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1.
Ecol Evol ; 12(12): e9517, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466137

RESUMO

The relationship between ecology and morphology is a cornerstone of evolutionary biology, and quantifying variation across environments can shed light on processes that give rise to biodiversity. Three morphotypes of the Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) occupy different ecoregions in western North America, which vary in climate and landcover. These morphotypes (Coastal, Interior, Rocky Mountain) differ in size, plumage coloration, and head pattern. We sampled 1080 Steller's Jays from 68 populations (plus 11 outgroups) to address three main questions using data on morphology, plumage, genetics (mtDNA, microsatellites), and ecological niches: (1) How do phenotypic and genetic traits vary within and among populations, morphotypes, and ecoregions? (2) How do population-level differences in Steller's Jays compare with other sister species pairs of North American birds? (3) What can we infer about the population history of Steller's Jays in relation to past climates, paleoecology, and niche evolution? We found substantial morphological, genetic, and ecological differentiation among morphotypes. The greatest genetic divergence separated Coastal and Interior morphotypes from the Rocky Mountain morphotype, which was associated with warmer, drier, and more open habitats. Microsatellites revealed additional structure between Coastal and Interior groups. The deep mtDNA split between Coastal/Interior and Rocky Mountain lineages of Steller's Jay (ND2 ~ 7.8%) is older than most North American avian sister species and dates to approximately 4.3 mya. Interior and Rocky Mountain morphotypes contact across a narrow zone with steep clines in traits and reduced gene flow. The distribution of the three morphotypes coincides with divergent varieties of ponderosa pine and Douglas fir. Species distribution models support multiple glacial refugia for Steller's Jays. Our integrative dataset combined with extensive geographic sampling provides compelling evidence for recognizing at least two species of Steller's Jay.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2122667119, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972961

RESUMO

Field biology is an area of research that involves working directly with living organisms in situ through a practice known as "fieldwork." Conducting fieldwork often requires complex logistical planning within multiregional or multinational teams, interacting with local communities at field sites, and collaborative research led by one or a few of the core team members. However, existing power imbalances stemming from geopolitical history, discrimination, and professional position, among other factors, perpetuate inequities when conducting these research endeavors. After reflecting on our own research programs, we propose four general principles to guide equitable, inclusive, ethical, and safe practices in field biology: be collaborative, be respectful, be legal, and be safe. Although many biologists already structure their field programs around these principles or similar values, executing equitable research practices can prove challenging and requires careful consideration, especially by those in positions with relatively greater privilege. Based on experiences and input from a diverse group of global collaborators, we provide suggestions for action-oriented approaches to make field biology more equitable, with particular attention to how those with greater privilege can contribute. While we acknowledge that not all suggestions will be applicable to every institution or program, we hope that they will generate discussions and provide a baseline for training in proactive, equitable fieldwork practices.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Biologia , Biologia/ética , Humanos
3.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1717-1720, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723970

RESUMO

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is usually asymptomatic or mild and appears to be poorly immunogenic at least in unvaccinated individuals. Here, we found that health care workers vaccinated with 2 doses of Sputnik V and a booster dose of ChAdOx1 mount a vigorous neutralizing-antibody response after Omicron breakthrough infection.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais
4.
Mol Ecol ; 31(6): 1783-1799, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048444

RESUMO

Genetic structure and phenotypic variation among populations are affected by both geographic distance and environmental variation across species' distributions. Understanding the relative contributions of isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE) is important for elucidating population dynamics across habitats and ecological gradients. In this study, we compared phenotypic and genetic variation among Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) populations from 10 sites encompassing an elevational gradient from low-elevation desert scrub in Death Valley (285 a.s.l.) to high-elevation meadows in the White Mountains of the Sierra Nevada of California (greater than 3000 m a.s.l.). Using a ddRAD data set of 28,474 SNPs aligned to a high-quality reference genome, we compared genetic structure with elevational, environmental, and spatial distance to quantify how different aspects of the landscape drive genomic and phenotypic differentiation in Horned Larks. We found larger-bodied birds were associated with sites that had less seasonality and higher annual precipitation, and longer spurs occurred in soils with more clay and silt content, less sand, and finer fragments. Larks have large neo-sex chromosomes, and we found that associations with elevation and environmental variation were much stronger among neo-sex chromosomes compared to autosomes. Furthermore, we found that putative chromosomal translocations, fusions, and inversions were associated with elevation and may underlie local adaptation across an elevational gradient in Horned Larks. Our results suggest that genetic variation in Horned Larks is affected more by IBD than IBE, but specific phenotypes and genomic regions-particually on neo-sex chromosomes-bear stronger associations with the environment.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Passeriformes/genética , Fenótipo , Cromossomos Sexuais , Aves Canoras/genética
6.
PeerJ ; 8: e9249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596039

