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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402375

RESUMO

Brain aging is highly variable and represents a challenge to delimit aging from disease processes. Moreover, genetic factors may influence both aging and disease. Here we focused on this issue and investigated effects of multiple genetic loci previously identified to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain structure of older adults from a population sample. We calculated a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies of AD and tested its effect on cortical thickness (CT). We observed a common pattern of cortical thinning (right inferior frontal, left posterior temporal, medial occipital cortex). To identify CT changes by specific biological processes, we subdivided the GRS effect according to AD-associated pathways and performed follow-up analyses. The common pattern from the main analysis was further differentiated by pathway-specific effects yielding a more bilateral pattern. Further findings were located in the superior parietal and mid/anterior cingulate regions representing 2 unique pathway-specific patterns. All patterns, except the superior parietal pattern, were influenced by apolipoprotein E. Our step-wise approach revealed atrophy patterns that partially resembled imaging findings in early stages of AD. Our study provides evidence that genetic burden for AD contributes to structural brain variability in normal aging.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705424

RESUMO

Prior to and following the publication of this article the authors noted that the complete list of authors was not included in the main article and was only present in Supplementary Table 1. The author list in the original article has now been updated to include all authors, and Supplementary Table 1 has been removed. All other supplementary files have now been updated accordingly. Furthermore, in Table 1 of this Article, the replication cohort for the row Close relative in data set, n (%) was incorrect. All values have now been corrected to 0(0%). The publishers would like to apologise for this error and the inconvenience it may have caused.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 621, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728360

RESUMO

Lifestyle contributes to inter-individual variability in brain aging, but previous studies focused on the effects of single lifestyle variables. Here, we studied the combined and individual contributions of four lifestyle variables - alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and social integration - to brain structure and functional connectivity in a population-based cohort of 549 older adults. A combined lifestyle risk score was associated with decreased gyrification in left premotor and right prefrontal cortex, and higher functional connectivity to sensorimotor and prefrontal cortex. While structural differences were driven by alcohol consumption, physical activity, and social integration, higher functional connectivity was driven by smoking. Results suggest that combining differentially contributing lifestyle variables may be more than the sum of its parts. Associations generally were neither altered by adjustment for genetic risk, nor by depressive symptomatology or education, underlining the relevance of daily habits for brain health.


Assuntos
Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Exercício , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Linfócitos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Córtex Sensório-Motor
5.
Trials ; 20(1): 61, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently available prophylactic migraine treatment options are limited and are associated with many, often intolerable, side-effects. Various lines of research suggest that abnormalities in energy metabolism are likely to be part of migraine pathophysiology. Previously, a ketogenic diet (KD) has been reported to lead to a drastic reduction in migraine frequency. An alternative method to a strict KD is inducing a mild nutritional ketosis (0.4-2 mmol/l) with exogenous ketogenic substances. The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, single-centre trial is to demonstrate safety and superiority of beta-hydroxybutyrate (ßHB) in mineral salt form over placebo in migraine prevention. METHODS/DESIGN: Forty-five episodic migraineurs (5-14 migraine days/months), with or without aura, aged between 18 and 65 years, will be recruited at headache clinics in Switzerland, Germany and Austria and via Internet announcements. After a 4-week baseline period, patients will be randomly allocated to one of the two trial arms and receive either the ßHB mineral salt or placebo for 12 weeks. This will be followed by a 4-week wash-out period, a subsequent second baseline period and, finally, another 12-week intervention with the alternative treatment. Co-medication with triptans (10 days per months) or analgesics (14 days per months) is permitted. The primary outcome is the mean change from baseline in the number of migraine days (meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders version 3 criteria) during the last 4 weeks of intervention compared to placebo. Secondary endpoints include mean changes in headache days of any severity, acute migraine medication use, migraine intensity and migraine and headache-related disability. Exploratory outcomes are (in addition to routine laboratory analysis) genetic profiling and expression analysis, oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as serum cytokine analysis, and blood ßHB and glucose analysis (pharmacokinetics). DISCUSSION: A crossover design was chosen as it greatly improves statistical power and participation rates, without increasing costs. To our knowledge this is the first RCT using ßHB salts worldwide. If proven effective and safe, ßHB might not only offer a new prophylactic treatment option for migraine patients, but might additionally pave the way for clinical trials assessing its use in related diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03132233 . Registered on 27 April 2017.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/efeitos adversos , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(2): 211-221, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554862

