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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical utility of trabecular bone score (TBS) evaluation for fracture risk assessment in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated patients compared with BMD assessment. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients on GC treatment were included [mean age 62 (18) years, 63% women] in this cross-sectional study. The medical history, anthropometric data, lumbar and femoral BMD (DXA) [considering osteoporosis (OP): T-score ⩽-2.5], TBS (considering degraded microarchitecture: <1.230) and dorsolumbar X-ray [to assess vertebral fractures (VF)] were evaluated. BMD and TBS sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were evaluated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the two methods. RESULTS: All patients were receiving GC treatment for autoimmune diseases during 47.7 (68.9) months at a mean daily dose of 14.5 mg; 17% had VF, 28% any type of fragility fracture (VF + non-VF), 29% OP and 52% degraded microarchitecture. Degraded microarchitecture was significantly more frequent than densitometric OP in patients with VF (76% vs 38%) and with any fragility fracture (69% vs 36%). For VF, TBS and BMD sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.76, 0.53, 0.25 and 0.92, and 0.38, 0.72, 0.22 and 0.85, respectively. Specificity increased to 0.89 for VF and 0.9 for any fragility fracture on combining BMD+TBS. TBS had better ability than BMD to discriminate between patients with fracture, especially VF (area under the curve = 0.73). CONCLUSION: TBS seems to have greater discriminative power than BMD for fracture risk assessment in GC-treated patients, confirming the utility of this method as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of GC-induced OP.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of large vessel vasculitis (LVV) in 2009, several relevant randomised clinical trials and cohort analyses have been published, which have the potential to change clinical care and therefore supporting the need to update the original recommendations. METHODS: Using EULAR standardised operating procedures for EULAR-endorsed recommendations, the EULAR task force undertook a systematic literature review and sought opinion from 20 experts from 13 countries. We modified existing recommendations and created new recommendations. RESULTS: Three overarching principles and 10 recommendations were formulated. We recommend that a suspected diagnosis of LVV should be confirmed by imaging or histology. High dose glucocorticoid therapy (40-60 mg/day prednisone-equivalent) should be initiated immediately for induction of remission in active giant cell arteritis (GCA) or Takayasu arteritis (TAK). We recommend adjunctive therapy in selected patients with GCA (refractory or relapsing disease, presence of an increased risk for glucocorticoid-related adverse events or complications) using tocilizumab. Methotrexate may be used as an alternative. Non-biological glucocorticoid-sparing agents should be given in combination with glucocorticoids in all patients with TAK and biological agents may be used in refractory or relapsing patients. We no longer recommend the routine use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy for treatment of LVV unless it is indicated for other reasons. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the recommendations for the management of LVV to facilitate the translation of current scientific evidence and expert opinion into better management and improved outcome of patients in clinical practice.

4.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 152(12): 495-501, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183321

RESUMO

Las técnicas de imagen se han convertido en una herramienta esencial en la valoración de los pacientes con arteritis de células gigantes. La detección del compromiso del territorio craneal con la ecografía Doppler tiene una utilidad diagnóstica indudable. La afectación de la aorta y sus ramas detectada mediante la tomografía por emisión de positrones, la tomografía computarizada con angiografía o la resonancia magnética con angiografía puede ayudar también en el diagnóstico y en la valoración de la actividad de la enfermedad y la respuesta al tratamiento, pero es necesaria la estandarización y validación de su uso. El desarrollo de daño vascular aórtico puede influir en la supervivencia de los pacientes con arteritis de células gigantes por lo que se recomienda su cribado periódico


Imaging has become an essential tool in the management of patients with giant cell arteritis. Cranial involvement detected by Doppler ultrasonography is an unquestionable diagnostic finding. Imaging of the aorta and its branches with positron emission tomography, computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance imaging may also have a role in diagnosis and in the assessment of disease activity and response to treatment, but standardisation and validation are still needed before their widespread use as an outcome measure. Aortic structural damage is associated with increased mortality in giant cell arteritis; therefore, periodic screening is recommended


