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1.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 165-172, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC) have improved owing to new therapies and early treatment, previously reserved for castration-resistant disease (CRPC). Prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used marker to follow-up patients under treatment, but only limited data are available about the prognostic role of its changes over time and the impact of response to subsequent therapies. This analysis aims to assess the prognostic role of the magnitude and velocity of PSA response in CSPC and describe how this may affect the outcome to subsequent treatment outcomes in CRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with de novo CSPC referring to six oncology centers in Italy. Clinical and pathological features were recorded. PSA response (PSA50), defined as a decrease > 50% compared to baseline, PSA velocity (PSAv), defined as any decrease in PSA levels over time and the deep and fast PSA response (4mPSA50), defined as the PSA response reached within the threshold of 4 months from the beginning of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have been evaluated for their impact on survival. Survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional-hazard models, stratified according to baseline characteristics, were used to estimate hazard ratios for overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A totals of 94.4% of patients had PSA50, which was correlated to longer OS compared to patients without PSA50 (56.0 vs. 14.8 months; p<0.001). The median PSAv was 6.9 (ng/dl)/month, which was predictive for longer OS: Each decrease of 1 (ng/dl)/month was able to improve OS by 0.2% (HR=0.998, 95%CI=0.997-1.000; p=0.008). A total of 47.9% of patients reached 4mPSA50, with a median OS and progression-free survival (PFS) to ADT-based therapy of 101.0 and 23.4 months compared to 41.9 and 11.0 months for those who did not (p<0.001), respectively. The independent prognostic role of 4mPSA50 was retained even when evaluated in multivariable analysis adjusted for other baseline characteristics and early docetaxel for CSPC. In CRPC, 4mPSA50 evaluated during CSPC retains its prognostic role even if it does not predict a different outcome between patients treated with abiraterone/enzalutamide or taxanes. CONCLUSION: Achieving a deep and fast PSA response correlates with a better outcome in patients with de novo mCSPC, also positively influencing the prognosis of the subsequent first-line therapy for CRPC disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(11): 1203-1206, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium represents an unmissable event for oncologists who deal with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). AIM AND RESULTS: This article describes the main acquisitions of RCC management, including the advent of a new combo (pembrolizumab+lenvatinib) as first-line therapy, the confirmation of an OS advantage of ICI plus VEGFR-TKI combinations over sunitinib at longer follow-up, the persistent benefit from these combinations in particular subgroups (clear cell mRCC tumors with sarcomatoid differentiation), and possible new approaches in subsequent lines of therapy (including the HIF-2α inhibitor belzutifan). CONCLUSIONS: This 2021 ASCO Genitourinary Cancer Symposium laid the foundations for further knowledge development necessary for an increasingly personalized management of mRCC.

3.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(11): 1207-1210, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized treatment approach for proper patient management. AIM: We analyzed a selected overview of the most important news recently presented at the 2021 ASCO genitourinary cancer symposium. RESULTS: In particular, we focused on the identification of predictive biomarkers as potential targets for therapy. Molecular signatures of increased T cell activity, proliferation, and hormone dependence were associated with greater probability of response to apalutamide in non-metastatic CRPC. Pathogenic variants of DDR genes mutations detected with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, which had a high concordance with tumor tissue analysis, might represent a useful way for selecting mutated patients for poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors therapy. Loss of PTEN could be a target for ipatasertib (a pan-AKT inhibitor) associated with abiraterone in mCRPC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The 2021 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium significantly contributed to the complex research goal of intimately understanding PC carcinogenesis with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 657639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968762

RESUMO

The therapeutic sc"enario of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has noticeably increased, ranging from the most studied molecular target therapies to those most recently introduced, up to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The most recent clinical trials with an ICI-based combination of molecular targeted agents and ICI show how, by restoring an efficient immune response against cancer cells and by establishing an immunological memory, it is possible to obtain not only a better radiological response but also a longer progression-free and overall survival. However, the role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remains of fundamental importance, especially in patients who, for clinical characteristics, tumor burden and comorbidity, could have greater benefit from the use of TKIs in monotherapy rather than in combination with other therapies. However, to use these novel options in the best possible way, knowledge is required not only of the data from the large clinical trials but also of the biological mechanisms, molecular pathways, immunological mechanisms, and methodological issues related to both new response criteria and endpoints. In this complex scenario, we review the latest results of the latest clinical trials and provide guidance for overcoming the barriers to decision-making to offer a practical approach to the management of mRCC in daily clinical practice. Moreover, based on recent literature, we discuss the most innovative combination strategies that would allow us to achieve the best clinical therapeutic results.

