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1.
Biomed Microdevices ; 22(2): 37, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419044

RESUMO

In this work, it is presented a micro-optofluidic flow detector used for on-chip biological and chemical samples investigation. It is made in Poly-dimethyl-siloxane using a master-slave approach based on the 3D-Printing techniques. The micro-optofluidic device is made by assembling a microfluidic T-junction with a micro-optical section that consists of two optical fiber insertions and a PDMS gold-spattered micro-waveguide. The working principle in the detection is based on a different light transmission correlated to the fluid interfering with the laser beam in a micro-channel section. The proposed solution allows to realize a PDMS micro-device taking the advantage of 3D- Printing and goes beyond the restriction in the material selection. The device's performances were tested in the fluids detection and in the evaluation of the cell concentrations. Additionally, the micro-device was used as a real-time two-phase fluids flow detector. The two-phases flows were successfully monitored in different experimental conditions, varying both hydrodynamic and optical external stimuli.

2.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272751

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on the surface of polyetheresulfone (PES) electrospun fibers confer antimicrobial properties to the obtained hybrid inorganic-polymeric PES/ZnO mats. In particular, a decrement of bacteria colony forming units (CFU) is observed for both negative (Escherichia coli) and positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) Grams. Since antimicrobial action is strictly related to the quantity of ZnO present on surface, a CBD process optimization is performed to achieve the best results in terms of coverage uniformity and reproducibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provide morphological and compositional analysis of PES/ZnO mats while thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is useful to assess the best process conditions to guarantee the higher amount of ZnO with respect to PES scaffold. Biocidal action is associated to Zn2+ ion leaching in solution, easily indicated by UV-Vis measurement of metallation of free porphyrin layers deposited on glass.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505899

RESUMO

Two series of novel dumbbell-shaped polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs), fully functionalized with phenyl groups at the corner of the silicon cages, were used to prepare polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites through the method of in situ polymerization. The percentage of the molecular filler reinforcement was set as 5% w/w of POSS and was checked by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal and morphological properties were evaluated and compared among the nanocomposites obtained using the two different series of dumbbell-shaped POSSs and with the net PS. The thermal parameters for the prepared nanocomposites were very high when compared with those of neat PS, and they evidenced significant differences when an aliphatic or aromatic bridge was used to link the silicon cages. SEM analysis results allow us to hypothesize a justification for the different resistance to thermal degradation showed by the two series of molecular reinforcement.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212609

RESUMO

This work describes the evaluation of different interlaminar veils to improve the toughening of epoxy/carbon fiber composites manufactured by resin infusion. Three commercial veils have been used in the study: two electro spun thermoplastic nanofiber (Xantulayr® from Revolution Fibres) with different areal weight, and one micro carbon fibers veil (Optiveil® from TFP). Two laboratory made veils were also manufactured by electrospinning commercial polyethersulfone (PES) tougheners (Virantage by Solvay). The veils were selected to be either soluble or non-soluble in the epoxy resin matrix during curing. The solubility was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis testing on the cured laminates. The fracture energy was evaluated by double cantilever bending (DCB) testing under Mode I loading. The insoluble thermoplastic nanofibers showed the highest toughening efficiency, followed by the soluble nanofiber veils. The carbon fiber based veil showed no toughness improvement.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(7)2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997365

RESUMO

Three commercial filaments for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) were selected to study the influence of polymer formulation on the printing quality and mechanical properties of FDM specimens. The three filaments were all based on polylactic acid (PLA) as the matrix, and they are sold as PLA filaments. The printing quality was tested by printing one complex shape with overhang features. The marked shear thinning behavior for two filaments was observed by rheology. The filaments were also studied by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to unveil their composition. The filaments with the best printing quality showed the presence of mineral fillers, which explained the melt behavior observed by rheology. The tensile testing confirmed that the filled PLA was the best-performing filament both in terms of printing quality and thermomechanical performance, with a p-value = 0.106 for the tensile modulus, and a p-value = 0.615 for the ultimate tensile strength.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(3)2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495571