Assuntos
Humanos , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia/métodos , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia/instrumentação , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1329-1338, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate glucocorticoid dosages and serologic findings in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) flares. METHODS: Patients with GCA were randomly assigned to receive double-blind dosing with either subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ) 162 mg weekly plus 26-week prednisone taper (TCZ-QW + Pred-26), every-other-week TCZ plus 26-week prednisone taper (TCZ-Q2W + Pred-26), placebo plus 26-week prednisone taper (PBO + Pred-26), or placebo plus 52-week prednisone taper (PBO + Pred-52). Outcome measures were prednisone dosage, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at the time of flare. RESULTS: One hundred patients received TCZ-QW + Pred-26, 49 received TCZ-Q2W + Pred-26, 50 received PBO + Pred-26, and 51 received PBO + Pred-52. Of the 149 TCZ-treated patients, 36 (24%) experienced flare, 23 (64%) of whom were still receiving prednisone (median dosage 2.0 mg/day). Among 101 PBO + Pred-treated patients, 59 (58%) experienced flare, 45 (76%) of whom were receiving prednisone (median dosage 5.0 mg/day). Many flares occurred while patients were taking >10 mg/day prednisone: 9 (25%) in the TCZ groups and 13 (22%) in the placebo groups. Thirty-three flares (92%) in TCZ-treated groups and 20 (34%) in PBO + Pred-treated groups occurred with normal CRP levels. More than half of the PBO + Pred-treated patients had elevated CRP levels without flares. Benefits of the TCZ and prednisone combination over prednisone alone for remission induction were apparent by 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Most GCA flares occurred while patients were still receiving prednisone. Acute-phase reactant levels were not reliable indicators of flare in patients treated with TCZ plus prednisone or with prednisone alone. The addition of TCZ to prednisone facilitates earlier GCA control.

7.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 152(12): 495-501, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733054

RESUMO

Imaging has become an essential tool in the management of patients with giant cell arteritis. Cranial involvement detected by Doppler ultrasonography is an unquestionable diagnostic finding. Imaging of the aorta and its branches with positron emission tomography, computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance imaging may also have a role in diagnosis and in the assessment of disease activity and response to treatment, but standardisation and validation are still needed before their widespread use as an outcome measure. Aortic structural damage is associated with increased mortality in giant cell arteritis; therefore, periodic screening is recommended.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 399-405, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide induction regimens are effective for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but are associated with infections, malignancies and infertility. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has shown high remission rates in small studies of AAV. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial to investigate whether MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV. 140 newly diagnosed patients were randomly assigned to MMF or pulsed cyclophosphamide. All patients received the same oral glucocorticoid regimen and were switched to azathioprine following remission. The primary endpoint was remission by 6 months requiring compliance with the tapering glucocorticoid regimen. Patients with an eGFR <15 mL/min were excluded from the study. RESULTS: At baseline, ANCA subtype, disease activity and organ involvement were similar between groups. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for the primary remission endpoint, which occurred in 47 patients (67%) in the MMF group and 43 patients (61%) in the cyclophosphamide group (risk difference 5.7%, 90% CI -7.5% to 19%). Following remission, more relapses occurred in the MMF group (23 patients, 33%) compared with the cyclophosphamide group (13 patients, 19%) (incidence rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 4.23, p=0.049). In MPO-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 12% of the cyclophosphamide group and 15% of the MMF group. In PR3-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 24% of the cyclophosphamide group and 48% of the MMF group. Serious infections were similar between groups (26% MMF group, 17% cyclophosphamide group) (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.19, p=0.3). CONCLUSION: MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV, but resulted in higher relapse rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00414128.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2170-2177, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a recent phase III trial (NCT02020889) 53% of mepolizumab-treated versus 19% of placebo-treated patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) achieved protocol-defined remission. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate post hoc the clinical benefit of mepolizumab in patients with EGPA using a comprehensive definition of benefit encompassing remission, oral glucocorticoid (OGC) dose reduction, and EGPA relapses. METHODS: The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial recruited patients with relapsing/refractory EGPA receiving stable OGCs (prednisolone/prednisone, ≥7.5-50 mg/d) for 4 or more weeks. Patients received 300 mg of subcutaneous mepolizumab or placebo every 4 weeks for 52 weeks. Clinical benefit was defined post hoc as follows: remission at any time (2 definitions used), 50% or greater OGC dose reduction during weeks 48 to 52, or no EGPA relapses. The 2 remission definitions were Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score of 0 plus OGC dose of 4 mg/d or less (remission 1/clinical benefit 1) or 7.5 mg/d or less (remission 2/clinical benefit 2). Clinical benefit was assessed in all patients and among subgroups with a baseline blood eosinophil count of less than 150 cells/µL, baseline OGC dosage of greater than 20 mg/d, or weight of greater than 85 kg. RESULTS: With mepolizumab versus placebo, 78% versus 32% of patients experienced clinical benefit 1, and 87% versus 53% of patients experienced clinical benefit 2 (both P < .001). Significantly more patients experienced clinical benefit 1 with mepolizumab versus placebo in the blood eosinophil count less than 150 cells/µL subgroup (72% vs 43%, P = .033) and weight greater than 85 kg subgroup (68% vs 23%, P = .005); in the OGC greater than 20 mg/d subgroup, results were not significant but favored mepolizumab (60% vs 36%, P = .395). CONCLUSION: When a comprehensive definition of clinical benefit was applied to data from a randomized controlled trial, 78% to 87% of patients with EGPA experienced benefit with mepolizumab.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TNFSF13B (TNF superfamily member 13b) gene encodes BAFF, a cytokine with a crucial role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. An insertion-deletion variant (GCTGT→A) of this gene, leading to increased levels of BAFF, has been recently implicated in the genetic predisposition to several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the elevated levels of this cytokine found in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), we aimed to assess whether this functional variant also represents a novel genetic risk factor for these two disorders. METHODS: A total of 1,728 biopsy-proven GCA patients from 4 European cohorts, 4,584 SSc patients from 3 European cohorts and 5,160 ethnically-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs374039502, which colocalizes with the genetic variant previously implicated in autoimmunity, was genotyped using a custom TaqMan assay. First, association analysis was conducted in each independent cohort using χ2 test in Plink (v1.9). Subsequently, different case/control sets were meta-analyzed by the inverse variance method. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when allele distributions were compared between cases and controls for any of the analyzed cohorts. Similarly, combined analysis of the different sets evidenced a lack of association of the rs374039502 variant with GCA (P = 0.421; OR (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.75-1.13)) and SSc (P = 0.500; OR (95% CI) = 1.05 (0.91-1.22)). The stratified analysis considering the main clinical subphenotypes of these diseases yielded similar negative results. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the TNFSF13B functional variant does not contribute to the genetic network underlying GCA and SSc.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(suppl_2): ii51-ii62, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982777