RESUMO

Weight gain is a common adverse effect of lithium augmentation. Previous studies indicate an impact of genetic variants at the leptin gene on weight gain as a consequence of psychopharmacological treatment. The primary aim of our study was to identify variants at the leptin locus that might predict lithium-induced weight gain. The secondary aim was to investigate if these variants modulate leptin levels. In 180 patients with acute major depressive disorder, body mass index was measured before and after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation, in a subsample also after 4 and/or 7 months. In a subsample of 89 patients, leptin serum concentrations were measured before and during lithium augmentation. We used linear mixed model analyzes to investigate the effects of 2 polymorphisms at the leptin locus (rs4731426 and rs7799039, employing the respective proxy SNPs rs2278815 and rs10487506) on changes in body mass index and leptin levels. For both polymorphisms, which are in high linkage disequilibrium, body mass index was significantly lower in homozygous A-allele carriers than in carriers of other genotypes at baseline. Over the follow-up period, body mass index increased less in homozygous A-allele carriers of rs4731426 than in carriers of other genotypes. This was not the case for rs7799039. Neither polymorphism modulated leptin protein expression. Our study strongly supports the hypothesis that genetic variability at the leptin locus is involved in lithium augmentation-associated weight gain in major depressive disorder. Furthermore, Genotype-Tissue Expression data provide strong evidence that rs4731426 influences the expression of leptin messenger ribonucleic acid in fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Leptina/genética , Lítio/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

9.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(4): 199-207, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176753

RESUMO

Introducción: Se presenta la primera descripción del estudio denominado Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF). Se trata de una investigación longitudinal con familias procedentes de Andalucía (España), que comenzó en 1997, con el objetivo de dilucidar las causas geneticomoleculares del trastorno afectivo bipolar. Desde entonces, esta cohorte ha contribuido a una serie de hallazgos clave, que han sido publicados en revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre las bases genéticas del trastorno en estas familias sigue siendo limitado. Método: El estudio consta de dos fases: en la fase inicial se reclutaron 100 familias con múltiples afectados de trastorno bipolar y otros trastornos del ánimo. La segunda fase del proyecto, actualmente en curso, comenzó en 2013 con el objetivo de realizar un seguimiento de la cohorte de familias reclutadas originalmente. Los objetivos del estudio de seguimiento son: i) recoger nuevos datos clínicos longitudinales; ii) realizar una evaluación neuropsicológica detallada, y iii) obtener una extensa colección de biomateriales para futuros estudios moleculares. Resultados: El estudio ABiF, por tanto, generará unos recursos valiosos para futuras investigaciones sobre la etiología del trastorno afectivo bipolar; particularmente con respecto a las causas de la alta carga genética del trastorno en las familias con múltiples afectados. Discusión: Se discute el valor de este enfoque en relación con las nuevas tecnologías para la identificación de factores genéticos de alta penetrancia. Estas nuevas tecnologías incluyen la secuenciación del exoma y del genoma completo, y el uso de células madre pluripotentes inducidas u organismos modelo para la determinación de consecuencias funcionales


Introduction: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. Method: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. Results: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. Discussion: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Família
10.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 6(1): 24, 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disentangling the etiology of common, complex diseases is a major challenge in genetic research. For bipolar disorder (BD), several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed. Similar to other complex disorders, major breakthroughs in explaining the high heritability of BD through GWAS have remained elusive. To overcome this dilemma, genetic research into BD, has embraced a variety of strategies such as the formation of large consortia to increase sample size and sequencing approaches. Here we advocate a complementary approach making use of already existing GWAS data: a novel data mining procedure to identify yet undetected genotype-phenotype relationships. We adapted association rule mining, a data mining technique traditionally used in retail market research, to identify frequent and characteristic genotype patterns showing strong associations to phenotype clusters. We applied this strategy to three independent GWAS datasets from 2835 phenotypically characterized patients with BD. In a discovery step, 20,882 candidate association rules were extracted. RESULTS: Two of these rules-one associated with eating disorder and the other with anxiety-remained significant in an independent dataset after robust correction for multiple testing. Both showed considerable effect sizes (odds ratio ~ 3.4 and 3.0, respectively) and support previously reported molecular biological findings. CONCLUSION: Our approach detected novel specific genotype-phenotype relationships in BD that were missed by standard analyses like GWAS. While we developed and applied our method within the context of BD gene discovery, it may facilitate identifying highly specific genotype-phenotype relationships in subsets of genome-wide data sets of other complex phenotype with similar epidemiological properties and challenges to gene discovery efforts.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379966

