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1.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
3.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2567-2585, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143481

RESUMO

Life-threatening pulmonary influenza can be caused by inborn errors of type I and III IFN immunity. We report a 5-yr-old child with severe pulmonary influenza at 2 yr. She is homozygous for a loss-of-function IRF9 allele. Her cells activate gamma-activated factor (GAF) STAT1 homodimers but not IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) trimers (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9) in response to IFN-α2b. The transcriptome induced by IFN-α2b in the patient's cells is much narrower than that of control cells; however, induction of a subset of IFN-stimulated gene transcripts remains detectable. In vitro, the patient's cells do not control three respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IAV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). These phenotypes are rescued by wild-type IRF9, whereas silencing IRF9 expression in control cells increases viral replication. However, the child has controlled various common viruses in vivo, including respiratory viruses other than IAV. Our findings show that human IRF9- and ISGF3-dependent type I and III IFN responsive pathways are essential for controlling IAV.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882021

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of life-threatening influenza A virus (IAV) disease remains elusive, as infection is benign in most individuals. We studied two relatives who died from influenza. We Sanger sequenced GATA2 and evaluated the mutation by gene transfer, measured serum cytokine levels, and analyzed circulating T- and B-cells. Both patients (father and son, P1 and P2) died in 2011 of H1N1pdm IAV infection at the ages of 54 and 31 years, respectively. They had not suffered from severe or moderately severe infections in the last 17 (P1) and 15 years (P2). A daughter of P1 had died at 20 years from infectious complications. Low B-cell, NK- cell, and monocyte numbers and myelodysplastic syndrome led to sequence GATA2. Patients were heterozygous for a novel, hypomorphic, R396L mutation leading to haplo-insufficiency. B- and T-cell rearrangement in peripheral blood from P1 during the influenza episode showed expansion of one major clone. No T-cell receptor excision circles were detected in P1 and P3 since they were 35 and 18 years, respectively. Both patients presented an exuberant, interferon (IFN)-γ-mediated hypercytokinemia during H1N1pdm infection. No data about patients with viremia was available. Two previously reported adult GATA2-deficient patients died from severe H1N1 IAV infection; GATA2 deficiency may predispose to life-threatening influenza in adulthood. However, a role of other genetic variants involved in immune responses cannot be ruled out. Patients with GATA2 deficiency can reach young adulthood without severe infections, including influenza, despite long-lasting complete B-cell and natural killer (NK) cell deficiency, as well as profoundly diminished T-cell thymic output.

5.
Cell ; 172(5): 952-965.e18, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474921

RESUMO

Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that DBR1 expression is ubiquitous, but strongest in the spinal cord and brainstem. We also show that all DBR1 mutant alleles are severely hypomorphic, in terms of expression and function. The fibroblasts of DBR1-mutated patients contain higher RNA lariat levels than control cells, this difference becoming even more marked during HSV1 infection. Finally, we show that the patients' fibroblasts are highly susceptible to HSV1. RNA lariat accumulation and viral susceptibility are rescued by wild-type DBR1. Autosomal recessive, partial DBR1 deficiency underlies viral infection of the brainstem in humans through the disruption of tissue-specific and cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses.

6.
J Exp Med ; 214(7): 1949-1972, 2017 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606988

RESUMO

MDA5 is a cytosolic sensor of double-stranded RNA (ds)RNA including viral byproducts and intermediates. We studied a child with life-threatening, recurrent respiratory tract infections, caused by viruses including human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We identified in her a homozygous missense mutation in IFIH1 that encodes MDA5. Mutant MDA5 was expressed but did not recognize the synthetic MDA5 agonist/(ds)RNA mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. When overexpressed, mutant MDA5 failed to drive luciferase activity from the IFNB1 promoter or promoters containing ISRE or NF-κB sequence motifs. In respiratory epithelial cells or fibroblasts, wild-type but not knockdown of MDA5 restricted HRV infection while increasing IFN-stimulated gene expression and IFN-ß/λ. However, wild-type MDA5 did not restrict influenza virus or RSV replication. Moreover, nasal epithelial cells from the patient, or fibroblasts gene-edited to express mutant MDA5, showed increased replication of HRV but not influenza or RSV. Thus, human MDA5 deficiency is a novel inborn error of innate and/or intrinsic immunity that causes impaired (ds)RNA sensing, reduced IFN induction, and susceptibility to the common cold virus.