RESUMO

GCA is a chronic granulomatous vasculitis that affects large- and medium-sized vessels. Both the innate and the adaptive immune system are thought to play an important role in the initial events of the pathogenesis of GCA. Amplification cascades are involved in the subsequent development and progression of the disease, resulting in vascular inflammation, remodelling and occlusion. The development of large-vessel vasculitis in genetically modified mice has provided some evidence regarding potential mechanisms that lead to vascular inflammation. However, the participation of specific mechanistic pathways in GCA has not been fully established because of the paucity and limitations of functional models. Treatment of GCA is evolving, and novel therapies are being incorporated into the GCA treatment landscape. In addition, to improve the management of GCA, targeted therapies are providing functional proof of concept of the relevance of particular pathogenic mechanisms in the development of GCA and in sustaining vascular inflammation.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Animais , Artérias/imunologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Inflamação , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 809, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731755

RESUMO

Background: Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is considered a T helper (Th)1- and Th17-mediated disease. Interleukin (IL)-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine (p35/p40) involved in Th1 differentiation. When combining with p19 subunit, p40 compose IL-23, a powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine that maintains Th17 response. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate p40, p35, and p19 subunit expression in GCA lesions and their combinations to conform different cytokines, to assess the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on subunit expression, and to explore functional roles of p40 by culturing temporal artery sections with a neutralizing anti-human IL-12/IL-23p40 antibody. Methods and results: p40 and p19 mRNA concentrations measured by real-time RT-PCR were significantly higher in temporal arteries from 50 patients compared to 20 controls (4.35 ± 4.06 vs 0.51 ± 0.75; p < 0.0001 and 20.32 ± 21.78 vs 4.17 ± 4.43 relative units; p < 0.0001, respectively). No differences were found in constitutively expressed p35 mRNA. Contrarily, p40 and p19 mRNAs were decreased in temporal arteries from 16 treated GCA patients vs those from 34 treatment-naïve GCA patients. Accordingly, dexamethasone reduced p40 and p19 expression in cultured arteries. Subunit associations to conform IL-12 and IL-23 were confirmed by proximity-ligation assay in GCA lesions. Immunofluorescence revealed widespread p19 and p35 expression by inflammatory cells, independent from p40. Blocking IL-12/IL-23p40 tended to reduce IFNγ and IL-17 mRNA production by cultured GCA arteries and tended to increase Th17 inducers IL-1ß and IL-6. Conclusion: IL-12 and IL-23 heterodimers are increased in GCA lesions and decrease with glucocorticoid treatment. p19 and p35 subunits are much more abundant than p40, indicating an independent role for these subunits or their potential association with alternative subunits. The modest effect of IL-12/IL-23p40 neutralization may indicate compensation by redundant cytokines or cytokines resulting from alternative combinations.