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting around 1% of the global population. BD is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, and has an estimated heritability of around 70%. Research has identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the underlying pathways and regulatory networks remain largely unknown. Research suggests that the cumulative impact of common alleles with small effects explains only around 25-38% of the phenotypic variance for BD. A plausible hypothesis therefore is that rare, high penetrance variants may contribute to BD risk. The present study investigated the role of rare, nonsynonymous, and potentially functional variants via whole exome sequencing in 15 BD cases from two large, multiply affected families from Cuba. The high prevalence of BD in these pedigrees renders them promising in terms of the identification of genetic risk variants with large effect sizes. In addition, SNP array data were used to calculate polygenic risk scores for affected and unaffected family members. After correction for multiple testing, no significant increase in polygenic risk scores for common, BD-associated genetic variants was found in BD cases compared to healthy relatives. Exome sequencing identified a total of 17 rare and potentially damaging variants in 17 genes. The identified variants were shared by all investigated BD cases in the respective pedigree. The most promising variant was located in the gene SERPING1 (p.L349F), which has been reported previously as a genome-wide significant risk gene for schizophrenia. The present data suggest novel candidate genes for BD susceptibility, and may facilitate the discovery of disease-relevant pathways and regulatory networks.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 210, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297702

RESUMO

Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) is one of the few genes that have been consistently identified as associated with bipolar disorder by multiple genome-wide association studies. However, the exact molecular basis of the association remains unknown. A rare loss-of-function splice-site SNP (rs41283526*G) in a minor isoform of ANK3 (incorporating exon ENSE00001786716) was recently identified as protective of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests that an elevated expression of this isoform may be involved in the etiology of the disorders. In this study, we used novel approaches and data sets to test this hypothesis. First, we strengthen the statistical evidence supporting the allelic association by replicating the protective effect of the minor allele of rs41283526 in three additional large independent samples (meta-analysis p-values: 6.8E-05 for bipolar disorder and 8.2E-04 for schizophrenia). Second, we confirm the hypothesis that both bipolar and schizophrenia patients have a significantly higher expression of this isoform than controls (p-values: 3.3E-05 for schizophrenia and 9.8E-04 for bipolar type I). Third, we determine the transcription start site for this minor isoform by Pacific Biosciences sequencing of full-length cDNA and show that it is primarily expressed in the corpus callosum. Finally, we combine genotype and expression data from a large Norwegian sample of psychiatric patients and controls, and show that the risk alleles in ANK3 identified by bipolar disorder GWAS are located near the transcription start site of this isoform and are significantly associated with its elevated expression. Together, these results point to the likely molecular mechanism underlying ANK3´s association with bipolar disorder.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

14.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

15.
Bipolar Disord ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) with early disease onset is associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome and constitutes a clinically and biologically homogenous subgroup within the heterogeneous BD spectrum. Previous studies have found an accumulation of early age at onset (AAO) in BD families and have therefore hypothesized that there is a larger genetic contribution to the early-onset cases than to late onset BD. To investigate the genetic background of this subphenotype, we evaluated whether an increased polygenic burden of BD- and schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated risk variants is associated with an earlier AAO in BD patients. METHODS: A total of 1995 BD type 1 patients from the Consortium of Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen), PsyCourse and Bonn-Mannheim samples were genotyped and their BD and SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated using the summary statistics of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a training data set. AAO was either separated into onset groups of clinical interest (childhood and adolescence [≤18 years] vs adulthood [>18 years]) or considered as a continuous measure. The associations between BD- and SCZ-PRSs and AAO were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: BD- and SCZ-PRSs were not significantly associated with age at disease onset. Results remained the same when analyses were stratified by site of recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the largest conducted so far to investigate the association between the cumulative BD and SCZ polygenic risk and AAO in BD patients. The reported negative results suggest that such a polygenic influence, if there is any, is not large, and highlight the importance of conducting further, larger scale studies to obtain more information on the genetic architecture of this clinically relevant phenotype.