7.
Target Oncol ; 15(4): 495-501, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been recognized as the most important factor for tumor invasion, proliferation, and progression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, few clinical data are available regarding the efficacy of cabozantinib following immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of cabozantinib in patients previously treated with immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mRCC who received cabozantinib immediately after nivolumab were included. The primary endpoint was to assess the outcome in terms of efficacy and activity. RESULTS: Eighty-four mRCC patients met the criteria to be included in the final analysis. After a median follow-up of 9.4 months, median overall survival was 17.3 months. According to the IMDC criteria, the rates of patients alive at 12 months in the good, intermediate, and poor prognostic groups were 100%, 74%, and 33%, respectively (p < 0.001). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.5 months (95% CI 8.3-14.7); no difference was found based on duration of previous first-line therapy or nivolumab PFS. The overall response rate was 52%, stable disease was found as the best response in 25.3% and progressive disease in 22.7% of patients. Among the 35 patients with progressive disease on nivolumab, 26 (74.3%) patients showed complete/partial response or stable disease with cabozantinib as best response after nivolumab. The major limitations of this study are the retrospective nature and the short follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib was shown to be effective and active in patients previously receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, cabozantinib can be considered a valid therapeutic option for previously treated mRCC patients, irrespective of the type and duration of prior therapies.


Assuntos
Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anilidas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/farmacologia
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 195-203, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) represents a rare form of renal cell carcinoma marked by an aggressive biology, poor prognosis and little benefit from anti-angiogenic targeted therapy. More promising results come from the recent therapeutic strategy based on immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Library and American Society of Medical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting abstracts for phase II or III randomised clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. The hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the relative 95% confidence intervals were extracted from studies. Summary HRs were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: Four studies were selected for final analysis, including 467 patients (226 treated in with ICI combinations and 241 received sunitinib in the control arms). ICI-based combinations were associated with an improved PFS and OS compared with sunitinib, with a reduction of more than 40% of progression (HR = 0.56; p < 0.0001) and mortality (HR = 0.56; p = 0.001) risk. Moreover, ICI-based combinations are associated with a objective response rate (ORR) of more than 50% (versus 20% with sunitinib), corresponding to a doubled risk of achieving an ORR compared with controls (relative risk [RR] = 2.15; p < 0.00001). Finally, immunotherapy significantly increased the possibility to obtain complete responses (RR = 8.15, p = 0.0002) with an incidence of 11%. CONCLUSION: Our data support the efficacy of ICI-based combinations for sRCC therapy, redefining the first-line treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Indução de Remissão , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 654-660, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain, usually associated with bone metastases, is a frequent and debilitating morbidity in patients with prostate cancer. To date there are only limited data regarding the prognostic role of pain in men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The objective of our analysis was to assess if the presence of pain can be considered an independent prognostic factor in mCSPC patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with mCSPC referring to six oncology centers in Italy. Clinical and pathological features were recorded. Patients were considered to have pain if this was reported within the patient's file or in case of a chronic analgesic therapy was found among the concomitant medications. Survivals were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified according to the baseline characteristics, were used to estimate hazard ratios for overall survival (OS). All the variables were significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: Data about pain were available for 365 cases and pain was present in 34.8% of patients. Pain was mainly associated with high value of prostate-specific antigen, metastatic bone extension regardless of the site, and lymph node involvement. mCSPC patients with pain had in most of the cases high-volume or Hr disease, and significant shorter OS (27.0 vs. 58.2 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (10.1 vs. 17.4 months, p < 0.001) compared to those without pain. The negative impact of pain on OS remained significant even if adjusted for CHAARTED or LATITUDE classification, and other significant baseline prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the poor prognostic role of cancer-related pain in the setting of mCSPC patients. A prospective validation is required.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/sangue , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/mortalidade , Dor do Câncer/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380705