RESUMO

The New World sparrows (Passerellidae) are a large, diverse group of songbirds that vary in morphology, behavior, and ecology. Thus, they are excellent for studying trait evolution in a phylogenetic framework. We examined lability versus conservatism in morphological and behavioral traits in two related clades of sparrows (Aimophila, Peucaea), and assessed whether habitat has played an important role in trait evolution. We first inferred a multi-locus phylogeny which we used to reconstruct ancestral states, and then quantified phylogenetic signal among morphological and behavioral traits in these clades and in New World sparrows more broadly. Behavioral traits have a stronger phylogenetic signal than morphological traits. Specifically, vocal duets and song structure are the most highly conserved traits, and nesting behavior appears to be maintained within clades. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between open habitat and unpatterned plumage, complex song, and ground nesting. However, even within lineages that share the same habitat type, species vary in nesting, plumage pattern, song complexity, and duetting. Our findings highlight trade-offs between behavior, morphology, and ecology in sparrow diversification.

8.
PeerJ ; 7: e7388, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404458

RESUMO

We used molecular data to assess the degree of genetic divergence across the breeding range of the orange-crowned warbler (Oreothlypis celata) in western North America with particular focus on characterizing the divergence between O. celata populations on the mainland of southern California and on the Channel Islands. We obtained sequences of the mitochondrial gene ND2 and genotypes at ten microsatellite data for 192 O. celata from populations spanning all four recognized subspecies. We recovered shallow, but significant, levels of divergence among O. celata populations across the species range. Our results suggest that island isolation, subspecies (delineation by morphology, ecological, and life-history characteristics), and isolation-by-distance, in that order, are the variables that best explain the geographic structure detected across the range of O. celata. Populations on the Channel Islands were genetically divergent from those on the mainland. We found evidence for greater gene flow from the Channel Islands population to mainland southern California than from the mainland to the islands. We discuss these data in the context of differentiation in phenotypic and ecological characters.

9.
Mol Ecol ; 28(7): 1692-1708, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739372

RESUMO

In hybrid zones in which two divergent taxa come into secondary contact and interbreed, selection can maintain phenotypic diversity despite widespread genetic introgression. Red-breasted (Sphyrapicus ruber) and red-naped (S. nuchalis) sapsuckers meet and hybridize along a narrow contact zone that stretches from northern California to southern British Columbia. We found strong evidence for changes in the structure of this hybrid zone across time, with significant temporal shifts in allele frequencies and in the proportions of parental phenotypes across the landscape. In addition to these shifts, we found that differences in plumage predict genetic differences (R2  = 0.80), suggesting that plumage is a useful proxy for assessing ancestry. We also found a significant bimodal distribution of hybrids across the contact zone, suggesting that premating barriers may be driving reproductive isolation, perhaps as a result of assortative mating based on plumage differences. However, despite evidence of selection and strong patterns of population structure between parental samples, we found only weak patterns of genetic divergence. Using museum specimens and genomic data, this study of sapsuckers provides insight into the ways in which phenotypic and genetic structure have changed over a 40-year period, as well as insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the maintenance of the hybrid zone over time.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Hibridização Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , California , Plumas , Frequência do Gene , Oregon , Passeriformes/classificação , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 30(2): 81-83, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779939