Assuntos
Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Mutação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Recessivos/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/deficiência , Interferons/farmacologia , Masculino , Linhagem
8.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 38: 109-20, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26761402

RESUMO

Influenza viruses cause mild to moderate respiratory illness in most people, and only rarely devastating or fatal infections. The virulence factors encoded by viral genes can explain seasonal or geographic differences at the population level but are unlikely to account for inter-individual clinical variability. Inherited or acquired immunodeficiencies may thus underlie severe cases of influenza. The crucial role of host genes was first demonstrated by forward genetics in inbred mice, with the identification of interferon (IFN)-α/ß-inducible Mx1 as a canonical influenza susceptibility gene. Reverse genetics has subsequently characterized the in vivo role of other mouse genes involved in IFN-α/ß and -λ immunity. A series of in vitro studies with mouse and human cells have also refined the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of protection against influenza viruses. Population-based human genetic studies have not yet uncovered variants with a significant impact. Interestingly, human primary immunodeficiencies affecting T and B cells were also not found to predispose to severe influenza. Recently however, human IRF7 was shown to be essential for IFN-α/ß- and IFN-λ-dependent protective immunity against primary influenza in vivo, as inferred from a patient with life-threatening influenza revealed to be IRF7-deficient by whole exome sequencing. Next generation sequencing of human exomes and genomes will facilitate the analysis of the human genetic determinism of severe influenza.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/imunologia , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/patologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/deficiência , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/deficiência , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(44): 13615-20, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26483451

RESUMO

The protein-coding exome of a patient with a monogenic disease contains about 20,000 variants, only one or two of which are disease causing. We found that 58% of rare variants in the protein-coding exome of the general population are located in only 2% of the genes. Prompted by this observation, we aimed to develop a gene-level approach for predicting whether a given human protein-coding gene is likely to harbor disease-causing mutations. To this end, we derived the gene damage index (GDI): a genome-wide, gene-level metric of the mutational damage that has accumulated in the general population. We found that the GDI was correlated with selective evolutionary pressure, protein complexity, coding sequence length, and the number of paralogs. We compared GDI with the leading gene-level approaches, genic intolerance, and de novo excess, and demonstrated that GDI performed best for the detection of false positives (i.e., removing exome variants in genes irrelevant to disease), whereas genic intolerance and de novo excess performed better for the detection of true positives (i.e., assessing de novo mutations in genes likely to be disease causing). The GDI server, data, and software are freely available to noncommercial users from lab.rockefeller.edu/casanova/GDI.


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Curva ROC
10.
J Exp Med ; 212(10): 1641-62, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304966

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/ß, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/ß. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/etiologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Viroses/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Immunol ; 6: 208, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005444

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common virus that can rarely invade the human central nervous system (CNS), causing devastating encephalitis. The permissiveness to HSV-1 of the various relevant cell types of the CNS, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia cells, as well as their response to viral infection, has been extensively studied in humans and other animals. Nevertheless, human CNS cell-based models of anti-HSV-1 immunity are of particular importance, as responses to any given neurotropic virus may differ between humans and other animals. Human CNS neuron cell lines as well as primary human CNS neurons, astrocytes, and microglia cells cultured/isolated from embryos or cadavers, have enabled the study of cell-autonomous anti-HSV-1 immunity in vitro. However, the paucity of biological samples and their lack of purity have hindered progress in the field, which furthermore suffers from the absence of testable primary human oligodendrocytes. Recently, the authors have established a human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based model of anti-HSV-1 immunity in neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, astrocytes, and neural stem cells, which has widened the scope of possible in vitro studies while permitting in-depth explorations. This mini-review summarizes the available data on human primary and iPSC-derived CNS cells for anti-HSV-1 immunity. The hiPSC-mediated study of anti-viral immunity in both healthy individuals and patients with viral encephalitis will be a powerful tool in dissecting the disease pathogenesis of CNS infections with HSV-1 and other neurotropic viruses.