13.
Eur J Intern Med ; 50: 12-19, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146018

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK) are the two main large vessel vasculitides. They share some similarities regarding their clinical, radiological and histological presentations but some pathogenic processes in GCA and TAK are activated differently, thus explaining their different sensitivity to biological therapies. The treatment of GCA and TAK essentially relies on glucocorticoids. However, thanks to major progress in our understanding of their pathogenesis, the role of biological therapies in the treatment of these two vasculitides is expanding, especially in relapsing or refractory diseases. In this review, the efficacy, the safety and the limits of the main biological therapies ever tested in GCA and TAK are discussed. Briefly, anti TNF-α agents appear to be effective in treating TAK but not GCA. Recent randomized placebo-controlled trials have reported on the efficacy and safety of abatacept and mostly tocilizumab in inducing and maintaining remission of GCA. Abatacept was not effective in TAK and robust data are still lacking to draw any conclusions concerning the use of tocilizumab in TAK. Furthermore, ustekinumab appears promising in relapsing/refractory GCA whereas rituximab has been reported to be effective in only a few cases of refractory TAK patients. If a biological therapy is indicated, and in light of the data discussed in this review, the first choice would be tocilizumab in GCA and anti-TNF-α agents (mainly infliximab) in TAK.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica , Arterite de Células Gigantes/terapia , Arterite de Takayasu/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
N Engl J Med ; 377(4): 317-328, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant-cell arteritis commonly relapses when glucocorticoids are tapered, and the prolonged use of glucocorticoids is associated with side effects. The effect of the interleukin-6 receptor alpha inhibitor tocilizumab on the rates of relapse during glucocorticoid tapering was studied in patients with giant-cell arteritis. METHODS: In this 1-year trial, we randomly assigned 251 patients, in a 2:1:1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous tocilizumab (at a dose of 162 mg) weekly or every other week, combined with a 26-week prednisone taper, or placebo combined with a prednisone taper over a period of either 26 weeks or 52 weeks. The primary outcome was the rate of sustained glucocorticoid-free remission at week 52 in each tocilizumab group as compared with the rate in the placebo group that underwent the 26-week prednisone taper. The key secondary outcome was the rate of remission in each tocilizumab group as compared with the placebo group that underwent the 52-week prednisone taper. Dosing of prednisone and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: Sustained remission at week 52 occurred in 56% of the patients treated with tocilizumab weekly and in 53% of those treated with tocilizumab every other week, as compared with 14% of those in the placebo group that underwent the 26-week prednisone taper and 18% of those in the placebo group that underwent the 52-week prednisone taper (P<0.001 for the comparisons of either active treatment with placebo). The cumulative median prednisone dose over the 52-week period was 1862 mg in each tocilizumab group, as compared with 3296 mg in the placebo group that underwent the 26-week taper (P<0.001 for both comparisons) and 3818 mg in the placebo group that underwent the 52-week taper (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Serious adverse events occurred in 15% of the patients in the group that received tocilizumab weekly, 14% of those in the group that received tocilizumab every other week, 22% of those in the placebo group that underwent the 26-week taper, and 25% of those in the placebo group that underwent the 52-week taper. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy developed in one patient in the group that received tocilizumab every other week. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab, received weekly or every other week, combined with a 26-week prednisone taper was superior to either 26-week or 52-week prednisone tapering plus placebo with regard to sustained glucocorticoid-free remission in patients with giant-cell arteritis. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine the durability of remission and safety of tocilizumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01791153 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(9): 1624-1634, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of large/medium-sized arteries, frequently involving the temporal arteries (TA). Inflammation-induced vascular remodelling leads to vaso-occlusive events. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with GCA with ischaemic complications suggesting a role for ET-1 in vascular occlusion beyond its vasoactive function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ET-1 induces a migratory myofibroblastic phenotype in human TA-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) leading to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy showed increased ET-1 expression in GCA lesions compared with control arteries. In inflamed arteries, ET-1 was predominantly expressed by infiltrating mononuclear cells whereas ET receptors, particularly ET-1 receptor B (ETBR), were expressed by both mononuclear cells and VSMC. ET-1 increased TA-derived VSMC migration in vitro and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression and migration from the media to the intima in cultured TA explants. ET-1 promoted VSMC motility by increasing activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a crucial molecule in the turnover of focal adhesions during cell migration. FAK activation resulted in Y397 autophosphorylation creating binding sites for Src kinases and the p85 subunit of PI3kinases which, upon ET-1 exposure, colocalised with FAK at the focal adhesions of migrating VSMC. Accordingly, FAK or PI3K inhibition abrogated ET-1-induced migration in vitro. Consistently, ET-1 receptor A and ETBR antagonists reduced αSMA expression and delayed VSMC outgrowth from cultured GCA-involved artery explants. CONCLUSIONS: ET-1 is upregulated in GCA lesions and, by promoting VSMC migration towards the intimal layer, may contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Endotelina-1/genética , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/genética , Actinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/farmacologia , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Endotelina-1/farmacologia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Arterite de Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptor de Endotelina A/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor de Endotelina A/metabolismo , Receptor de Endotelina B/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
16.
N Engl J Med ; 376(20): 1921-1932, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an eosinophilic vasculitis. Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody, reduces blood eosinophil counts and may have value in the treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned participants with relapsing or refractory eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis who had received treatment for at least 4 weeks and were taking a stable prednisolone or prednisone dose to receive 300 mg of mepolizumab or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, plus standard care, for 52 weeks. The two primary end points were the accrued weeks of remission over a 52-week period, according to categorical quantification, and the proportion of participants in remission at both week 36 and week 48. Secondary end points included the time to first relapse and the average daily glucocorticoid dose (during weeks 48 through 52). The annualized relapse rate and safety were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 136 participants underwent randomization, with 68 participants assigned to receive mepolizumab and 68 to receive placebo. Mepolizumab treatment led to significantly more accrued weeks of remission than placebo (28% vs. 3% of the participants had ≥24 weeks of accrued remission; odds ratio, 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68 to 13.03; P<0.001) and a higher percentage of participants in remission at both week 36 and week 48 (32% vs. 3%; odds ratio, 16.74; 95% CI, 3.61 to 77.56; P<0.001). Remission did not occur in 47% of the participants in the mepolizumab group versus 81% of those in the placebo group. The annualized relapse rate was 1.14 in the mepolizumab group, as compared with 2.27 in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.70; P<0.001). A total of 44% of the participants in the mepolizumab group, as compared with 7% of those in the placebo group, had an average daily dose of prednisolone or prednisone of 4.0 mg or less per day during weeks 48 through 52 (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.41; P<0.001). The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that observed in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: In participants with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, mepolizumab resulted in significantly more weeks in remission and a higher proportion of participants in remission than did placebo, thus allowing for reduced glucocorticoid use. Even so, only approximately half the participants treated with mepolizumab had protocol-defined remission. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02020889 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
17.
Blood ; 130(4): 501-513, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533307