16.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(5): 2335-2342, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478144

RESUMO

Decoding the chain from genes to cognition requires detailed insights how areas with specific gene activities and microanatomical architectures contribute to brain function and dysfunction. The Allen Human Brain Atlas contains regional gene expression data, while the JuBrain Atlas offers three-dimensional cytoarchitectonic maps reflecting interindividual variability. To date, an integrated framework that combines the analytical benefits of both scientific platforms towards a multi-level brain atlas of adult humans was not available. We have, therefore, developed JuGEx, a new method for integrating tissue transcriptome and cytoarchitectonic segregation. We investigated differential gene expression in two JuBrain areas of the frontal pole that we have structurally and functionally characterized in previous studies. Our results show a significant upregulation of MAOA and TAC1 in the medial area frontopolaris which is a node in the limbic-cortical network and known to be susceptible for gray matter loss and behavioral dysfunction in patients with depression. The MAOA gene encodes an enzyme which is involved in the catabolism of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and other monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The TAC1 locus generates hormones that play a role in neuron excitations and behavioral responses. Overall, JuGEx provides a new tool for the scientific community that empowers research from basic, cognitive and clinical neuroscience in brain regions and disease models with regard to gene expression.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(4): 1209-1216.e8, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is a rare condition with clinical features similar to those of HAE with C1-INH deficiency. Mutations in the F12 gene have been identified in subsets of patients with HAE with normal C1-INH, mostly within families of European descent. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to describe clinical characteristics observed in Brazilians from 42 families with HAE and F12 gene mutations (FXII-HAE), and to compare these findings with those from other populations. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 195 individuals, which included 102 patients clinically diagnosed with FXII-HAE and their 93 asymptomatic relatives. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed that of the 195 subjects, 134 individuals (77.6% females) carried a pathogenic mutation in F12. The T328K substitution was found in 132 individuals, and the c.971_1018+24del72 deletion was found in 2 patients. The mean age at onset of symptoms in patients with FXII-HAE was 21.1 years. The most common symptoms were subcutaneous edema (85.8% of patients), abdominal pain attacks (69.7%), and upper airway edema (32.3%). Of male individuals carrying F12 mutations, 53.3% (16 of 30) were symptomatic. Compared with reports from Europe, fewer female patients (68.6%) reported an influence of estrogen on symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our study included a large number of patients with FXII-HAE, and, as the first such study conducted in a South American population, it highlighted significant differences between this and other study populations. The high number of symptomatic males and patients with estrogen-independent FXII-HAE found here suggests that male sex and the absence of a hormonal influence should not discourage clinicians from searching for F12 mutations in cases of HAE with normal C1-INH.

18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(2): 406-414, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589968

RESUMO

The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region 5-HTTLPR is a key genetic regulator of 5-HTT expression in the human brain where the short allele S has been implicated in emotion dysregulation. However, the neural mechanism underlying the association between this variant and emotion processing is still unclear. Earlier studies suggested an effect of 5-HTTLPR on amygdala activation during emotional face processing. However, this association has been questioned in recent studies employing larger sample sizes and meta-analyses. Here, we examined a sample of 223 healthy subjects with a well-established fMRI emotional face processing task to (1) re-evaluate the association between 5-HTTLPR and amygdala activation, (2) explore potential network-based functional connectivity phenotypes for associations with 5-HTTLPR, and (3) probe the reliability, behavioral significance and potential structural confounds of the identified network phenotype. Our results revealed no significant effect of 5-HTTLPR on amygdala activation (P>0.79). However, the number of S alleles was significantly correlated with functional connectivity of a visual-limbic subnetwork (PFWE=0.03). The subnetwork cluster included brain regions that are pivotal to emotion regulation such as the hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and subcortex. Notably, individuals with lower subnetwork connectivity had significantly higher emotion suppression scores (P=0.01). Further, the connectivity metrics were test-retest reliable and independent from subnetwork gray matter volume and white matter anisotropy. Our data provide evidence for a functional network-based phenotype linking genetic variation in 5-HTTLPR to emotion regulation, and suggest that further critical evaluations of the association between 5-HTTLPR and amygdala activation are warranted.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Sistema Límbico/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 11(4): 199-207, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. METHOD: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. RESULTS: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. DISCUSSION: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences.

20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(1): 15-27, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969442

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets. The central idea of the PGC is to convert the family history risk factor into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691 twin pairs was the largest in the field for nearly four decades. (Am J Psychiatry 1946; 103:309-322 )].


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Psiquiatria/métodos
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