12.
Science ; 348(6233): 448-53, 2015 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814066

RESUMO

Severe influenza disease strikes otherwise healthy children and remains unexplained. We report compound heterozygous null mutations in IRF7, which encodes the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 7, in an otherwise healthy child who suffered life-threatening influenza during primary infection. In response to influenza virus, the patient's leukocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced very little type I and III interferons (IFNs). Moreover, the patient's dermal fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived pulmonary epithelial cells produced reduced amounts of type I IFN and displayed increased influenza virus replication. These findings suggest that IRF7-dependent amplification of type I and III IFNs is required for protection against primary infection by influenza virus in humans. They also show that severe influenza may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Criança , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/genética , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Mutação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia
13.
Neurology ; 83(21): 1888-97, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. METHODS: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. RESULTS: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with HSE, and patients with proven TLR3 deficiency should be followed carefully.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Mutação/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Adolescente , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
14.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 25(1): 19-33, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290562

RESUMO

TLR3 is a receptor for dsRNA, which is generated during most viral infections. However, other cellular processes may also produce dsRNA and there are other receptors for dsRNA. The role of TLR3 in protective immunity to viruses has been investigated in mice and humans with genetically impaired TLR3 responses. TLR3-deficient mice responded to experimental challenge with 16 different viruses in various ways. They were susceptible to eight viruses, normally resistant to three other viruses, and their survival rates were higher than those of wild-type mice following infection with four other viruses. Conflicting results were obtained for the other virus tested. These data are difficult to understand in terms of a simple pattern based on virus structure or tissue tropism. Surprisingly, the known human patients with inborn errors of the TLR3 pathway have remained healthy or developed encephalitis in the course of natural primary infection with HSV-1. These patients display no clear susceptibility to other infections, including viral infections, such as other forms of viral encephalitis and other HSV-1 diseases in particular. This restricted susceptibility to viruses seems to result from impaired TLR3-dependent IFN-α/ß production by central nervous system (CNS)-resident non-hematopoietic cells infected with HSV-1. These studies neatly illustrate the value of combining genetic studies of experimental infections in mice and natural infections in humans, to elucidate the biological function of host molecules in protective immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/imunologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/imunologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Encefalite/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Polimorfismo Genético , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Viroses/complicações
15.
J Immunol ; 190(2): 764-73, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23255358

RESUMO

TLR3 belongs to the family of intracellular TLRs that recognize nucleic acids. Endolysosomal localization and cleavage of intracellular TLRs play pivotal roles in signaling and represent fail-safe mechanisms to prevent self-nucleic acid recognition. Indeed, cleavage by cathepsins is required for native TLR3 to signal in response to dsRNA. Using novel Abs generated against TLR3, we show that the conserved loop exposed in LRR12 is the single cleavage site that lies between the two dsRNA binding sites required for TLR3 dimerization and signaling. Accordingly, we found that the cleavage does not dissociate the C- and N-terminal fragments, but it generates a very stable "cleaved/associated" TLR3 present in endolysosomes that recognizes dsRNA and signals. Moreover, comparison of wild-type, noncleavable, and C-terminal-only mutants of TLR3 demonstrates that efficient signaling requires cleavage of the LRR12 loop but not dissociation of the fragments. Thus, the proteolytic cleavage of TLR3 appears to fulfill function(s) other than separating the two fragments to generate a functional receptor.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
16.
Nature ; 491(7426): 769-73, 2012 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23103873