RESUMO

We discuss the diagnosis and the management of endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of bicornuate uterus in a 64-year-old woman as a case report. The case underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy. The gross examination of the uterus revealed a bicornuate uterus with a greater horn of 12 × 9 × 8 cm and a smaller horn of 10 × 3 cm. The cavity of the greater horn showed a neoplastic growth of 10 cm with infiltration of about 1,8 cm of the myometrium from whole thickness of 1.9 cm. while the other horn was free of tumor tissue. The microscopic examination of the uterus revealed G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium of the greater horn with infiltration of more than 50% of the myometrium. In the presence of bicornuate uterus, a bilateral endometrial biopsy should be performed in order to reduce the risk of delayed or missed diagnosis. The management of a case of bicornuate unicollis uterus with endometrial carcinoma in only one horn is the same as patients with endometrial cancer in single uterus and depends mainly on stage and histological grade of the tumor. The possibility of existence of a separate uterine cavity should always be considered when endometrial cancer is clinically suspected but pathology fails to confirm the diagnosis. This points out the importance of a careful physical examination and radiographic evaluation in such cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
PLoS Biol ; 15(11): e2003318, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161253

RESUMO

Museums have an untapped potential to engage students in hands-on learning. Here, we describe the development of a tiered museum-based program at the University of California, Berkeley as a model for engaging undergraduates in biodiversity science. This decade-long effort to increase student participation in collections demonstrates the mutual benefits of undergraduate involvement. Museums benefit from critical help in collections care and an increased intellectual vitality, while students simultaneously gain essential research skills and an unparalleled exposure to biodiversity. Five first steps to creating a program are: dedicate a coordinator, offer credit, diversify participation, create a tiered structure, and build community.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Museus/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/educação , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa , Estudantes
12.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 77(3): 167-172, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643671

RESUMO

Health literacy (HL) is a measure of a patient ability to read, understand and to take decisions on medical instructions. Patients with inadequate HL have poorer health outcomes than those with adequate HL. There is little information on HL levels in diabetic patients in Argentina. The aim of this study was to explore the association between HL and glycemic control in diabetic patients from a university hospital in Argentina. HL was assessed with the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA), glycemic control through glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); 156 patients (58% women) took part in the study. Average SAHLSA score was 35 (range: 11-50). Patients with inadequate values of HL had HbA1c of 8.15% vs. 7.15% among those with adequate HL (p = 0.0001). The multiple linear regression shows that inadequate HL was significantly associated with poorer glycemic control (ß = -0.05 IC 95% -0.07; -0.02, p < 0.001). Efforts should focus on developing interventions to improve glycemic control among patients with inadequate HL.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Argentina , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 167-172, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-894452

RESUMO

La alfabetización en salud (AS) es una medida de la capacidad de los pacientes de leer, comprender y tomar decisiones en base a instrucciones médicas. La inadecuada AS se asocia con peor estado de salud en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. Es escasa la información sobre el nivel de alfabetización en pacientes diabéticos en Argentina. Se realizó este estudio con el objeto de estimar la relación de inadecuada AS y el control de la diabetes, evaluada a través del valor de la hemoglobina A1c en diabéticos tratados con insulina que concurren a un hospital universitario de Argentina. La AS se evaluó con el Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA) y se evaluó el control de la glucemia por el último valor de hemoglobina A1c. Participaron 156 pacientes seleccionados en forma aleatoria, 58% mujeres. El puntaje promedio de SALHSA fue 35 (rango: 11-50). Se encontró inadecuada AS en 94 pacientes (60.3%). La HbA1c promedio en los pacientes con inadecuada AS fue 8.15% vs 7.15% entre los que tenían adecuada AS (p = 0.0001). La regresión lineal múltiple mostró que la inadecuada AS se asocia en forma significativa con el mal control de la glucemia (β = -0.05 IC 95% -0.07; -0.02, p < 0.001). En conclusión, sería necesario implementar medidas para garantizar la educación de los pacientes con limitada AS.


Health literacy (HL) is a measure of a patient ability to read, understand and to take decisions on medical instructions. Patients with inadequate HL have poorer health outcomes than those with adequate HL. There is little information on HL levels in diabetic patients in Argentina. The aim of this study was to explore the association between HL and glycemic control in diabetic patients from a university hospital in Argentina. HL was assessed with the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA), glycemic control through glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); 156 patients (58% women) took part in the study. Average SAHLSA score was 35 (range: 11-50). Patients with inadequate values of HL had HbA1c of 8.15% vs. 7.15% among those with adequate HL (p = 0.0001). The multiple linear regression shows that inadequate HL was significantly associated with poorer glycemic control (β = -0.05 IC 95% -0.07; -0.02, p < 0.001). Efforts should focus on developing interventions to improve glycemic control among patients with inadequate HL.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Compreensão , Avaliação Educacional , Escolaridade , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle
15.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 24(2): 293-298, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856387