RESUMO

There is scant evidence about optimal management of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder (BNEC). We performed a multicenter retrospective study on BNEC patients from 13 Italian neuroendocrine-dedicated centers to analyze strategies associated with better outcomes. Mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANEC) were included. We analyzed overall survival (OS) in the overall cohort, relapse-free survival (RFS) in radically operated patients and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients who received chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Fifty-one BNEC patients were included (male: 46, median age: 70 years). Overall, median OS was 16.0 months, radical tumor resection was performed in 37 patients (72.5%) and 11 of these (29.7%) also received peri-operative platinum-etoposide chemotherapy. Median OS was longer in patients with better performance status (PS) and in those with stage I-III disease at diagnosis compared to stage IV. Among patients who underwent radical tumor resection (N = 37), RFS was longer in patients with better PS and showed a trend towards a longer RFS in those treated with peri-operative chemotherapy than with surgery alone (11 vs. 6 months; p = 0.078). Among 28 patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic disease, PFS was 5.0 months and there was a trend towards improved PFS in patients receiving carboplatin-etoposide chemotherapy compared to other regimens. A multivariate model unmasked a significant association between carboplatin-etoposide chemotherapy and risk for disease progression or death (HR: 0.39 (95%CI: 0.16-0.96) p = 0.040). Performance status might be associated with improved RFS in radically operated patients, while type of chemotherapy might affect PFS in patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic BNEC.

11.
J Immunother ; 43(3): 95-103, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080018

RESUMO

Limited prospective data about the activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are available for elderly patients. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relative efficacy of ICIs versus available standard therapies [standard of care (SOC)] in subgroups defined by patients' age. Searching the MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting abstracts randomized clinical trials were identified. Data extraction was conduced according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The measured outcome was overall survival (OS). Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials (18,839 patients) were selected. As for the distribution of patients by age, all but 3 of the selected studies considered young the patients younger than 65 years (n=10,832) and elderly those with 65 years and older (n=7723); 7 studies identified a third subgroup of very elderly patients aged 75 years and above (n=421). In elderly and very elderly patients ICIs significantly reduced the risk of death by 23% compared with SOC [hazard ratio (HR), 0.77; P<0.00001)]. On the contrary, a lack of a survival advantage of immunotherapy was observed in the subgroup of very elderly patients (HR, 0.85; P=0.39). When comparing the efficacy of ICIs between the 2 subpopulations (elderly vs. young), no significant difference in OS was observed (HR, 0.76; P=0.66). ICIs prolonged OS compared with SOC in both elderly and young patients affected by lung cancer, melanoma, and renal carcinoma, regardless of the age. In conclusion, ICIs (as monotherapy or combinations) significantly improved OS compared with SOC in both young and elderly patients with advanced cancers, regardless of the tumor type. The magnitude of this benefit is debated in patients aged 75 years and above.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Viés de Publicação , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(2): 195-205, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986925

RESUMO

Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common adult malignancies worldwide, and a major leading cause of cancer-related death in men in Western societies. In the last years, the prognosis of advanced PCa patients has been impressively improved thanks to the development of different therapeutic agents, including taxanes (docetaxel and cabazitaxel), second-generation anti-hormonal agents (abiraterone and enzalutamide), and the radiopharmaceutical Radium-223. However, great efforts are still needed to properly select the most appropriate treatment for each single patient.Areas covered: Several prognostic or predictive biomarkers have been studied, none of which has an established validated role in daily clinical practice. This paper analyzed the major biomarkers (including PSA, androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, ßIII-tubulin, ALP, circulating tumor cells, and DNA repair genes) with a potential prognostic and/or predictive role in advanced PCa patients.Expert commentary: Surrogate biomarkers - measurable, reproducible, closely associated with tumor behavior and linked to relevant clinical outcomes - are urgently needed to improve PCa patient management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 22: 100161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use has increased overtime for the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, with a likely good control of irradiated lesions. We planned a retrospective multicenter Italian study, with the aim of investigating the outcome of treatment with SBRT for non-brain secondary lesions in mRCC patients. METHODS: all consecutive metastatic non-brain lesions from mRCC that underwent SBRT at nine Italian institutions from January 2015 to June 2017 were considered. The primary endpoint of the study was the lesion-PFS, calculated from SBRT initiation to the local progression of the irradiated lesion. RESULTS: 57 extracranial metastatic lesions from 48 patients with primary mRCC were treated with SBRT. At the median follow-up of 26.4 months, the median lesion-PFS was not reached (43 censored); 72.4% of lesions were progression-free at 40 months, with significantly better lesion-PFS for small metastatic lesions (<14 mm). SBRT was safe and the 1-year local disease control was 87.7%. After SBRT, 18 patients (37.5%) permanently interrupted systemic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: consistently with the previous literature, our findings support the use of SBRT in selected mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Radiocirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658667