RESUMO

In the course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), children with inborn errors of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) immunity are prone to HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE). We tested the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of HSE involves non-haematopoietic CNS-resident cells. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of TLR3- and UNC-93B-deficient patients and from controls. These iPSCs were differentiated into highly purified populations of neural stem cells (NSCs), neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The induction of interferon-ß (IFN-ß) and/or IFN-λ1 in response to stimulation by the dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) was dependent on TLR3 and UNC-93B in all cells tested. However, the induction of IFN-ß and IFN-λ1 in response to HSV-1 infection was impaired selectively in UNC-93B-deficient neurons and oligodendrocytes. These cells were also much more susceptible to HSV-1 infection than control cells, whereas UNC-93B-deficient NSCs and astrocytes were not. TLR3-deficient neurons were also found to be susceptible to HSV-1 infection. The rescue of UNC-93B- and TLR3-deficient cells with the corresponding wild-type allele showed that the genetic defect was the cause of the poly(I:C) and HSV-1 phenotypes. The viral infection phenotype was rescued further by treatment with exogenous IFN-α or IFN-ß ( IFN-α/ß) but not IFN-λ1. Thus, impaired TLR3- and UNC-93B-dependent IFN-α/ß intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in the CNS, in neurons and oligodendrocytes in particular, may underlie the pathogenesis of HSE in children with TLR3-pathway deficiencies.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/deficiência , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/virologia , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Separação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/imunologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/patologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/virologia , Interferons/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Oligodendroglia/imunologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Oligodendroglia/virologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
17.
J Virol ; 83(16): 7828-41, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19515782

RESUMO

The Nipah virus (NiV) phosphoprotein (P) gene encodes the C, P, V, and W proteins. P, V, and W, have in common an amino-terminal domain sufficient to bind STAT1, inhibiting its interferon (IFN)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. P is also essential for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase function. C is encoded by an alternate open reading frame (ORF) within the common amino-terminal domain. Mutations within residues 81 to 113 of P impaired its polymerase cofactor function, as assessed by a minireplicon assay, but these mutants retained STAT1 inhibitory function. Mutations within the residue 114 to 140 region were identified that abrogated interaction with and inhibition of STAT1 by P, V, and W without disrupting P polymerase cofactor function. Recombinant NiVs were then generated. A G121E mutation, which abrogated inhibition of STAT1, was introduced into a C protein knockout background (C(ko)) because the mutation would otherwise also alter the overlapping C ORF. In cell culture, relative to the wild-type virus, the C(ko) mutation proved attenuating but the G121E mutant virus replicated identically to the C(ko) virus. In cells infected with the wild-type and C(ko) viruses, STAT1 was nuclear despite the absence of tyrosine phosphorylation. This latter observation mirrors what has been seen in cells expressing NiV W. In the G121E mutant virus-infected cells, STAT1 was not phosphorylated and was cytoplasmic in the absence of IFN stimulation but became tyrosine phosphorylated and nuclear following IFN addition. These data demonstrate that the gene for NiV P encodes functions that sequester inactive STAT1 in the nucleus, preventing its activation and suggest that the W protein is the dominant inhibitor of STAT1 in NiV-infected cells.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por Henipavirus/metabolismo , Vírus Nipah/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/genética , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
J Virol ; 80(24): 12070-8, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17005661

RESUMO

Matrix (M) proteins reportedly direct the budding of paramyxoviruses from infected cells. In order to begin to characterize the assembly process for the highly lethal, emerging paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV), we have examined the budding of NiV M. We demonstrated that expression of the NiV M protein is sufficient to produce budding virus-like particles (VLPs) that are physically and morphologically similar to NiV. We identified in NiV M a sequence, YMYL, with similarity to the YPDL late domain found in the equine infectious anemia virus Gag protein. When the YMYL within NiV M was mutated, VLP release was abolished and M was relocalized to the nucleus, but the mutant M proteins retained oligomerization activity. When YMYL was fused to a late-domain mutant of the Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein, VP40 budding was restored. These results suggest that the YMYL sequence may act as a trafficking signal and a late domain for NiV M.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Vírus Nipah/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Vírion/fisiologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese , Vírus Nipah/fisiologia , Vírus Nipah/ultraestrutura , Vírion/genética
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