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, surgical outcome, and oncologic results observed after robotic staging compared with conventional laparoscopic staging for patients with early-stage ovarian cancer patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. PATIENTS: Ninety-six patients underwent minimally invasive staging for presumed stage I ovarian cancer; 32 underwent the robotic approach (cases), and 64 underwent the laparoscopic approach (controls). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 approaches with regard to final Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage, histology, and grade of tumors. In the whole series, 15 patients (15.6%) were upstaged, with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The median number of pelvic lymph nodes removed was 14 (range, 3-42) and 11 (range, 2-29) in the robotic and laparoscopic groups (p = .235), respectively. The median number of aortic lymph nodes removed was 11 (range, 3-26) and 12 (range, 1-39) in the robotic and laparoscopic groups (p = .263), respectively. The operative time was significantly shorter in the robotic group compared with the laparoscopic group (p = .043), whereas the amount of estimated blood loss was similar (p = .691). No difference was found in terms of early and postoperative complications. Overall, 72 patients were considered as requiring adjuvant treatment. Two patients experienced peritoneal recurrence. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that there is no relevant difference between the robotic and laparoscopic approaches in staging early-stage ovarian cancer. Further prospective trials are needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Histerectomia , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Duração da Cirurgia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos
16.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 24(1): 133-139, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666513

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of total robotic radical surgery (TRRS) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) who receive chemoradiation therapy (CT/RT). DESIGN: A prospective (preplanned) study of a nonrandomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification level 2). SETTING: Catholic University of the Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy. PATIENTS: Between September 2013 and January 2016, a total of 40 patients with LACC (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage IB2-III) were enrolled in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) plus pelvic and/or aortic lymphadenectomy was attempted within 6 weeks after CT/RT. The feasibility of TRRS as well as the rate, pattern, and severity of early and late postoperative complications were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After CT/RT, 29 patients (72.5%) underwent type B2 RRH, and 11 (27.5%) underwent type C1 RRH. Pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in all cases. TRRS was successful in 39 of 40 cases (feasibility rate = 97.5%). In patients successfully completing TRRS, the median operating time was 185 minutes (range, 100-330 minutes), and the median blood loss was 100 mL (range, 50-300 mL). The median time of hospitalization counted from the first postoperative day was 2 days (range, 1-4 days). No intraoperative complications were recorded. During the observation period (median = 18 months; range, 4-28 months), 9 of 40 (22.5%) experienced postoperative complications, for a total number of 12 complications. As of April 2016, recurrence of disease was documented in 5 cases (12.5%). CONCLUSION: TRRS is feasible in LACC patients administered preoperative CT/RT, providing perioperative outcomes comparable with those registered in early-stage disease, and LACC patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Histerectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 115(9): 3557-65, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189064

RESUMO

Leucocytozoon, a widespread hemosporidian blood parasite that infects a broad group of avian families, has been studied in corvids (family: Corvidae) for over a century. Current taxonomic classification indicates that Leucocytozoon sakharoffi infects crows and related Corvus spp., while Leucocytozoon berestneffi infects magpies (Pica spp.) and blue jays (Cyanocitta sp.). This intrafamily host specificity was based on the experimental transmissibility of the parasites, as well as slight differences in their morphology and life cycle development. Genetic sequence data from Leucocytozoon spp. infecting corvids is scarce, and until the present study, sequence data has not been analyzed to confirm the current taxonomic distinctions. Here, we predict the phylogenetic relationships of Leucocytozoon cytochrome b lineages recovered from infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), yellow-billed magpies (Pica nuttalli), and Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) to explore the host specificity pattern of L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a single large clade containing nearly every lineage recovered from the three host species, while showing no evidence of the expected distinction between L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi. In addition, five of the detected lineages were recovered from both crows and magpies. This absence of the previously described host specificity in corvid Leucocytozoon spp. suggests that L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi be reexamined from a taxonomic perspective.