RESUMO

An innovative recycling process for thermoset polymer composites developed by Connora Technologies (Hayward, CA, USA) was studied. The process efficacy has already been tested, and it is currently working at the plant level. The main aspect investigated in the present paper was the environmental impact by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. Because of the need to recycle and recover materials at their end of life, the Connora process creates a great innovation in the market of epoxy composites, as they are notoriously not recyclable. Connora Technologies developed a relatively gentle chemical recycling process that induces the conversion of thermosets into thermoplastics. The LCA demonstrated that low environmental burdens are associated with the process itself and, furthermore, impacts are avoided due to the recovery of the epoxy-composite constituents (fibres and matrix). A carbon fibre (CF) epoxy-composite panel was produced through Vacuum Resin Transfer Moulding (VRTM) and afterwards treated using the Connora recycling process. The LCA results of both the production and the recycling phases are reported.

7.
World J Stem Cells ; 10(3): 23-33, 2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588808

RESUMO

The limited capacity of nervous system to promote a spontaneous regeneration and the high rate of neurodegenerative diseases appearance are keys factors that stimulate researches both for defining the molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology and for evaluating putative strategies to induce neural tissue regeneration. In this latter aspect, the application of stem cells seems to be a promising approach, even if the control of their differentiation and the maintaining of a safe state of proliferation should be troubled. Here, we focus on adipose tissue-derived stem cells and we seek out the recent advances on the promotion of their neural differentiation, performing a critical integration of the basic biology and physiology of adipose tissue-derived stem cells with the functional modifications that the biophysical, biomechanical and biochemical microenvironment induces to cell phenotype. The pre-clinical studies showed that the neural differentiation by cell stimulation with growth factors benefits from the integration with biomaterials and biophysical interaction like microgravity. All these elements have been reported as furnisher of microenvironments with desirable biological, physical and mechanical properties. A critical review of current knowledge is here proposed, underscoring that a real advance toward a stable, safe and controllable adipose stem cells clinical application will derive from a synergic multidisciplinary approach that involves material engineer, basic cell biology, cell and tissue physiology.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(3)2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522444

RESUMO

Electrospun veils from copolyethersulfones (coPES) were prepared as soluble interlaminar veils for carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Neat, resin samples were impregnated into coPES veils with unmodified resin, while dry carbon fabrics were covered with electrospun veils and then infused with the unmodified epoxy resin to prepare reinforced laminates. The thermoplastic content varied from 10 wt% to 20 wt%. TGAP epoxy monomer showed improved and fast dissolution for all the temperatures tested. The unreinforced samples were cured first at 180 °C for 2 h and then were post-cured at 220 °C for 3 h. These sample showed a high dependence on the curing cycle. Carbon reinforced samples showed significant differences compared to the neat resin samples in terms of both viscoelastic and morphological properties.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(2)2018 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439511

RESUMO

Polyetherimide (PEI) blends modified by either polycarbonate (PC) or polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG) were prepared. The latter modifier (PETG) was an industrial grade widely used for fused deposition modelling (FDM) printing. PEI blends were compared to Ultem 9085, which is the standard PEI grade for FDM printing in advanced applications. All the blends were thoroughly characterized in terms of their rheological, morphological, thermomechanical and tensile properties. Ultem 9085 showed improved rheology for processing over standard PEI. PEI/PC blends with 10 wt % of modifier developed here closely matched the viscosity behavior of Ultem 9085. On the other hand, the blends with low PC content (i.e., less than 20 wt %) outperformed Ultem 9085 in terms of thermal and tensile properties. When PETG was added, similar tensile properties to Ultem 9085 were found. The immiscibility for PC contents higher than 20 wt % deteriorated the tensile properties, making it less attractive for applications, although melt viscosity decreased further for increasing PC contents.