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has emerged as the new therapeutic frontier of cancer treatment, showing enormous survival benefits in multiple tumor diseases. Although undeniable success has been observed in clinical trials, not all patients respond to treatment. Different concurrent conditions can attenuate or completely abrogate the usefulness of immunotherapy due to the activation of several escape mechanisms. Indeed, the tumor microenvironment has an almost full immunosuppressive profile, creating an obstacle to therapeutic treatment. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) governs a plethora of cellular processes, including maintenance of genomic stability, cell survival/apoptosis, migration, and metabolism. The repertoire of PTEN functions has recently been expanded to include regulation of the tumor microenvironment and immune system, leading to a drastic reevaluation of the canonical paradigm of PTEN action with new potential implications for immunotherapy-based approaches. Understanding the implication of PTEN in cancer immunoediting and immune evasion is crucial to develop new cancer intervention strategies. Recent evidence has shown a double context-dependent role of PTEN in anticancer immunity. Here we summarize the current knowledge of PTEN's role at a crossroads between tumor and immune compartments, highlighting the most recent findings that are likely to change future clinical practice.

15.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 296, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This multi-institutional retrospective real life study was conducted in 22 Italian Oncology Centers and evaluated the role of Axitinib in second line treatment in not selected mRCC patients. METHODS: 148 mRCC patients were evaluated. According to Heng score 15.5%, 60.1% and 24.4% of patients were at poor risk, intermediate and favorable risk, respectively. RESULTS: PFS, OS, DCR and ORR were 7.14 months, 15.5 months, 70.6% and 16.6%, respectively. The duration of prior sunitinib treatment correlated with a longer significant mPFS, 8.8 vs 6.3 months, respectively. Axitinib therapy was safe, without grade 4 adverse events. The most frequent toxicities of all grades were: fatigue (50%), hypertension (26%), and hypothyroidism (18%). G3 blood pressure elevation significantly correlated with longer mPFS and mOS compared to G1-G2 or no toxicity. Dose titration (DT) to 7 mg and 10 mg bid was feasible in 24% with no statistically significant differences in mPFS and mOS. The sunitinib-axitinib sequence was safe and effective, the mOS was 41.15 months. At multivariate analysis, gender, DCR to axitinib and to previous sunitinib correlated significantly with PFS; whereas DCR to axitinib, nephrectomy and Heng score independently affected overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Axitinib was effective and safe in a not selected real life mRCC population. Trial registration INT - Napoli - 11/16 oss. Registered 20 April 2016. http://www.istitutotumori.na.it.


Assuntos
Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Axitinibe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica
16.
J Immunother ; 42(7): 269-273, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261165

RESUMO

De novo metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) is small subgroup of prostate cancer associated with poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to assess the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells of de novo mCSPC patients. Patients referred to our institution from January 2007 to October 2017 with de novo mCSPC and available diagnostic tissue were included. We tested the PD-L1 pharmaDx qualitative immunohistochemical assay, a monoclonal rabbit anti-PD-L1, clone 28-8 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survivals according to the expression of PD-L1. The study population included 32 de novo mCSPC patients, analyzed for PD-L1 expression using 2 cut-off values (1% and 5%) to define the positivity. Total of 46.9% of cases had tumor PD-L1 expression ≥1%, and 31.3% had expression ≥5%. No differences were found between the PD-L1 expression ≥1% and the involvement of liver, lung, and number of bone metastases, and the disease volume based on CHAARTED classification. PD-L1 tumors had higher incidence of Gleason score ≥8 compared with PD-L1 tumors (P=0.037), while the incidence of lymph node metastases was higher in PD-L1 tumors (P=0.044). No difference in the median overall survival (mOS) was observed between the PD-L1 population and the PD-L1 patients (43.8 vs. 29.6 mo; P=0.88). The tumor PD-L1 expression cannot be considered a prognostic factor for de novo mCSPC, even if its prognostic and predictive significance have to be thoroughly investigated to better define the selected group of prostate cancer patients that might benefit from checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 139: 83-86, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112886

