-mutant cancers.Experimental Design: We examined the recurrence-free survival of women with POLE-mutant and POLE-wild-type endometrial cancers (EC) in the observation arm of the randomized PORTEC-1 endometrial cancer trial (N = 245 patients with stage I endometrial cancer for analysis). Sensitivity to radiotherapy and selected chemotherapeutics was compared between Pole-mutant mouse-derived embryonic stem (mES) cells, generated using CRISPR-Cas9 (Pole mutations D275A/E275A, and cancer-associated P286R, S297F, V411L) and isogenic wild-type cell lines.Results: In the observation arm of the PORTEC-1 trial (N = 245), women with POLE-mutant endometrial cancers (N = 16) had an improved recurrence-free survival (10-year recurrence-free survival 100% vs. 80.1% for POLE-wild-type; HR, 0.143; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.996; P = 0.049). Pole mutations did not increase sensitivity to radiotherapy nor to chemotherapeutics in mES cells. In contrast, Pole-mutant cells displayed significantly increased sensitivity to cytarabine and fludarabine (IC50Pole P286R-mutant vs. wild-type: 0.05 vs. 0.17 µmol/L for cytarabine, 4.62 vs. 11.1 µmol/L for fludarabine; P < 0.001 for both comparisons).Conclusions: The favorable prognosis of POLE-mutant cancers cannot be explained by increased sensitivity to currently used adjuvant treatments. These results support studies exploring minimization of adjuvant therapy for early-stage POLE-mutant cancers, including endometrial and colorectal cancers. Conversely, POLE mutations result in hypersensitivity to nucleoside analogues, suggesting the use of these compounds as a potentially effective targeted treatment for advanced-stage POLE-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3197-203. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , DNA Polimerase II/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/química , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(3): 240-244, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stage 1 seminoma is frequently cured by radical orchiectomy; however, the management strategies after this diagnosis vary in terms of the use of adjuvant treatment and the nature of the follow-up protocols. We analyzed stage 1 seminomas treated in the Thames Valley Cancer Network for outcomes to determine whether any factors are predictive of recurrence. We also studied relapses to determine the optimal follow-up schedule and protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from centers within the Thames Valley Cancer Network for a 12-year period from 2004 to 2016. We identified 501 patients with stage 1 seminoma. RESULTS: Relapses occurred in 6.2% of the patients receiving adjuvant treatment and 6.1% of those who did not. The only statistically significant predictive factor identified for relapse was rete testis invasion, and the risk was greater when only stromal rete invasion was included, rather than pagetoid as well. A trend was seen toward an increased risk with increased tumor size, but the difference was not statistically significant. Recurrences developed within the first 2 years after surgery in nearly 75% of cases and were identified through surveillance computed tomography scans in 54.8% of the patients. All relapses were treated curatively. CONCLUSION: Active surveillance leads to excellent outcomes for stage 1 seminoma; however, adjuvant treatment should be reserved for those with high-risk disease. Follow-up schedules should include computed tomography imaging during the first 3 years, long-term measurement of tumor markers, and mechanisms for patients to be seen promptly should symptoms of tumor recurrence occur.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
20.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(9): e1338230, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932636

RESUMO

Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer constitutively expresses viral E6/E7 oncoproteins and is an excellent target for T cell-based immunotherapy. However, not all tumor-infiltrating T cells confer equal benefit to patients, with epithelial T cells being superior to stromal T cells. To assess whether the epithelial T cell biomarker CD103 could specifically discriminate the beneficial antitumor T cells, association of CD103 with clinicopathological variables and outcome was analyzed in the TCGA cervical cancer data set (n = 304) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in an independent cohort (n = 460). Localization of CD103+ cells in the tumor was assessed by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, use of CD103 as a response biomarker was assessed in an in vivo E6/E7+ tumor model. Our results show that CD103 gene expression was strongly correlated with cytotoxic T cell markers (e.g. CD8/GZMB/PD1) in the TCGA series. In line with this, CD103+ cells in the IHC series co-expressed CD8 and were preferentially located in cervical tumor epithelium. High CD103+ cell infiltration was strongly associated with an improved prognosis in both series, and appeared to be a better predictor of outcome than CD8. Interestingly, the prognostic benefit of CD103 in both series seemed limited to patients receiving radiotherapy. In a preclinical mouse model, HPV E6/E7-targeted therapeutic vaccination in combination with radiotherapy increased the intratumoral number of CD103+ CD8+ T cells, providing a potential mechanistic basis for our results. In conclusion, CD103 is a promising marker for rapid assessment of tumor-reactive T cell infiltration of cervical cancers and a promising response biomarker for E6/E7-targeted immunotherapy.

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