Assuntos
Corvos/parasitologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromos b/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Haemosporida/enzimologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 14: 135, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24938753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haldane's Rule, the tendency for the heterogametic sex to show reduced fertility in hybrid crosses, can obscure the signal of gene flow in mtDNA between species where females are heterogametic. Therefore, it is important when studying speciation and species limits in female-heterogametic species like birds to assess the signature of gene flow in the nuclear genome as well. We studied introgression of microsatellites and mtDNA across a secondary contact zone between coastal and interior lineages of Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test for a signature of Haldane's Rule: a narrower cline of introgression in mtDNA compared to nuclear markers. RESULTS: Our initial phylogeographic analysis revealed that there is only one major area of contact between coastal and interior lineages and identified five genetic clusters with strong spatial structuring: Pacific Slope, Interior US, Edwards Plateau (Texas), Northern Mexico, and Southern Mexico. Consistent with predictions from Haldane's Rule, mtDNA showed a narrower cline than nuclear markers across a transect through the hybrid zone. This result is not being driven by female-biased dispersal because neutral diffusion analysis, which included estimates of sex-specific dispersal rates, also showed less diffusion of mtDNA. Lineage-specific plumage traits were associated with nuclear genetic profiles for individuals in the hybrid zone, indicating that these differences are under genetic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to a growing list of studies that support predictions of Haldane's Rule using cline analysis of multiple loci of differing inheritance modes, although alternate hypotheses like selection on different mtDNA types cannot be ruled out. That Haldane's Rule appears to be operating in this system suggests a measure of reproductive isolation between the Pacific Slope and interior lineages. Based on a variety of evidence from the phenotype, ecology, and genetics, we recommend elevating three lineages to species level: A. californica (Pacific Slope); A. woodhouseii (Interior US plus Edwards Plateau plus Northern Mexico); A. sumichrasti (Southern Mexico). The distinctive Edwards Plateau population in Texas, which was monophyletic in mtDNA except for one individual, should be studied in greater detail given habitat threat.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Especiação Genética , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , México , Repetições de Microssatélites , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Passeriformes/classificação , Isolamento Reprodutivo
19.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 19(4): 307-14, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24856308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of the sexual life of healthy women who are using a contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) in extended cycles. METHODS: Fifty-two women (18 to 32 years old) seeking hormonal contraception were enrolled in this prospective study. Women were to use a CVR releasing daily 15 µg of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 120 µg of etonogestrel (ENG) for 63 days, followed by a four-day hormone-free interval, for two such extended cycles. At baseline and at the first (day 63-73) and second (day 126-134) follow-ups the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were administered to investigate, respectively, sexual behaviour and the quality of life (QoL). The Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) was used to verify whether sexual dysfunction caused significant personal distress to the woman. RESULTS: The FSFI and FSDS scores obtained at the first and second follow-up appointments detected an improvement with respect to the baseline score (p < 0.05). QoL measures of body pain, general health and emotional role improved at the first follow-up visit (p < 0.05); at the second one, all variables showed improvement (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to these preliminary data the CVR in extended cycles could improve the sexual function and the QoL of women.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sex Med ; 11(1): 211-21, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24344697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In mammals, the effects of ovarian steroids influence sexual behavior. In humans, there are a few studies that take into account if ovulation occurs. AIM: The study aims to investigate if a woman's sexuality changes during the week and over the menstrual cycle, and if so, in what way. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study; 1,957 heterosexual women were involved over the period January 2004-December 2011. Two subgroups were taken into consideration, women having a partner and singles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sexual interview and the Female Sexual Function Index and Female Sexual Distress Scale questionnaires were used to exclude women with sexual dysfunction. Women with ovulation confirmed by sonography were enrolled. Women were given diary cards on which to report their daily sexual activity. Serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and free androgen index were measured during the follicular, periovular, and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. RESULTS: One thousand one hundred eighty women (age range 18-40 years) were included in the analyses. Of them, 925 had a heterosexual relationship and 255 were single. Women with a partner had more sexual activity during the weekend, while the singles had a constant sexual activity over the week. The sexual activity of singles was higher during the ovulatory phase and lower during menses than that of the women with a partner. A linear correlation between sexual activity and androgenic hormonal profile during the menstrual cycle in women with and without a partner was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroids modulate a woman's sexual activity. This aspect was more evident in singles than in women having a partner, in which a variety of nonhormonal factors can have a role.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Fase Luteal , Ovulação/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangue , Progesterona/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/metabolismo , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexualidade , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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