RESUMO

De-novo metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) is a subgroup of prostate cancer associated with poor prognosis. Recently, the treatment of mCSPC has been enriched by new life-prolonging options, including the combination of docetaxel or abiraterone acetate with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Of note, the advantage of chemohormonal therapy was more relevant in the subgroup of high-volume disease compared to low-volume, while the survival prolongation of abiraterone was observed only in high-risk patients. Choosing the most appropriate therapy is one of the most debated issues. This review describes the latest news on de-novo mCSPC to better outline patients' management. At the ESMO 2018 Congress two novel studies focused on this setting have been presented, trying to define the role of radiotherapy to the primary tumour and the efficacy of abiraterone acetate in the subset of low-risk patients. We have analysed these results in light of the evidence already available.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pacientes , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/classificação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(6): 1283-1289, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740760

RESUMO

AIMS: Data regarding the cardiac toxicity of cabozantinib lacks. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of cabozantinib-related cardiotoxicity in mRCC patients. METHODS: We performed a multicentre prospective study on mRCC patients treated with cabozantinib between October 2016 and November 2017. Transthoracic echocardiogram and plasma biomarkers assay were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months after cabozantinib initiation. RESULTS: The study population included 22 mRCC patients. At baseline, 9.1% had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), but none had a left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Patients with baseline reduced LVEF did not show further significant LVEF modification after 3 months. After 6 months, only 1 had an LVEF decline >10% compared to baseline, resulting in LV systolic dysfunction. At baseline, 64.7% and 27.3% of patients had elevated precursor brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), respectively. Among patients with basal normal proBNP and hsTnI, none had elevated values at 3 and 6 months. No correlation was found between basal elevated proBNP and basal reduced LVEF (P = .29), and between elevated proBNP and reduced LVEF after 6 months (P = .37). Similarly, we found no correlations between elevated hsTnI and reduced LVEF or elevated proBNP at baseline (P = .47; P = .38), at 3 (P = .059; P = .45) and after 6 months (P = .72; P = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study revealed a modest risk of developing left ventricular systolic dysfunction related to cabozantinib. A lack of correlation between elevated cardiac biomarkers and reduced LVEF at different time-points was detected. Assessments of the cardiac function should be reserved at the occurrence of clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Cardiotoxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina I/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Semin Oncol ; 46(1): 65-72, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665685

RESUMO

There is no second-line standard of care universally accepted for platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Immunotherapy and anti-VEGF(R) targeted therapies are 2 emerging strategies with promising though inconclusive results. We perform a systematic meta-analysis to assess the available options. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and American society of clinical oncology (ASCO) Meeting abstracts to identify prospective studies. Data extraction was conduced according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The measured outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Seven randomized controlled trials were selected for final analysis, with a total of 2,451 evaluable patients. Chemotherapy with vinflunine did not reduce the risk of progression (HR = 1.11; 95%CI 0.78-1.57; P = .56) or death (HR = 0.97; 95%CI 0.70-1.34; P = .87) compared to taxanes. Immunotherapy with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAb improved OS over chemotherapy (HR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.92; P<.0009). The OS benefit of immunotherapy was retained when compared to taxanes, but not compared to vinflunine, although without a significant difference between the 2 subgroups (P = .30). A lack of PFS (HR = 0.73; P = .08) and OS (HR = 1.0; P = .99) benefit was observed with an anti-VEGF(R) plus chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone. No PFS (P = .14) or OS (P = .13) differences were detected when comparing anti-VEGF(R) ± chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Immunotherapy significantly improved OS compared to chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma unselected for PD-L1 status. The addition of anti-VEGF(R) to chemotherapy did not provide any statistically significant benefit in terms of PFS or OS. Single agent taxanes or vinflunine can be considered given their similar efficacy but different toxicity profiles.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/imunologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Tratamento Farmacológico/tendências , Humanos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento , Urotélio/patologia
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