RESUMO

SOX11 overexpression in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has been associated with more aggressive behavior and worse outcome. However, SOX11 oncogenic pathways driving MCL tumor progression are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SOX11 binds to regulatory regions of 2 important genes for microenvironment signals in cancer: (C-X-C motif) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and PTK2 (encoding for focal adhesion kinase [FAK]). Moreover, SOX11+ xenograft and human primary MCL tumors overexpress cell migration and stromal stimulation gene signatures compared with their SOX11- counterparts. We show that SOX11 directly upregulates CXCR4 and FAK expression, activating PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 FAK-downstream pathways in MCL. Concordantly, SOX11+ MCL cells have higher cell migration, transmigration through endothelial cells, adhesion to stromal cells, and cell proliferation and display an increased resistance to conventional drug therapies compared with SOX11- MCL cells. Specific FAK inhibition blocks downstream PI3K/AKT- and ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation. Additionally, specific FAK and PI3K inhibitors reduce SOX11-enhanced MCL cell migration and stromal interactions and revert cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) to the same levels as SOX11- MCL cells. In intravenous MCL xenograft models, SOX11+ MCL cells display higher cell migration, invasion, and growth compared with SOX11-knockdown cells, and specific FAK and CXCR4 inhibitors impair SOX11-enhanced MCL engraftment in bone marrow. Overall, our results suggest that SOX11 promotes MCL homing and invasion and increases CAM-DR through the direct regulation of CXCR4 and FAK expression and FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway activation, contributing to a more aggressive phenotype. Inhibition of this pathway may represent an efficient strategy to overcome stromal-mediated chemotherapy refractoriness in aggressive MCL.


Assuntos
Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Células HEK293 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores CCR4/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43953, 2017 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277489

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) are major forms of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) that share clinical features. To evaluate their genetic similarities, we analysed Immunochip genotyping data from 1,434 LVV patients and 3,814 unaffected controls. Genetic pleiotropy was also estimated. The HLA region harboured the main disease-specific associations. GCA was mostly associated with class II genes (HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1) whereas TAK was mostly associated with class I genes (HLA-B/MICA). Both the statistical significance and effect size of the HLA signals were considerably reduced in the cross-disease meta-analysis in comparison with the analysis of GCA and TAK separately. Consequently, no significant genetic correlation between these two diseases was observed when HLA variants were tested. Outside the HLA region, only one polymorphism located nearby the IL12B gene surpassed the study-wide significance threshold in the meta-analysis of the discovery datasets (rs755374, P = 7.54E-07; ORGCA = 1.19, ORTAK = 1.50). This marker was confirmed as novel GCA risk factor using four additional cohorts (PGCA = 5.52E-04, ORGCA = 1.16). Taken together, our results provide evidence of strong genetic differences between GCA and TAK in the HLA. Outside this region, common susceptibility factors were suggested, especially within the IL12B locus.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Arterite de Takayasu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 16(3): 237-243, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28137481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Isolated retinal vasculitis (IRV) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology confined to the retinal vessels. In contrast to secondary retinal vasculitis (RV), IRV has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize isolated forms of RV. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review (2006-2016) of IRV patients from a multidisciplinary Uveitis Unit. RV diagnosis was based on funduscopic and fluorescein angiography findings. To distinguish between secondary RV and IRV, evaluations included clinical assessment, several inflammatory, autoimmune and microbiological laboratory markers, and a chest radiography. Ophthalmological features at disease onset, therapeutic interventions, ocular relapses, visual outcomes and laboratory findings were recorded. Our cases were subsequently compared with those from a literature review. RESULTS: Among 192 patients with RV, 11 (5.7%) were diagnosed with IRV. Seven patients with initially presumed IRV were reclassified as secondary after further evaluation. IRV generally affected adult women. Bilateral ocular involvement and retinal phlebitis were common findings. 72% of patients presented with visual loss, which was severe in 27%. Treatments used included systemic glucocorticoids (82%), additional immunosuppressive agents (27%), intravitreal therapy (37%), panretinal photocoagulation (37%) and pars plana vitrectomy (26%). The annual relapse rate was 0.46. Although final visual acuity was considered good in 86%, 45% experienced worsening and only 27% improved. CONCLUSIONS: IRV is a rare sight-threatening condition. Despite intensive local and systemic immunosuppressive treatment, visual improvement is observed in only 27% of cases. When IRV is suspected, a differential diagnosis excluding a systemic disease is always warranted. A multidisciplinary approach and a guided clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluation have proven to be useful to distinguish retinal single-organ vasculitis from secondary forms of RV.


Assuntos
Vasculite Retiniana , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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