10.
ACS Omega ; 3(7): 7182-7190, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31458880

RESUMO

Hybrid poly(ether sulfones) (PES)-TiO2 electrospun mats are used as selective filters to remove lead and zinc ions from water. Presence of TiO2 is functional to trigger fiber's surface charge that allows for better performances in terms of ionic adsorption with respect to bare PES mats. Temperature increase promotes a speed up of ion removal. Ability of electrospun mats to retain adsorbed ions is proven by washing procedures, which confirm the lack of released Pb2+ in solution, even after sonication. To detect presence of metal ions in aqueous solutions, water-soluble porphyrins are used as chemosensors, which are able to provide fast, in-field, and real-time analysis. In particular, cationic H2T4 metalation, occurring both in solution or at transparent glass surface, allows for a straightforward spectrophotometric (UV-vis) detection of metal ions in solution.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(9)2017 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846607

RESUMO

Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called "liquid wood". The PP/"Liquid Wood" blends were extruded with "liquid wood" content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt %. The blends were thoroughly characterized by flexural, impact, and dynamic mechanical testing. The addition of the Liquid Wood resulted in a great improvement in terms of both the flexural modulus and strength but, on the other hand, a reduction of the impact strength was observed. For one blend composition, the composites reinforced with hemp fibers were also studied. The addition of hemp allowed us to further improve the mechanical properties. The composite with 20 wt % of hemp, subjected to up to three recycling cycles, showed good mechanical property retention and thermal stability after recycling.

12.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 15(1): 0, 2017 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among additive manufacturing techniques, the filament-based technique involves what is referred to as fused deposition modeling (FDM). FDM materials are currently limited to a selected number of polymers. The present study focused on investigating the potential of using high-end engineering polymers in FDM. In addition, a critical review of the materials available on the market compared with those studied here was completed. METHODS: Different engineering thermoplastics, ranging from industrial grade polycarbonates to novel polyetheretherketones (PEEKs), were processed by FDM. Prior to this, for innovative filaments based on PEEK, extrusion processing was carried out. Mechanical properties (i.e., tensile and flexural) were investigated for each extruded material. An industrial-type FDM machine (Stratasys Fortus® 400 mc) was used to fully characterize the effect of printing parameters on the mechanical properties of polycarbonate. The obtained properties were compared with samples obtained by injection molding. Finally, FDM samples made of PEEK were also characterized and compared with those obtained by injection molding. RESULTS: The effect of raster to raster air gap and raster angle on tensile and flexural properties of printed PC was evidenced; the potential of PEEK filaments, as novel FDM material, was highlighted in comparison to state of the art materials. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with injection molded parts allowed to better understand FDM potential for functional applications. The study discussed pros and cons of the different materials. Finally, the development of novel PEEK filaments achieved important results offering a novel solution to the market when high mechanical and thermal properties are required.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 9(7)2017 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970959

RESUMO

Novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS)-filled thermoplastic electrospun veils were used to tailor the properties of the interlaminar region of epoxy-based composites. The veils were designed to be soluble upon curing in the epoxy matrix, so that POSS could be released within the interlaminar region. Three different POSS contents, varying from 1 to 10 wt %, were tested while the percentage of coPolyethersulphone (coPES) dissolved in the epoxy resin was kept to a fixed value of 10 wt %. Good quality veils could be obtained at up to 10 wt % of POSS addition, with the nanofibers' diameters varying from 861 nm for the coPES to 428 nm upon POSS addition. The feasibility of the soluble veils to disperse POSS in the interlaminar region was proved, and the effect of POSS on phase morphology and viscoelastic properties studied. POSS was demonstrated to significantly affect the morphology and viscoelastic properties of epoxy composites, especially for the percentages 1% and 5%, which enabled the composites to avoid POSS segregates occurring. A dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant improvement to the storage modulus, and a shift of more than 30 °C due to the POSS cages hindering the motion of the molecular chains and network junctions.

14.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 14(4): e490-e495, 2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, environmental sustainability issues are almost entirely unsolved for packaging materials. With the final aim of finding materials with a single recycling channel, cellulose fiber/poly(vinyl)alcohol composites were investigated. METHODS: After extrusion and injection molding, samples of composite with different cellulose fiber content (30%, 50% and 70% w/w) were tested. RESULTS: Tensile mechanical tests exhibited an improvement in composite stiffness when the reinforcement content was increased together with a decrease in composite elongation. Solubility tests performed at room temperature and 45°C showed different behavior depending on the water-resistant film applied on the composite (50% cellulose fiber content). In particular, the uncoated composite showed complete solubility after 2 hours, whereas at the same time point, no solubility occurred when a non-water-soluble varnish was used. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed composites, named Poly-paper, appear to warrant further investigation as highly sustainable packaging.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Papel , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Embalagem de Produtos
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